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same case as the subject of the verb which it follows; that is, such verbs require the same case after them as before them. Thus:

I did not suppose it to be him [objective].

He thought it to be me.

Whom do you think it to be?

RULE VII.-A noun or pronoun in apposition is put in the same case as the noun it modifies. Thus:

Will you dishonor your mother, her who is your best friend? Ask the murderer, him who has steeped his hands in the blood of another.

I saw Mrs. Brown to-day, her that was Mary Jones.

RULE VIII.—Pronouns must agree with their antecedents in gender, person, and number.

The following directions must be carefully observed:

I. Two or more singular antecedents connected by "and" require a pronoun in the plural number; as, "James and I study our lessons"; "He sought wealth and fame, but they eluded him."

2. Two or more singular antecedents connected by "or" or "nor" should be represented by a pronoun in the singular number; as "Neither the man nor the boy was in his place"; "If you have a pencil or a pen, bring it to me."

3. A collective noun, denoting unity, must have a pronoun in the singular; as, "The class was in its room"; "The men of Nineveh shall rise in judgment with this gen eration, and shall condemn it."

4. A noun of multitude requires a pronoun in the plural; as, "The public are requested to enter their names in the book"; "He would not suffer his people to forget, he would not suffer them to hope."

5. The words one, each, every, either, neither, take a pronoun in the singular; as, "Every man should attend to his own business"; "Each of the sexes should keep within its particular bounds"; "Both sisters were uncomfortable enough. Each felt for the other, and, of course, for herself."

RULE IX. A verb must agree with its subject in person and number.

In the agreement of verbs with their subjects, primary regard must be paid to the meaning. We may have a singular meaning in a plural form, and a plural meaning in a singular form. If the meaning is singular, the verb agrees with it in the singular; if the meaning is plural, the verb must be plural in form.

The following are correct:

Why is dust and ashes proud?
The wages of sin is death.

Ethics with atheism is impossible.

The majority are on their way home.

A group of fine young children were growing up about him.
With Thee, a thousand years is as one day.

Two shillings is the fare.

The ebb and flow of the tides is now understood.

Nor heaven nor earth has been at peace to-night.

Nine tenths of every man's happiness depends upon his reception among his fellows in society.

One of the wisest men that have lived in this century.

RULE X.-In the use of irregular verbs, be careful to distinguish the past tense from the perfect participle.

No mistake is more common than the confusion of these parts of the verb, so frequently the same, and yet in many instances different.

Correct the errors in the use of the past tense and perfect participle in the following sentences:

I wish I had chose a different seat.

I have wrote for the books, but they have not come.

The lady sung very sweetly, and she has sang that song before.

I seen him when he come home yesterday.

He has rose from the ranks to be a major-general.

My book was stole and my slate is broke.

He done it at my request.

He run a great risk.

He has mistook his true interest.

The cloth was wove of the finest wool.

She would have went.

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RULE XI. The time indicated by the tense inflections should harmonize with the time indicated by other parts of the


Thus we say: "I saw him last week," not, "I have seen him last week"; "We were afraid he would fall," not, "would have fallen"; "He has been tardy every day this week," not, "was tardy"; "I will see that he do it," not, "that he does it."


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1. Present Tense. When the act or condition expressed by an infinitive is subsequent in time to that expressed by the principal verb, the infinitive must be in the present Thus verbs expressing hope, fear, expectation, intention, obligation, etc., should be followed by the present infinitive; as, "I intended to go," not, "to have gone”; “I should have liked to see him," not, "to have seen him"; "I meant to come," not, "to have come"; "I should have thought it wrong to interfere," not, "to have interfered."

2. Present Perfect Tense.-When the dependent infinitive expresses an act or condition prior to that of the principal verb, it must be in the present perfect tense

Thus: "He is believed to have written the 'Letters of Junius""; "Columbus is said to have discovered America" "; "He is known to have used every artifice."

RULE XII.-Existing facts, and what is always true, should be expressed in the present tense. Thus:


'He maintained that only the virtuous are happy," not,"were happy." 'It has been declared that the earth does not move about the sun," not, "did not move."

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'The ancients believed that 'the earth is flat,'" not, "was flat." 'It was hard for some to understand what conscience is," not, "what conscience was."

"The Stoics believed that 'all crimes are equal,'" not, "were equal." RULE XIII.—In using auxiliaries, the auxiliary should harmonize with the idea to be expressed.


"May" is the sign of possibility, permission, or desire; 'can," of ability within one's self; "must," of necessity; "shall" in the first person, and "will" in the second and third, are signs of futurity. "Will" in the first person is the sign of resolution or determination; "shall" in the second and third persons denotes obligation. "Should," the past tense of shall, and "would," the past tense of will, are used, especially in dependent clauses, after a past tense, as “shall" and "will" are used after a present or a future tense.

Justify the uses of shall and will in these sentences:

Will you speak to him, or shall I?

Shall my son go, or will you send yours?

I shall go to Europe next summer.

You shall not go; we will not allow it.

Shall I see you at the convention?
Shall you be at home to-morrow?
You will, I suppose, remain at home?

Shall he accompany you? Will he accompany you?

Correct the errors in each of the following, and give a reason for the change:

Will I talk to you?

If we do wrong, we will be punished.
Should you like me to go with you?
When will we meet again?

I suppose you shall be here next week.

We shall assist him if he desires it.

We would be glad if you should favor us.

He ought to have known that I would be ruined.
Could you come to visit us next week?

You shall be hurt, if you ride that vicious horse.

RULE XIV.-Distinguish between the indicative and the subjunctive forms of the verb.

1. Subjunctive Mode.-The case most suited to the subjunctive is the expression of an event absolutely unknown, as being still in the future.

The present subjunctive is used:

To express a future contingency; as, "If he be there, I will speak to him"; "If he continue to study, he will improve"; "I am to second Ion if he fail."

The past subjunctive is used:

(1) To express a supposition implying the contrary; as, "Even were I disposed, I could not gratify the reader"; "If I had the book, it should be at your service."

(2) To express a mere supposition with indefinite time; as, 'Unless I were prepared, I would not undertake the case"; "If he were to go, he would not find what he seeks."

(3) To express a wish or desire; as, "O that he were wise!" "I wish I were rich."

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