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the horizon almost twenty miles to MR. URBAN, Dorchester, Nov. 18. the westward. On the opposite side I NEED not tell you of the existranges the long line of the Chiltern ence of an opinion among a class of Hills.

utilitarians of this age, that in studyThis central spot was long known ing the dead languages, scholars learn as Garsington Green; being an open nothing but words ; and I cannot better common, affording too obvious state that opinion than by quoting temptation to the lovers of bull-bait- from “ Chambers's Edinburgh Journal ing and Sunday cricket. Being allotted

for April 1840,” a paragraph of at the time of the inclosure to W. Plu- “Wyse on Education,” upon which I mer Halsey, Esq. in lieu of right to soil would, by your kind permission, offer of commons and waste grounds, the a few observations. present proprietor of the North End

Of what advantage to a manor, Thomas Plumer Halsey, Esq. merchant, to the head of a manufacof Temple Dinsley, Herts, demised the tory, to a military man, or to any of same by lease for 999 years, from 11th the numerous classes, dependent on Oct.1839, to the president, fellows, and our public offices, the most complete scholars of Trinity college, Oxford, knowledge of the ancient languages ? in trust, among other things, that the It is a luxury : but luxuries are but rector, for the time being, should, poor substitutes for necessaries ; men within two years from the said date, cannot live on cakes, neither will erubuild a school, with a house for the dition conduct through life. If they will master and mistress, that the children read the ancient authors, let them read of the poor may therein be instructed them in translation. It is not the best, in the tenets and principles of the but the best is attainable at too dear a church of England, as now established, We live too fast in the present &c.; the rector to have the appoint- age to spend so much time in WORDS. ment of the master and mistress, and Things press upon us at every step, the general superintendence of the and an education dealing with ThiNGS, school. Between five and six hundred a real or reality education, as the Gerpounds have been liberally subscribed mans term it, is the education best for this purpose ;* but, as more than fitted for the practical, the reality men, double that sum will be required for for the active classes of the commuthe fabric alone, it is hoped, that ad- nity.” ditional contributions may lead to the Now, the dead languages shew us completion of the work in the spirit an ancient, and, but for them, an unin which it has been begun and con- known world: the history, instituducted.

tions, religion and opinions, arts and

rate.

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* This list is so honourable to the parties concerned, particularly to the Clergy who have been connected with the parish, that we must beg leave to subjoin it.-Edit. £ s.

£ s. Rev. J. Ingram, D.D. President

Philip Pusey, Esq. M.P., and of Trinity College, and Rector

Lady Emily Pusey

10 0 of Garsington

100 0 Anonymous, by Rev. W. B. P. Mrs. Ingram

50
Ditto ditto

0 10 Trinity College

100 Rev. H. P. Guillemard, late CuSt. John's College

25
rate

25 0 Exeter College

20 Rev. J. Blatch, Vicar of BasingMagdalene College

20
stoke, late Curate

10 0 Brasenose College

20 Rev. J. B. Frowd, D.D. late The Earl of Macclesfield . 10 0 Curate

5 0 Mrs. Drake, Paul's Walden 50 0 Rev. W. Nicholson, Rector of Mrs. Lee

10

Welford, late Curate Rev. W. B. Pusey, Curate of

Rev. W.Streatfeild, Trinity ColGarsington . 40 0 lege, late Curate

3 Second donation

25 Rev. W. M. Kinsey, Trin. Coll. Mrs. W. B. Pusey

10 0 Mrs. Chapman, Holywell Anonymous, by Rev. W. B. P. 20 Mr. W. Greening, Littlemore 0 10

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sciences, manners, habits, wisdom, ancient authors, let them read them and folly of nations which have long in translation,” a sentence which, I been swept from the face of the earth; believe, a man who could read them and it is impossible to read the dead otherwise would never utter; since languages without learning more or scholars know it to be impossible to less of these things, as can be shewn make English versions of ancient works by a few examples.

which could give a reader that knowSuch a sentence as this—" qui effe. ledge of things which is carried in the retur vix reliquerit,(C. Nepos de works themselves, since no languages Aristide) means, as long as a reader but those which were formed to exlearns only words, He left scarcely press those things can do so correctly. anything by which he might be carried Most of the productions and operaout,and is therefore unintelligible tions of the useful arts, and the houses, till the reader knows one thing, which furniture, shipping, and weapons of is, that the ancients buried without the ancient nations, as well as their their cities; and consequently that manners and institutions, were dif. qui efferetur, by which he might be car- ferent from anything that we have ; so ried out, means by which he might be that we have not, in our tongues, any buried; and when we read in the Greek names for many of them; and in writTestament (Matt. 26, v. 20.) that ing versions of Greek and Latin books, Jesus

we must either use their original names « άνακειτο μετά των δώδεκα,as untranslatable, and therefore unin.

lay down with the twelve, telligible to an English reader, without

cannot understand the word a knowledge of the things which they ávakeito, lay down, without learning stand for; or we must substitute for something of the ancient custom of them, as we commonly do, the Enlying down, or reclining on triclinia at glish names of such things as are most meals, that is, without learning a like them, in which case the English thing. The words biremis and triremis reader cannot acquire any correct idea traced to their roots, teach us some. of them from his translation, which is, thing of the construction of the an- in fact, a misnamed translation of cient ships ; as from toga and tunica. what cannot be translated at all. The we learn the character of the Roman word effero, for example, as applied to dress. From such words as vinea, the dead, is translated to bury, and testudo, and uries; we understand thus loses its reference to the necropolis something of ancient warfare, as we or “city of the dead,” without the do of Roman writing and books, from city of the living; and avakeljal such as tabula, stylus, and volumen. loses its reference to the reclining posThe distinctive terms Baoleus, a con- ture at meals from being rendered by stitutional king, and rupavvos, a king the verb to sit. If we render Tupavvos by conquest, shew us the unsteady by tyrant, we shall not give its true state of ancient kingdoms from the meaning; and if we call a tunicu a frequent overthrow of lawful rulers by coat, or a toga a cloak, we shall give an invaders; nor can we well compre- idea of a modern garment, such as a hend the different meanings of vaòs, Roman could never dream of. A simιερον, and τεμενος, without getting a ple verbal translation of Horace would clear idea of the sacred buildings of be as unintelligible to an English Greece. Truly, I should like to know reader as the original. how Mr. Wyse makes it out that a It is said, I think, by an Arabic youth can read the Latin authors proverb, that a man, by learning a without gaining an accession to his second language, becomes two; and knowledge of things, and that Horace, this is metaphorically true. He, for Livy, or Cæsar can be read without example, who reads the Greek authors learning anything of Roman men and is so far a Greek as he is carried back manners, laws, religion, or warfare. in mind among the ancient inhabitAdams thought otherwise when he ants of Greece, identifies himself with collected the account of things called them, lives under their laws, sees and Roman Antiquities.

learns their manners, beholds their But the paragraph answers to all productions, and witnesses their deeds; this reasoning, “if they will read the converses with them in their own

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tongue, and learns their very thoughts ask these questions believing that a delivered by themselves in their own knowledge of such subjects is of no words: while a man who knows advantage, for I have read the articles nothing but English is, as far as re- treating of them with much pleasure lates to a deep, full, face-to-face know- and profit. I feel a knowledge of them ledge of ancient nations, ignorant of to be of advantage, and I feel the them. It is commonly believed that a knowledge of things to be acquired man gains great advantages from through the dead languages to be of travel, as it corrects his false estimate

the same kind of advantage. If a man of other nations, and consequently of has no advantage in knowing anything his own, and makes him a better judge beyond his profession, why are men of men and manners, laws and insti. everywhere giving lectures and writing tutions at home; and the man who popular works on the sciences ? reads the ancient authors seems to me An editorial note to Mr. Wyse's to have nearly the same advantage paragraph says, It should be a fixed over the one who has not done so, as rule with all who wish to see youth he who has travelled in Greece and instructed in a knowledge of things Italy over him who has only read of instead of words, never at any time, or them. Nations who know little or in any circumstances, to use a single nothing of others, from the Chinese to Latin or Greek expression.” 0. ye the Esquimaux, are apt to fancy them- Youngs, Champollions, and Wilkinsons ! selves and their ways the wisest of the you have toiled to drag from the tombs world; and some readers of a modern the language of the Egyptians, when mathematical work may pity the igno- you would have acted more wisely in rance of such nations as the ancient labouring to bury others that are dead ! Egyptians and Hindoos, though others Men who have not the advantage of know that the former were a nation knowing the dead languages, have learned in the sciences, when the in. commonly, I think, too low an opinion habitants of Europe were wild in the of the ancient intelligence of the world woods; and, as appears from a paper of time, and thence some are in danread a few years since, before the ger of imagining that all the common Royal Society, (see Gent. Mag. vol. sense institutions of man, and even the CII. Part II.), the Hindoos applied a blessed Gospel itself, having origisystem of fluxions of their own to the nated among ignorant generations, quadrature of the circle before Sir have struggled through ignorant geneIsaac Newton or Leibnitz was born. rations only to have their worthless

But allowing that things as well as ness discovered by the surpassing words are learnt through the dead lan- knowledge and wisdom of two or guages, the paragraph which I have three modern nations. quoted still demands of what advan. Those who think too little or too tage are those things, “ to the head of much of a knowledge of antiquity a manufactory, to a military man, or should bear in mind the opinion of to any of the numerous classes de- Bacon, who says Nov. Org. 1. 56, as pendent on our public offices ?”. Of quoted by Dr. Bloomfield in his prewhat advantage, I would ask, to either face to his Greek Testament: of those men or classes is a knowledge "Reperiuntur ingenia alia in admiof such things as come under the de. rationem Antiquitatis, alia in amorem nomination of philosophy; such, for et amplexum Novitatis effusa ; pauca example, as some of those subjects vero ejus temperamenti sunt, ut mowhich are treated of in the number of dum tenere possint, quin aut quæ the Edinburgh Journal, in which I rectè posita sunt ab Antiquis convelfind the paragraph in question? Of lant, aut ea contemnant quæ rectè what advantage to either of those men afferuntur a Novis. Hoc vero magno or classes is a knowledge of the scientiarum et philosophiæ detrimento

changes of level of the earth's sur- fit, quum studia potius sint Antiquiface," of "the printing office,” of tatis et Novitatis, quam judicia: “ how the Coral islands are clothed Veritas autem non a felicitate temporis with vegetation,” of “ Boodhism,” of alicujus, quæ res varia est ; sed a * geographical circumstances affecting lumine naturæ et experientiæ, quod the distribution of races ?”

I do not æternum est, petenda est.” 3

W. BARNES.

66

MR. URBAN, Cork, Nov. 10. failure of his object, Louis de Vendôme

YOUR correspondent MR. JOHN returned to France, and in 1415 was HOLMES, in furnishing, through your numbered among the captives of Aginnumber for the current month, (p. court, when, not being able to collect 483,) a catalogue of the French Ambas- the large ransom demanded for his libersadors to the English Court, from the ation, exceeding 80,000l. of our present close of the fourteenth century, mo. currency, he remained a prisoner until destly solicits the correction of any 1426. His ensuing fortunes it is not error, and the communication of any my purpose to dilate on; and I need, additional information arising from therefore, only add, that his embasthe subject. In answer to this appeal, sy in 1445, here produced by Mr. I am induced to submit some observa. Holmes, and undertaken in the hope tions that occurred to me, as I perused of a conclusive peace between England the series of names presented in the and France, achieved no more than a list, most of which were more or less truce of eighteen months. He died familiar to my recollection, though at the close of the following year, and, many are too obscure, and acted too as the progenitor of the three reigning subordinate a part, to entitle them to houses of France, Spain, and Naples, particular elucidation. It is, indeed, may claim a more considerable space obvious, that a large proportion of than it can be requisite, or is my

inthe personages, here apparently fi. tention, to devote to most other ambasguring as ambassadors, were only sadors. assistants, or attachés, probably aseo- “ Jean Juvenal des Ursins," who ciated in the commissions, but not succeeds the Comte de Vendôme in distinctly invested with the title and the list, and who formed part, I predignity of these high functionaries ; sume, of that prince's embassy, in for, otherwise, we must assume, that order to combine the advantage of no less than six succeeded each other talent with the lustre of rank, is not in 1445, and similarly, on subsequent unknown to history. The see of Laon, occasions, where several appear under as well as the metropolitan one of a single year.

Rheims, equally conferred the dignity, Omissions, too, in the long sepa- a very high one, of Dukes and Peers rated intervals here indicated, will ne- of France, of which the ecclesiatical cessarily strike the reader. Thus, number, until the accession of Paris passing slightly the first name" Ni. in 1622, did not exceed six, and of cholas Du Bosc, in 1396,” of whom these Rheims held the primary stait is sufficient to add, that he died in tion. In 1456, des Ursins, probably 1408, Chancellor of France, we stop of English, certainly not of the illusat "Louis de Bourbon, Count of Ven- trious Italian, descent, was president of dôme, in 1445.” But this prince, the the commission of bishops appointed to great-grandson of Robert of France, revise the judgment, and vindicate the sixth son of Louis IX. (St. Louis), and character of the Maid of Orleans, from great-grandfather of Antoine King of the imputations under which she had Navarre, father of Henry IV., had been condemned to death by the Enalready, on the accession of our Henry glish on the 30th of May 1431. M. V. to the throne, filled a similar mis. Walkenaer, an eminent living writer, sion, with the view of diverting the in his recital of the young heroine's English monarch from the comtem- trial, asserts that the Bishop of Beauplated invasion of France. He was vais, (Pierre Cauchon,) on leaving the empowered to offer Henry the hand of prison and victim, laughingly addressed his future consort, Catharine, daugh- the Earl of Warwick, (Richard Beauter of Charles VI. with a certain num- champ,)—"Farewell, Farewell ! " ber of the French provinces, &c. but words of mere valedictory import, our young and ambitious King would corresponding to adieu, adieu ! but accept nothing less than the princess, which M. Walkenaer renders, "Faites for whom he professed an ardent bonne chère,-il en est fait,” as if in passion, with her father's entire do. congratulation of the atrocious verdict, minions for dower. (L'Art de Vé- which, however, was equally the act rifier les Dates, tome xii.) On the of French as of English judges. Such, Gent, Mag. VOL. XV.

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when it suits their purpose, are the received the sanction of the Univerinterpreters of languages, who act, as sity of Paris. (Lingard, Henry VI. M. Villemain, the present Minister of chap. ii.) Public Instruction, says of Voltaire's Guy (11) Comte de Laval" (same studied vituperation of Shakspere, that year,) was the seventh in descent from the more effectually to traduce, he Mathieu de Montmorency, by his setranslated, the English poet. Just so, cond wife, Emma de Laval, and forein order to enhance the odium of the father of the present Duke of Montdeed, M. Walkenaer perverted the morency-Laval. (See Gent. Mag. meaning of the English words, though for Sept. 1840, p. 249.) This Guy there can be no doubt of the satisfac. died in 1484. tion of the French Bishop and our « Bertrand de Beauveau

was broEarl at the condemnation, which de- ther of Louis, chief favourite of Réné clared the enthusiastic maid"re- d'Anjou, titular sovereign of Sicily, lapse, excommuniée, et rejettée du sein Naples, and Jerusalem, and father of de l'Eglise ;”but the sense ascribed our Margaret, wife of Henry VI. to the prelate's expressions is not The house of Beauveau latterly asmore correct than if we were similarly sumed the title of Prince de Craon. to resolve their equivalent-Adieu- (Gent. Mag. for November, 1838, into its original elements, and render it note.)

-To God. It is, however, more likely Guillaume Cousinot was one of that the language used on this occa

Louis XI's council of state, as may sion was French; and the words that be seen in “Les Mémoires de Co. passed, as I find elsewhere, were- mines,” particularly in that monarch's 6. C'en est fait;

nous la tenons." hostile declaration in 1470, against The fatal sentence, be it observed, Charles the Bold of Burgundy, (tome

iv. ed. 1727, p. 313,) and elsewhere.

It would be little interesting, I apAmongst the monuments that deco.

prehend, to the English reader, and rate the newly-instituted Museum of Ver

cannot be necessary, to pursue in desailles, that which cannot fail to arrest

tail many of the succeeding persons, and detain the visitor's eye in delighted generally attendants, and not princicontemplation, is the statue of_Jeanne pals, even within the abridged limits d'Arc, or Pucelle, by the late Princess which I have assigned to the foregoing, Mary of Orleans, wife of Prince Alexan- and which I offer as a specimen, der of Wirtemberg. Nothing can be more though a very imperfect one, of what chaste in design, more natural in ex

the subject is susceptible, were it depression, or more faultless, altogether, in

sirable to enter more minutely in ilsimple felicity of execution. Nor is the

lustration of it. I therefore, pass on recognition of genius the sole impression which it is destined to produce, for, in

to viewing it, we yield to the pleasing, the al

1490. “Tristan de Salazar, Archmost necessary conviction, equally impart- bishop of Sens," and his associates ; ed, we are told, by the Madonnas of Raf- of whom I shall cursorily notice, faelle, that this perfection of taste has its Philippe de Crévecæur, Seigneur des source as much in the heart as the mind ; (not de) Cordes, of whom it is related and most just would be the conclusion, that when, after the capture of various for the lamented princess was as good and places for Louis XI. this searching amiable as she was accomplished. Un prince demanded a rigorous account questionably the early talent, here so emi.

of the sums expended in the achievenently displayed, would have been an un

ment, de Crêvecueur indignantly reerring prelude to the first order of excellence, had the pursuit of the art been

plied—“Give me back my cities, and compatible with her exalted station, and

you shall have your money, had it pleased heaven to prolong her

la pasque-Dieu !” replied Louis, “ il days. Like her royal father, no pressure

vaut mieux laisser le moustier où il of circumstances could have deprived so

est."-Crêvecueur died in 1494. It gifted a lady of ample and honourable is thus (Crêvecueur)

his name

is bread. O Zêv! Oła texvirns mapatóllutal written in Comines. -may an enthusiast of the arts here ex- The unnamed First President of claim, as of old, though applicable to a the Parliament,” who follows, was far different personage.

Jean de la Vacquerie, previously the

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