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Parthia. pitched battles; in consequence of which he lost all the borse to garrison the places he bad reduced ; and put- P.
countries conquered by bis father, and was reduced ting bis army into winter quarters in Syria, gave
ed in person, and marched toward Armenia, in order The new king enjoyed his dignity but a very short to oppose the king of that country, who had raised a tim-, being, a few days after his accession, killed in considerable army to assist the Romans. The other be another battle with the Scythians. He was succeeded sent into Mesopotamia, under the command of Surena
by Pacorus I. who entered into an alliance with the or Surenas, a most experienced general, by whose conAlliance Romans; and he by Phrabates III. This monarch duct all the cities which Crassus had reduced were concluded took under his protection Tigranes the son of Ti- quickly retaken. On this some Roman soldiers who with the
granes the Great, king of Armenia, gave him bis made their escape, and fled to the camp of Crassus, His so Romans.
dishea daughter in marriage, and invaded the kingdom with filled the mind of his army with terror at the accounts
ed, a design to place the son on the throne of Armenia; of the number, power, and strength, of the enemy. but on the approach of Pompey he thought proper to They told their fellow soldiers, that the Parthians retire, and soon after solemnly renewed the treaty with were very numerous, brave, and well disciplined; that the Romans.
it was impossible to overtake them when they fled, or Phrabates was murdered by his children Mithri- escape them when they pursued ; that their defensive dates and Orodes; and soon after the former was put to weapons were proof against the Roman darts, and their death by his brother, who thus became sole master of offensive weapons so sharp, that no buckler could rethe Parthian empire. In his reign happened the me- sist them, &c. Crassus looked upon all this only as
morable war with the Romans under Crassus. This the effect of cowardice: but the common soldiers, and 7 was occasioned not by any breach of treaty on the side even many of the chief officers, were so disheartened, Crassus rosolves on a
of the Parthians, but through the shameful avarice of that Cassius, the same who afterwards conspired against war with
The whole Roman empire at that time had Cæsar, and most of the legionary tribunes, advised Crasthe Par- been divided between Cæsar, Pompey, and Crassus; sus to suspend his march, and consider better of the enthians.
and by virtue of that partition, the eastern provinces terprise before he proceeded farther in it. But Crassus had fallen to the lot of Crassus. No sooner was he in- obstinately persisted in his former resolution, being envested with this dignity, than he resolved to carry the couraged by the arrival of Artabazus king of Armenia, war into Parthia, in order to enrich himself with the who brought with him 6000 horse, and promised to send spoils of that people, who were then looked upon to 10,000 cuirassiers and 30,000 foot, whenever he should he very wealthy. Some of the tribunes opposed him, stand in need of them. At the same time, he advised as the Parthians bad religiously observed the treaty; him by no means to march his army through the plains but Crassus having, by the assistance of Pompey, car- of Mesopotamia, but to take his route over the mounried every thing before him, left Rome in the year 55 tains of Armenia. He told him, that as Armenia was B. C. and pursued his march to Brundusium, where he a mountainous country, the enemy's cavalry, in which immediately embarked his troops, though the wind their main strength consisted, would there be entirely blew very high; and after a difficult passage, where useless; and besides, his army would there be plenti.
he lost many of his ships, be reached the ports of Ga- fully supplied with all manner of necessaries : whereas, 8 latia.
if he marched by the way of Mesopotamia, he would Plunders From Galatia Crassus hastened to Syria, and passing be perpetually harassed by the Parthian horse, and frea the temple through Judea, plundered the temple at Jerusalem in bis quently be obliged to lead his army through sandy de
way. He then marched with as great expedition as he lem
serts, where he would be distressed for want of water could to the river Euphrates, which he crossed on a and all other provisions. This salutary advice, howbridge of boats: and, entering the Parthian dominions, ever, was rejected, and Crassus entered Mesopotamia. began hostilities. As the enemy had not expected an with an army of about 40,000 men. invasjon, they were quite unprepared for resistance; and The Romans had no sooner crossed the Euphrates, therefore Crassus overran all Mesopotamia ; and if he than Cassius advised his general to advance to some of had taken advantage of the consternation which the those towns in which the garrisons yet remained, in or. Parthians were in, might have also reduced Baby- der to halt aud refresh his troops : or if he did not choose tonia. But instead of this, early in the autumn, he re- to follow this advice, he said that his best way would passed the Euphrates, leaving only 7000 foot and 1000 be to march along the banks of the Euphrates to Seleu
Parthia. cia; as by this method he would prevent the Parthians commanded in the centre, his son in the left wing, and Parthin
from surrounding him, at the same time he would be Cassius in the right.
plentifully supplied with provisions from his ships. Of In this order they advanced to the banks of a small
let, to give the troops time to refresh themselves aster
would the signal, than the Parthians, rising as it were out of certainly perish with hunger and fatigue, and by all the ground, with dreadful cries, and a 'most frightfol means to approach Armenia, that they might join their noise, advanced against the Romans, who were greatly forces against the common enemy. But all was to no surprised and dismayed at the sight; and much more so, purpose; Crassus, instead of hearkening either to the when the Parthians, throwing off the covering of their advice of the king or his own officers, first flew into a arms, appeared in shining cuirasses, and helmets of bure violent passion with the messengers of Artabazus, and nished steel, finely mounted on horses covered all over then told his troops, that they were not to expect the with armour of the same metal. At their head appeardelights of Campania in the most remote parts of the ed young Surenas in a rich dress, who was the first who world.
charged the enemy, endeavouring, with his pikemen, to
Parthia. them anew, they began to lose courage, and loudly to sooner joined, than the Parthians invested then anew,
Par complain of their general for suffering them thus to making a most dreadful havock of them with their arstand still, and serve only as a butt to the enemy's ar
In this desperate condition, Crassus, spying a rows, which, they well saw, would not be exhausted rising ground at a small distance, led the remains of his till they were all killed to a man. Hereupon Crassus detachment thither, with a design to defend himself in ordered his son to advance, at all adventures, and at- the best manner he could, till succours should be sent tack the enemy with 1300 horse, 500 archers, and 8 him from his father. The Parthians pursued him; and cohorts. But the Parthians no sooner saw this choice having surrounded him in his new post, continued body (for it was the flower of the army) marching up showering arrows upon his men, till most of them were against them, than they wheeled about, and betook either killed or disabled, without being able to make themselves, according to their custom to flight. Here- use of their arms, or give the enemy proofs of their upon young Crassus, crying out as loud as he could, valour. . They fly before us, pushed on full speed after them, not Young Crassus had two Greeks with bim, who had doubting but he should gain a complete victory; but settled in the city of Carrhæ. These, touched with when he was at a great distance from the main body of compassion, at seeing so brave a man reduced to such the Roman army, he perceived his mistake; for those straits, pressed him to retire with them to the neighwho before had fled, facing about, charged him with bouring city of Ischnes, which had declared for the incredible fury. Young Crassus ordered his troops to Romans ;' but the young Roman rejected their prohalt, hoping that the enemy, upon seeing their small posal with indignation, telling them, that he would ranumber, would not be afraid to come to a close fight : ther die a thousand times than abandon so many valiant but herein he was likewise greatly disappointed; for the men, who sacrificed their lives for his sake. Having Parthians, contenting themselves to oppose his front returned this answer to his two Greek friends, be emwith their heavy-armed horse, surrounded him on all braced and dismissed them, giving them leave to resides; and, keeping at a distance, discharged incessant tire and shift for themselves in the best manner they showers of arrows upon the unfortunate Romans, thus could. As for bimself, having now lost all hopes of surrounded and pent up. The Parthian army, in wheel- being relieved, and seeing most of his men and friends ing about, raised so thick a dust, that the Romans could killed round him, he gave way to his grief; and, not The dea scarce see one another, much less the enemy : never- being able to make use of his arm, which was shot of theless, they found themselves wounded with arrows, through with a large barbed arrow, he presented his Crassus . though they could not perceive whence they came.
side to one of his attendants, and ordered him to put a short time the place where they stood was all strown an end to his unhappy life. His example was folwith dead bodies.
lowed by Censorius a senator, by Megabacchus an Extreme Some of the unhappy Romans finding their entrails experienced and brave officer, and by 'most of the nodistress of torn, and many overcome by the exquisite torments they bility who served under him. Five hundred com
suffered, rolled themselves in the sand with the arrows in mon soldiers were taken prisoners, and the rest cut in
of the enemy, advanced at the head of the presses to his father, to acquaint him with the danger he
Crascommander dangerously wounded. They then thought sus's head, and, having fixed it on the point of a lance, it adviseable to retire to their infantry, which they no were advancing full speed to fall on the father. As they
Parthia. drew near, Crassus was struck with that dismal and af- wisely conjecturing, from the manner in which the Parthia.
fecting sight; but on this occasion, behaved like a hero: unknown person had given him the intelligence, that
15 seeking from their spears a more quick and easy kind of In the mean time Surenas, not knowing whether Surenas death. Thus the Parthians continued plying them in- Crassus and Cassius had retired to Carrbæ, or chosen a pretends cessantly with their arrows till night, when they left different route; in order to be informed of the truth, with Cras
to confer the field of battle, crying out, that they would allow and take his measures accordingly, despatched a messen-sus.
the father one night to lament the death of his son. ger, who spoke the Roman language, to the city of CarDistress of This was a melancholy night for the Romans. Cras- rbæ, enjoining bim to approach the walls, and acquaint Crassus, sus kept himself concealed from the soldiery, lying not Crassus bimself, or Cassius, that the Parthian general was
in the general's tent, but in the open air, and on the inclined to enter into a treaty with them, and demanded
knees in mire. Then Cassius, suspecting that their
to Carrhæ, took his route towards Syria, which he The message which he sent to Coponius was of some reached with 500 horse. Octavius, with 5000 men temporary service to Crassus. For that commander, under his command, being conducted by trusty guides,
Parthis. gained the mountains called by Plutarch and Appian when be least expected it.
when he least expected it. The Parthian general, per- Parth Sinnaci, and there intrenched himself before break of ceiving, as he approached Crassus, that he was on foot, day.
cried out, in a seeming surprise, “ What do I see? a As for Crassus, he was still entangled in the marshes, Roman general on foot, and we on horseback! Let a when Surenas, at the rising of the sun, overtook him, lorse be brought for him immediately.” “ You need not and invested bim with his cavalry. The proconsul bad be surprised (replied Crassus): we are come only to an with bim four cohorts, and a small body of horse; and interview, each after the custom of his country.” “Very with these he gained, in spite of all opposition, the sum- well (answered Surenas), there shall be henceforth a mit of another hill within
12 furlongs of Octavius ; who lasting peace between King Orodes and the people of seeing the danger that threatened his general, flew to his Rome : but we must sign the articles of it on the banks assistance, first with a small number of his men, but of the Euphrates; for you Romans do not always rewas soon followed by all the rest, who, being ashamed member your conventions." Crassus would have sent of their cowardice, quitted their post, though very safe, for a horse ; but a very stately one with a golden bit, and charging the Parthians with great fury, disengaged and richly caparisoned, was brought to him by a Parthian ; Crassus, and obliged the enemy to abandon the hill. which Surenas presenting to him, “ Accept this horse Upon the retreat of the enemy, they formed themselves from
my bands (said lie), which I give you in the name into a hollow square; and placing Crassus in the mid- of my master King Orodes." He bad scarce uttered dle, made a kind of rampart round him with their buck. these words, when some of the king's officers, taking lers, resolutely protesting, that none of the enemy's ar- Crassus by the middle, set him upon the horse, which rows should touch their general's body, till they were they began to whip with great violence before them in all killed fighting in his defence. Surenas, loth to let order to make him gnicken his pace. Octavius, ofso fine a prey escape, surrounded the hill, as if he de- fended at this insult, took the horse by the bridle ; Pesigned to make a new attack : but, finding his Parthi- tronius and the few Romans who were present, secondvery
backward, and not doubting but the Romans, ed him, and flocking all round Crassus, stopped his when night came on, would pursue their march, and get horse. The Parthians endeavoured to repulse them, and out of his reach, he had recourse again to artifice; and clear the way for the proconsul; whereupon they began declared before some prisoners, whom he soon after set to justle and push one another with gr tumult and at liberty, that he was inclined to treat with the pro- disorder. At last, Octavius, drawing his sword, killed consul of a peace ; and that it was better to come to a one of the king's grooms; but, at the same time, another reconciliation with Rome, than to sow the seeds of an coming behind Octavius, with one blow laid him dead eternal war, by shedding the blood of one of her generals. at his feet. Both parties fought with great resolution,
Agreeable to this declaration, Surenas, as soon as the the Parthians striving to carry off Crassus, and the Roprisoners were released, advanced towards the hill where mans to rescue him out of their hands. In this scuffle the Romans were posted, attended only by some of his most of the Romans who came to the conference were
16 officers, and, with bis bow unbent, and open arms, in- killed; and amongst the rest Crassus bimself; but whe
killed. vitcd Crassus to an interview. So sudden a change ther by a Roman or a Parthian is uncertain. seemed very suspicious to the proconsul; who therefore Upon his death, the rest of the army either surrender declined the interview, till he was forced, by his own ed to the enemy, or dispersing in the night, were pursoldiers, to intrust his life with an enemy whose treach- sued, and put to the sword. The Romans lost in this ery they had all experienced; for the legionaries flock- campaign at least 30,000 men; of which 20,000 were ing round him, not only abused him in an outrageous killed, and 10,000 taken prisoners. manner, but even menaced bim if he did not accept of the When the battle of Carrhæ was fought, King Orodes proposals made him by the Parthian general. Seeing, was in Armenia, where he had made peace with Artatherefore, that bis troops were ready to mutiny, he be- bazus. While the two kings were solemnizing their gan to advance, without arms or guards, towards the new alliance with expensive and public feasts, Styllaces enemy, after baving called the gods and his officers to or Syllaces, a Parthian officer, whom Surenas had sent witness the violence his troops offered him; and intreat- . with the news of his late victory, and the bead of Crased all wbo were present, but especially Octavius and sus as a proof it, rived in the capital of Armenia. Petronius, two of the chief commanders, for the honour The transports of joy which Orodes felt at this sight, of Rome their common mother, not to mention, after and these news, are not to be expressed; and the lords his death, the shameful bebaviour of the Roman legion- of both kingdoms, who attended their sovereigns, raised aries. Octavius and Petronius could not resolve to let loud and repeated shouts of joy. Syllaces was ordered him go
alone ; but attended him down the hill, as did to give a more particular and distinct account of that likewise some legionaries, keeping at a distance. Cras- memorable action; which when he had done, Orodes sus was met at the foot of the bill by two Greeks who, ' commanded melted gold to be poured into Crassus's dismounting from their horses, saluted him with great mouth; reproaching him thereby with avarice, wbich respect; and desired bim in the Greek tongue, to send had been always his predominant passion.
17 some of his attendants, who might satisfy him that Sure- Surenas did not long enjoy the pleasure of his victory; Sorenas por nas, and those wbo were with him, came without arms. for Orodes, jealous of bis power and authority among to death by Hereupon Crassus sent two brothers, of the Roscian the Parthians, soon after caused him to be put to death. Orodes. family; but Surenas having caused them to be seized, Pacorus, the king's favourite son was put at the head advanced to the foot of the bill, mounted on a fine horse, of the army; and, agreeably to bis father's directions, and attended by the chief officers of his army. Crassus, invaded Syria : but he was driven out from thence with who waited for the return of bis two messengers, was great loss by Cicero and Cassius, the only general who surprised to see himself prevented by Surenas in person, survived the defeat of Crassus. After this we find no S