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"Can I not picture her?" he thought. Then, satisfied with pats and praise, The sheep a tuft of clover sought,

And with bent head began to graze;
The child, not moving from his place,
Upon the rock drew rapid lines.

And while the boy was busy still
With pencil made of sharpened slate,
A mounted man rode up the hill,

And seeing the child, he chose to wait
And watch the work-for he was great
In art, and knew Art's countersigns.

A shepherd boy beneath the pines
That clothe the solemn Apennines.

And when he saw, the task being done,
The sheep depicted faithfully,

Old Cimabue said, "My son,

Will you not come to live with me,

My pupil and my friend to be,

And leave your lonely Apennines?"

The boy, all blushing at his words,
Said, "Ah, my master, if I may!
My father, leading home his herds,
Comes even now along the way;
And I must do as he shall say-
His 'yes' accepts, his 'no' declines."

Right readily the father yields

His son the "yes" of his desire;
And Giotto left his upland fields,
With heart and fancy all on fire,
To climb the hill of Fame-far higher
Than any slope of Apennines.

A shepherd boy beneath the pines
That clothe the solemn Apennines.

E. CAVAZZA, in St. Nicholas.


Introduction.-Describe the place of pasture, and tell how the shepherd passed the time while tending his sheep.


The favorite of the flock comes one day for his caress.

His love for her awakens in him a great desire.

His effort to picture her on the rock.

The great artist finds the boy busy with pencil of sharpened slate.

Cimabue waits to see the work completed.

The artist requests the boy to go with him and live as his pupil and his friend.

The boy's strong wish to go, provided his father's consent can be obtained.

The father readily gives the desired permission.

Conclusion.-Giotto's success as an artist.



THE elements of a sentence may be transformed by substituting one part of speech, or modifier, for another. Words may be transformed to phrases or other word elements. By omission and contraction, clauses, dependent or independent, may be transformed to phrases or single words; phrases, to single words or to other phrase elements.


DIRECTION.-In the following sentences, change, where you can, the adjectives, adverbs, and nouns in the possessive case, to prepositional phrases. Thus: The sensible man, the man of sense; He labored cheerfully, he labored with cheerfulness; The soldier's duty, the duty of the soldier.

1. The country's food may have been lessened only by a fourth part of its usual supply.

2. This dreadful object might quell the bravest men's courage. 3. I noticed these objects cursorily.

4. A large old pointer dog rested its head on the girl's knee.

5. The other girl's lap was the black cat's cushion.

6. With the servant's aid, I contrived to mount a stair-case.

7. Let his shames quickly drive him to Rome.

8. Have you perused the duke's letters?

9. The sun really gives vigor.

10. The passengers walk through the woods fearing and dreading.

II. Uninterrupted sunshine would parch our hearts.

12. Natural good is closely connected with moral good and natural evil.

13. To an energetic man this is easy.

14. The water is flowing very rapidly.



Change, if possible, the prepositional phrases in these sentences to adjectives, to adverbs, or to nouns in the possessive case. Thus: Wines of France, French wines; He spoke with calmness, he spoke calmly; The word of God, God's word.

1. A soul without reflection runs to ruin.

2. Too soon the flowers of spring will fade.

3. Shakespeare is without doubt the poet of nature.

4. The flowers of late sprung a beauteous sisterhood.

5. The palace of the royal family was destroyed by fire on the fifth night.

6. He knew the subtle art of no school-man.

7. He spoke with decision.

8. They rest in peace.

9. Three fishers went sailing toward the west.

10. Hope is the dream of a waking man.

II. In a laughing manner, they accept my reflections.

12. Our actions disclose the secret in the heart.

13. A strong mind, in all cases, hopes.

14. A fine day is commended by every one.

15. The animal with long ears gives a kick to the bucket.

16. The age, without question, produces daring profligates, and hypocrites of an insidious character.


DIRECTION.- In the following sentences, change, where you can, the participles to infinitive phrases, and the infinitive phrases to participles. Thus: Earning is having, to earn is to have.

1. Dying, but dying bravely—.

2. Lying is base.

3. To bear your father's name is indeed an honor to you.

4. To laugh would be want of grace.

5. Waiting on the bank for the river to run by is foolish, indeed.

6. To smile at the jest is to become a principal in the mischief.

7. Walking by moonlight was her favorite amusement.

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