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ELEMENTS

OF

COMPOSITION AND RHETORIC

WITH

COPIOUS EXERCISES IN BOTH CRITICISM AND

CONSTRUCTION

BY

VIRGINIA WADDY
Teacher of Rhetoric in the Richmond High School, Richmond, Va.

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TI:. i:
PE LIBRARY

491255

ALTR LENOX AND
TALENDATIONS.

L

Copyright, 1889, by
VAN ANTWERP, BRAGG, AND COMPANY

Lotered according to Act of Congress, in the year 1888, by

VIRGINIA WADDY.
In the Office of the Librarian of Congress

WADDY'S RNET.

E-P 38

PREFACE.

The object aimed at in the preparation of this work has been to furnish a practical treatise on Composition and Rhetoric,one sufficiently elementary for the lower grades of the high school, and at the same time comprehensive enough to give a fair knowledge of the principles and graces of Rhetoric.

While the discussion of simple, complex, and compound sentences is the province of Grammar,-a subject usually completed before that of Rhetoric is begun,-it has been deemed advisable to include these topics, for the pupil seldom possesses the maturity of mind to comprehend thoroughly the laws of Grammar, even when he undertakes to master the elements of Rhetoric; moreover, his attention has been directed almost exclusively to analytical processes, to the neglect of synthetical; hence, he may be skillful in discovering the relations of words in sentences formed by others, and be but a bungler in giving expression to his own ideas. For a like reason, also, the subject of Concord, which perhaps belongs still more strictly to Grammar, is included; not all of the syntactical arrangements are noticed, only those wherein the grammatical principle receives a special signification from the rhetorical point of view.

The Reproductions furnish material for practice upon the principles under discussion. As a means of securing ease of expression, they are of great value; the material for the discourse being furnished, the pupil is thus enabled to concentrate his attention upon the form. A more advanced step towards original writing is found in the Developments. These give play to the imagination, and supply the details of a connected story; they also furnish an excellent test of style, because they give no assistance. In the first Developments, hints are given to guide the pupil. This aid should be given with succeeding Developments only where the pupil may not fully understand the poem, or where he might be discouraged without such assistance.

Although it may be said that the finer principles of literary taste, fancy, and allusion, and the subtle music of rhythm, are obtained only through a special sense developed by long and minute discipline, and belong to the delicate and difficult science of criticism, there are included in this treatise extracts from masters of style, to which attention is directed; for it must be conceded that, since a true appreciation of what is best in our literature requires years of careful criticism, the student's attention should be given to such criticism as soon as his mind has attained sufficient maturity for the consideration of the subject.

The “Exercises” with which the book abounds are given, that the pupil may learn discourse by applying it. Some learn ers may, perhaps, need less of such practice than others; the teacher can, therefore, omit what is deemed superfluous.

This work is in every respect the outgrowth of the classroom; much of the subject-matter and many of the exercises have been given as oral instruction in the author's classes, and it is hoped that in other hands it will stand the only true test of a school-book,—the test of trial.

Most grateful acknowledgment is due to Prof. W. F. Fox, Principal of the Richmond High School, for assistance and en. couragement during the progress of the work.

Thanks are also due to several publishers for kindness in allowing selections to be made from their publications,— to Messrs. Houghton, Mifflin, & Co., to the Centurv Company, to Messrs. J. B. Lippincott Co., to Messrs. Chas. Scribner's Sons, to Messrs. Roberts Bros., to Mr. Parke Godwin, and to others whose names are mentioned in connection with the selections copied.

RICHMOND, VA., January, 1890.

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