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DIRECTION. Contract the dependent clauses in the following sentences to phrases containing infinitives:

1. Men seeing clearly how they should act in difficult cases, are invaluable helpers.

2. We set out early in the morning that we might reach the summit of the mountain by sunset.

3. Be ye not terrified when ye shall hear of wars and commotions. 4. Strangers have wept when they have heard his deep and pas、 sionate notes.

5. The Son of Man had no place where he might lay his head. 6. There is a time when one may dance.

7. Some men are foolish, because they risk health and happiness in acquiring wealth.

8. That we make the most of opportunities is an inestimable privilege.

9. These wretched people are seldom with the means by which they can procure food.

10. The pilot proceeded to the wheel that he might undertake with his own hands the steerage of the ship.

II. It is a perilous thing when canvas is loosed in such a tempest. 12. I perceived the victor using every art by which the enemy could be drawn from his stronghold.

13. I hope that I may go soon.

14. That we hate our foes is forbidden.

15. Fortune has denied you the leisure wherein you may acquire knowledge.


DIRECTION.- Change the adverb clauses in the following sentences to absolute phrases:

I. When spring comes, the flowers will bloom.

2. After Conrad had been well refreshed, Canasetogo began to converse with him.

3. As the sloth is an inhabitant of forests within the tropics, there

seems to be no reason of his confining himself to one tree alone for food.

4. As the storm increased, they landed from the vessel and wandered about without any definite object.

5. When Metellus arrived at Rome, the soldiers deserted Octavius. 6. While matters were in this state, the Senate sent a deputation to Cinna and Marius to invite them into the city.

7. Every avenue to escape was closed, for the entrance to the square was choked up with the dead bodies of men.

8. As hospitality was formerly the virtue of the Romans, every stranger was relieved or rewarded by their generosity.

9. When my sufferings make me measure sadly the length of the night, I often divert my mind from my present state, in thinking of the various events of my life.

Jo. When the speaker has finished, the members of the council leave him five or six minutes to recollect anything inadvertently omitted.

11. As the Indians hear with patience the truths of the gospel explained to them, you would think their acceptance of these truths certain.*


DIRECTION.-Contract the following complex sentences into simple sentences, and tell the kind of phrase into which each dependent clause is contracted:

1. He was there when the train arrived.

2. When Xerxes had resolved to invade Greece, he raised an army of two millions of men.

3. If your friends come, they will be welcome.

4. Hope, which is the star of life, darts a ray of light through the thickest gloom.

5. My friend Sir Roger, who is a good churchman, has beautified the inside of his church with several texts of his own choosing.

6. A pin, which might be paste, or could be diamond, peeped below a tattered and dingy black kid stock, like a gypsy's eye beneath her hair.

*NOTE. The nominative absolute should be used sparingly, as its use tends to weakness of style, or to ambiguity.

7. Charles V., when he abdicated a throne and retired to the monastery of St. Juste, amused himself, with the mechanical arts.

8. The whole nation heard with astonishment that the Emperor had abdicated.

9. A loft raised some seven or eight feet, which was reached by a ladder, was the resting-place that awaited us.

10. As soon as day appeared, all the family, making a great noise, came to awaken us as we had requested.

II. Rags, which are the reproach of poverty, are the beggar's robes and graceful insignia of his profession.

12. The two men whom Lord Nelson especially honored were Sir Thomas Troubridge and Sir Alexander Ball.

13. In the gardens of Findamore, which are usually fringed with nettles, you will see a solitary laborer, working with carelessness and apathy.

14. The site that I had chosen for the shanty was near to a little brook, on the top of the main river's bank.

15. The most good-natured host began to repent of his eagerness to serve a man of genius in distress, when he heard his guest roaring for fresh punch at five o'clock in the morning.

16. We call one man a great historical painter, because he has taken for his subjects kings or great men, or transactions over which time has thrown a grandeur.

17. That wonderful book, Pilgrim's Progress, while it obtains admiration from the most fastidious critics, is loved by those who are too simple to admire it.


DIRECTION.-Contract the following compound sentences into complex, and, where possible, into simple. Explain the nature of the contraction:

1. The shadow of the earth, in every position, is round; consequently the earth is a globe.

2. Hatred stirreth up strifes, but love covereth all sins.
3. You must assist me, otherwise I can not succeed.
4. It is no honor to be rich; and to be poor is no sin.
5. He had many relatives, but he died without a friend.

6. You must either pay the debt or you must go to prison.

7. He was an honorable man, and therefore his friends trusted him.

8. We were compelled to ford the river, but we got across without accident.

9. I ate my dinner, and I then went out for a walk.

10. Our bugles sang truce, for the night-cloud had lowered, And the sentinel stars set their watch in the sky.

11. One bright laughing day, I threw down my book an hour sooner than usual, and with a lightness of foot and exhilaration of spirit I sallied out.

12. Murder will speak with most miraculous organ, and yet it has no tongue.

13. Be thou faithful unto death, and I will give thee a crown of life.

14. Knowledge is not, like food, destroyed by use, but it is rather augmented and perfected.


DIRECTION.-Transform the italicized phrases and clauses into single words or shorter phrases. Thus:

His countenance was marked by an entire absence of color. His countenance was pallid.

1. The style of this book is of such a nature that it can not be understood.

2. Morning arose in splendor that was undimmed by clouds. 3. As was the historian, so were the auditors, given to asking questions, apt to believe on slight evidence.

4. I have in life met with a few things which I found it impossible to explain.


5. No great name strikes it with terror.

6. They shock minds that are imbued with piety and with rever

7. In accordance with this, education is becoming the work of nations.

8. The art of drawing, in some countries, is taught in schools to which all classes are admitted.

9. Works designed for the halls of emperors, popes, and nobles find their way in no poor representations into humble dwellings.

10. On assuming command of a man-of-war, he found a crew that was in a state of open defiance to lawful authority.

II. Instead of encouragement marked by the spirit of brotherly kindness, he gave me scoffs and threats.

12. Such charity as is taught by the Christian religion is friendship to all the world.

13. Persistent effort succeeds in doing anything.

14. We shudder at his nimbleness and skill in doing deeds of evil. 15. The council took all care that could be thought of for their relief.

16. A little room adjoining the hall is used as a place for storing guns and ammunition.

17. He received a tribute that is in every way suited to recompense him for his benevolence to all men everywhere.

18. I pressed my shivering children to my bosom, but I could not speak.

19. This rescue was in itself a thing which so excited wonder that it was some time before I could realize that it was true.

20. The opposition could reward those who bestowed upon it excessive and studied praise with little more than promises.

21. Benevolent men at length became weary of giving relief which was dissipated with the wildest profusion as soon as it had been received.

22. His house became a place of refuge for a crowd of wretched old


23. The wind which never ceases blows a blast that is keen to-night. 24. The leaves produced soft sounds in the air.

25. The dead man lay with his face turned upwards to the sky. 26. Now, all dames given to finding fault should know the story of Grandmother Hopeful, who bore, without murmur or repining, the many ills of her life.

27. There is no place where one must climb, no place where one must go down, no place whereon one may rest, no stile which turns in the path, with which we are not perfectly acquainted.

28. He redeemed man from the worship of that idol, self.

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