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Memoirs of Grammont, and other such true ; and from that very cause hardly writers, in whose amber the grubs are worth being selected for formal consipreserved? We think--nay, we are deration : at the same time, we observe, sure that such subjects are not in that prayers and fastings are not harmony with the feelings and opinions evidences of religion, but duties belongof people at the present time; and it ing to the practice of it; and that, like is on that account that we lament Mr. other duties, they may be performed Jesse did not aspire to nobler and bet- from unworthy motives. ter subjects, from which he could have P. 330. We do not see the pecureaped a richer reward of his success- liar form or propriety of the word in ful toils. Mr. Jesse is a young man, italics :" Dryden's Tragedies are a and therefore, he will not be offended compound of bombast and heroic obwith the advice of those who are much scurity endorsed in the most beautiful further advanced in the path of life numbers.” than himself; and in this assurance P. 346. We should consider the we venture to advise him to eschew following observations as much wantall attempts at what is called fine writ. ing in precision and accuracy of ining; and to be very suspicious of his most ference." The King, as is well known, elaborated and elegant sentences. We died a Roman Catholic; and there could give some examples of what is reason to believe that he had we mean from these volumes, but it is very early conformed secretly to that not necessary. We only observe, that faith, and that he was altogether in had the manuscript been submitted to the habit of thinking more sincerely on us, we should have altered the form religious matters than was generally and expression of the following pas- supposed. The sectarian, perhaps, will sages.

be disposed to consider popery but “ History has shewn us that the pa- little removed from scepticism. The triot is often the worst enemy of the more charitable, however, will judge lower orders: and that it is better for the otherwise, and will award to Charles poor man to gain his livelihood even by the portion of credit which may be his weaying purple for a despot, than to trust due," for emancipation to the delusions of re

P. 478. Speaking of Buckingham. publicism."

“Whether as the philosopher or rake, Now in this sentence, in the first as the man of pleasure or the man of place, by the term patriot, we are to business, or the man of science, we understand not that person who really find him equally versatile, capricious feels that “ Omnes omnium caritates and unprincipled to the last." In what amplectitur patria," but the dema- way was he unprincipled as a man of gogue, the man who, under the ap

science ? pearance of patriotism, has cloaked his

P. 83. Mr. Jesse says,

“ Milton, selfishness and ambition ; secondly, Marvell, and Waller, were retained to "weave purple for a despot,” is far near his (Cromwell's) person.” As too poetical a form of speech to assi- far as Milton is concerned, we do not milate well with the other members of agree to this. Milton himself says, the section ; and thirdly, we are not he had no influence or familiarity with told from what the poor man expects Cromwell. He tells Heimbach that emancipation,---we presume, from po. he cannot serve him. “Propter pauverty; but the forma lectionis is not cissimas familiaritates meas cum gra. correct.

tiosis.” Ep. Fam. Dec. 10, 1657. What There is a passage at p. 134, on the does Mr. Jesse mean by saying, burial of Cromwell, which we should, fortunately Milton was his own secrein like manner, strip of some of its tary,” &c.? ornaments. At p. 141, Mr. Jesse Vol. II. p. 496. Speaking of Lady observes, "The history of Cromwell Dorchester, Mr. Jesse quotes the wellwill prove that the semblance of piety known lines in Johnson's Vanity of and philanthropy can mask the greatest Human Wishes. crimes; that prayers and fastings are

“ Yet Vane could tell what ills from beauty no evidences of true religion ; and that

spring, patriotism is often the shadow of a And Valicre cursed the form that pleased a name.” This reflection, alas! is but too





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58 Review. Brougham's Dissertations on Subjects of Science. [Jan.

There is nothing, however, in what building. The third dissertation is we know of her history, to prove that useful, as showing scientifically the such was the case. On the contrary, her

existence and construction of the foslife appears to have been a long course of

sil animal remains, their difference undeserved prosperity. The name was

from the existing animals, and the adapselected incidentally by Dr. Johson for the sake of the metre, or the want of a

tation of their structure to a form of better. Boswell, we believe it is, who things distinct from the present. The suggests that the substitution of the name

whole of these volumes shows a wonof Shore for Valière would have made the derful activity of mind, an immense illustration happier, and the couplet more variety of knowledge, and perhaps as effective."

much accuracy and depth as can exist A little further inquiry would have

with such multifarious acquirements. shown Mr. Jesse that not Bos.

The dissertation on Instinct is given well, but Lord Hailes, suggested the

in the form of a dialogue between alteration. See Tour in Scotland,

Lord Brougham and Lord Spencer. p. 37. Lord Hailes told Johnson that It is written with great clearness, he was mistaken in the instances he

animation, and acuteness; and if at had given of unfortunate fair ones;

last we confess that its pages of infor neither Vane nor Sedley had a title quiry have added little to the illustrato that description. Lord Hailes then

tion of the subject, we shall not be at proposes his alteration in a note to the same time unwilling to acknowMr. Boswell.

ledge the extreme difficulty and dark

ness in which it had to work. The We must now quit the author and his work, assuring him that we are

argument runs thus : 1. The peculiar convinced that he has talents and

or distinctive quality of instinct ascerknowledge for a work very superior tained, and that which distinguishes it to those he has now produced. Let

from reason, i. e, it acts without teachhim take a more ambitious flight, ing either from others--that is, inand vie with the Russells, Listers,

struction-or from the animal itself and Mahons of the age, in their

that is, experience. To this general historical researches; and leave King description of instinct Lord Brougham Charles and his ladies in the “ Fool's

adds another peculiarity~it acts withParadise, of which the plate to

out knowledge of consequences, it Mr. Jesse's last volume is no bad

acts blindly, and accomplishes a pur. representation.

pose of which the animal is ignorant.

2. Animals have two kinds of operaDissertations on subjects of Science, tion, one of which we agree to call inconnected with Natural Theology, 8c. stinctive, distinguished by the ignoH. Lord Brougham. 2 vols. 1839.

rance of the object and want of in29

tention; the other both knowingly three Dissertations of import

and intentionally done. 3. Animals ance in these volumes are as follows: 1. On Instinct. 2. On the Origin of When the act is done in ordinary

have intelligence as well as instinct. Evil. 3. On Fossil Osteology. The first circumstances, it may be called instincis distinguished by

Fuch detection of
acuteness in

tive or not, according as it is what our reasoning, and by many fallacious arguments which

reason could, in the like circumstanhad long passed current, rather than by ces, enable us to perform or not, and ac

cording as the animal is in a situation any steady or stronger,

which enables him to act knowingly

. struse upon the very, mysterio "ght thrown

Another class of acts is ruse subject discussed.

on notre
clearly to be called rational, when the

cond, nearly the same remark must be me
made. Had Lord Brougham done no

means are varied, adapted, adjusted to more than show the very illogical na

à varying object, or when the animal ture of the arguments used in the

acts in artificial circumstances in any former dissertation's by Dr. King and

way. It would appear that in verte

brated animals which have a Balguy, he would have done the same

and nervous system, intelligence pregood as he who removes all that had been imperfectly constructed before, intelligence, this share of reason among

vails ; in invertebrated, instinct. This when he meditates erecting a

the animal creation may differfrom ours


Of the e


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1841.] Review. --Brougham's Dissertations on Subjects of Science. 59 either in degree or in kind, for where before our eyes, the subject of just the difference in degree becomes so

wonder. If it is reason like our own vast, there is hardly any chance of which moves the animal mechanism, its encroachment or confusion, hardly any

modification to suit that physical strucmore likeness or comparison than if ture, and to work those effects which we the difference were radical and in

are unable to accomplish, commands kind. The author then analyses the again our humble admiration ; while the

excellence of the workmanship performed mind, and resolves our mental facul

by so mean an agent, impresses us with ties into perception active and passive, ideas yet more awful of the Being who memory active or passive, conscious. formed and who taught it. If to the ness, abstraction, comparison. How bodily structure of these creatures there far the animals possess these powers has been given a mind wholly different is next examined. The result of the from our own, yet it has been most nicely whole inquiry is, that they possess adapted to its material abode, and to the both instinct and intelligence. When corporeal tools with which it works. So instinct is interfered with by obstacles

that while a new variety strikes us in the interposed, the animal's intelligent miration is still raised, as before, by the

infinite resources of creative skill, our ad. powers are brought into action, and

manifestation of contrivance and expertthen the uniformity and perfect regu

ness, which everywhere speaks the golarity arises. The more sagacious the verning power, the directing skill, the animal is, the greater variety is per plastic hand. Nor is there upon any of these ceived in his actions and habits. In- hypotheses room for doubting the identity telligence or reason will sometimes of the great Artificer of nature. The interfere with instinct, as our volun- same peculiarity is seen everywhere to tary actions will sometimes interfere mark the whole workmanship. All comes with the involuntary operations of from a superior Intelligence: that intellisecretion; but the instinctive operation gence, though variously diversified, preproceeds whether the animal wills or

serves its characteristic features, and

ever shines another and the same." no,-proceeds without his knowledge and beyond his design.

So the inquiry closes ; and although

the result may not prove what we ex"The whole question is one of relatives pected, we must confess the pleasure and connexions : adaptation, adjustment, with which we pursued the search, in mutual dependence of parts, conformity of arrangement, balance and compensation,

the ingenuity of the arguments, the everywhere appear pervading the whole

interest of the facts, and the elegance of system, and conspicuous in all its parts.

the theories; and yet what could be It signifies not in this whether we regard expected from the deepest philosophy instinct as the result of the animal's facul. on such a subject as the mental quali. ties, actuated by the impression of his ties of the animal creation, but to senses, or the faint glimmerings of intelli- furnish proofs of the existence of certain gence working by the same rules which qualities that do exist? To know what guide the operation of more developed they are, in what they consist, with reason, or as a peculiar faculty differing in kind from those with which man is gifted, bare and open to view, to dissect it,

what united, in short, to lay instinct or as the immediate and direct operation to exhibit

its leading powers, its inof the Great Mind which created and which upholds the universe. If the last ternal principle, is beyond our faculbe the true theory, then we have addi- ties; we can only judge of it by seeing tional reason for devoutly admiring the

its results : we must therefore content spectacle which this department of the ourselves with believing that the anicreation hourly offers to the contempla- mal creation, like ourselves, possess tive mind. But the same conclusion of a two powers, which we call instinct present and pervading intelligence flows and free intellect, though in degree, from all the other doctrines, and equally perhaps in kind, different from ours, flows from them all. If the senses so

that they are both necessary to the move the animal's mind as to produce the

exertion and well-being of the animal, perfect result which we witnessed, these senses have been framed and that mind

and that they are both emanations of constituted in strict harmony with each

the supreme Intelligence. Can

any other ; and their combined and mutual inquiry be expected to go further action has been adjusted to the regular than this ? performance of the work spread out The dissertation on the Origin of




Evil is valuable, as it most clearly shows strated as clearly as any proposition the fallacy and weakness of the rea- in natural philosophy, and demonsoning of the most eminent writers on strated by the same evidence, the inthe subject, as Bishop King, Dr. Bal. duction of facts, upon which all the guy, &c. Indeed, it seems wonderful other branches of philosophy rest. how these learned and acute persons could have been satisfied with their own The History of the Roman Empire, very illogical line of argument. We are from the acession of Augustus to convinced that this subject is placed the end of the Empire of the West. far beyond the powers of the human in- By Thomas Keightley. 12mo. pp. tellect, among the secret things of God, and that it requires the veil of the

IT is observed by Heeren, in speakother world to be withdrawn before it ing of Levesque's Studies in Roman can be understood by us. Lord

History, that whoever wishes to preBrougham has shown himself a better

serve his enthusiasm for ancient Rome, logician than his predecessors, not ought not to read that work. There only by refuting their errors, but by

are two classes of readers to whom attempting a less arduous flight him

Mr. Keightley's volume will prove self.*

unacceptable, as he himself surmises, An analytical view of the

in allusion to his former ones. “By searches of Fossil Osteology, and their

some I am accused of illiberality, on application to natural theology, fol.

account of my hostility to democracy lows, which is given in a well arranged and to the church of Rome; my reply summary. The chief discoveries in this is, I detest despotism under all its branch of science point out their im- forms, and I view these as unmitiportance, and establish the truth of gated tyrannies, and as those from the scientific descriptions of them by which the world has most danger at Cuvier and other naturalists.

present to apprehend. That I am no With respect to animal life, the

admirer of monarchic despotism, the result of these curious and learned following pages

will sufficiently investigations is,

prove." (Pref. p. v.) Both these 1. That there were no animals of any points, indeed, are touched upon in kind in the ocean which deposited the the present work, as a sketch of ccprimary strata, nor any on the Con

clesiastical history forms part of his tinent which that ocean had laid dry plan. on its retreat.

This volume completes the author's 2. That the present race of animals

History of Rome, as the former ended did not exist in the earlier successive with the Republic. With a laudable stages and revolutions through which

care for the purchasers, he has printed the globe has passed.

them as separate works, a distinction 3. That our own species did not exist in those earlier stages either.

not always sufficiently attended to.

“I wished (he says) to shun the imThe conclusion to which these pro- putation of forcing any one to buy a positions lead is, that an interposition volume that he might not want;" and of creative power took place about it would be unjust to pass over such 6000 years ago, to form the present disinterestedness in silence. race of creatures, and man among the The author is so well known as a rest. That an act of creation was per- writer of history, that much of our formed at one precise time is demon- task is saved, and we have only to

offer our remarks upon such passages * One cause of their discomfiture certainly has been their aiming too high, Caractacus is merely mentioned, in

as appear to call for them. At p. 87, attempting a complete solution of a problem which only admitted of approxima- order to relate, that Agrippina was tion and discussion of limits. (p.52.) At the present in state, when he was led capsame time we must say, that Lord tive,ếan indirect way of writing his. Brougham's argument from probation is tory. At p. 114, speaking of the deanything but forcible or satisfactory to cline of tillage in Italy, and the supply nur minds. See p. 76-8.

of corn from Egypt, Mr. K. justly oba

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serves, that “any one who could ob- tempt to revive the dignity of the Se. tain possession of Egypt could starve nate, he observes,in history there is the capital.” What follows may be no return, and the real power of the recommended to the advocates of Anti- once mighty Roman senate had de. Corn. Law measures.

parted for ever.” The first clause is "'In every point of view this policy expressed himself better at p. 428,

rather obscurely worded ; and he has was bad : it should be the object of every prudent government to maintain a sound

where he remarks, that "the course agricultural population; and no great

of decline is not to be stopped.” nation should ever suffer itself to become In the account of literature, there dependent for its food on the selfishness is no mention of Longinus. Are we or caprice of strangers."

to infer that the author has adopted

Mr. Knox's theory, which ascribes At p. 119, the author distinguishes the treatise on the Sublime to another well between the Greek and the Roman

Dionysius? ideas of a future state. His expressions

At p. 289, he compares the conquest occasionally want simplicity, e. g.

of Britain by Constantius, after the sinrelegated (p. 155), delators (p. 168). gle battle in which Allectus was slain, In speaking of Antoninus Pius, he

to the invasion of England by William properly translates that epithet by the Norman. The comparisou is just; dutiful. At p. 188 he uses the word

but we must remember, that it was Porphyrogenitus, " born to a reigning not thus that the native Britons were emperor, differently from the sense

subdued : their struggles against the implied at p. 20, where it is employed Romans, Saxons, and Normans, were for Caius and Tiberius, in the reign

those of generations, and, in the two of Augustus. Mentioning the fall of latter cases, of centuries; for we must Cleander, in the reign of Commodus, distinguish between the resistance of (p. 191,) he says, " When the cavalry the Saxons and their Cambrian conentered the streets, they were assailed

temporaries after the invasion of with missiles from the roofs of the

William. We cannot agree with his houses, and the people being joined unwillingness to attach the term aposby the urban cohorts, rallied, and

tate to Julian; it does not imply that drove them back to the palace,” which

his motives were insincere, but sim. reminds us of some of the occurrences

ply the fact of his abandoning Chris. in Paris, during " the three days of

tianity. It is even used in a most July.”

important passage of the New Tes“ A certain imbecility of character was

tament, (1 Tim. iv. 1. Orig. Gr.) in in effect the chief blemish in Aurelius. the verb αποστησονται, for persons It would almost seem as if too early a who nominally adhere to the Chrisstudy of speculative philosophy were de- tian creed, while they pervert its trimental to a man who is called on to principles. take an active part in the affairs of life,

There is something awkward in and to direct the destinies of an em

entitling Part 3 The Christian Empepire."—(P. 186.)

rors, when it begins with Diocletian and This remark might, without any Maximian; and if this title is retaininjustice, be extended to education ed, their reigns should be transferred in general. The inutility of exciting to the end of the second part. Mr. K. habits of mental activity in children has dealt more fairly with Constan. too early, in preference to bodily ones, tine than it is usual to do. But, unis often severely felt in after life. At der that emperor's reign, he passes far p. 222, he says in plain terms, that too sweeping a censure on Eusebius, "elective monarchy is an evil of the in denying altogether his claim to greatest magnitude," a sentence which truth and integrity as an historian, might serve as a motto to any history because he omits the tragical deaths of Poland. At p. 241, we have was by of Crispus and Fausta. Eusebius may mistake for were, which we mention, have preserved silence, simply because that it may be corrected. At p. 248, he could not make up his mind how speaking of the Emperor Tacitus's at- to view those melancholy transactions ;

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