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Parthia. mention of the Parthians, till the time of the civil war against liis countrymen. But Phrahates justly dreading Parthit

between Cæsar and Pompey, when the latter sent am- the consequences of such a person's defection, sent a
bassadors to solicit succour against his rivals. This Or- solemn embassy to invite him bome ou such terms as he
odes was willing to grant upon condition that Syria was should think fit to accept; which greatly provoked An-
delivered up to him; but as Pompey would not consent tony; though he did not hinder bim from returning, lest
to such a proposal, the succours were not only denied, others should thereby be discouraged from coming over
but, after the battle of Pharsalia, he put Lucius Hir- to him. He therefore dismissed him with great civility,
tius in irons, whom Pompey had again sent to ask as- sending anıbassadors at the same time to Phrahates to
sistance, or at least to desire leave to shelter himself in treat of a peace. Thus he hoped to divert the Parthian
the Partbian dominions.

monarch's attention from making the necessary prepa-
Cæsar is said to have meditated a war against the Par- rations for war, and that he should be able to fall upon
thians, which in all probability would have proved fatal him in the spring when he was in no condition to make

to them. His death delivered them from this danger. resistance. But herein he was greatly disappointed; for 15 Var com- But, not long after, the eastern provinces, being griev- on his arrival at the Euphrates, which he intended to menced ously oppressed by Mark Antony, rose up in arms; and pass, and enter the Parthian dominions on that side, he against the having killed the tax-gatherers, invited the Parthians to found all the passes so well guarded, that he thought Parthians by Mark

join them and drive out the Romans. They very readily proper to enter Media with a design first to reduce that Antony.

accepted the invitation, and crossed the Euphrates with country, and then to enter Parthia.
a powerful army under the command of Pacorus, and This plan had been suggested to him by Artabazus Antony
Labienus a Roman general of Pompey's party. At first king of Armenia, who in the end betrayed him; for betrayed

by Artabathey met with great success, overran all Asia Minor, and instead of conducting the army the straight way from

zus king of reduced all the countries as far as the Hellespont and the Zeugma on the Euplirates, to the Araxes which part-Armenia. F.gæan sea, subduing likewise Phænicia, Syria, and even ed Media from Armenia, and which was about 500 Judea. They did not however long enjoy their new con- miles distant from the place whence he first set out, quests: for being elated with their victories, and despi- Artabazas led them over the rocks and mountains so far sing the enemy, they engaged Ventidius, Antony's lieu- about, that the army had marched above 1000 miles tenant, before Labienus had time to join them, and were before they reached the borders of Media, wbere they utterly defeated. This so disheartened Labienus's

army,

intended to begin the war. Thus they were not only that they all abandoned him; and he himself, being thus greatly fatigued but had not sufficient time, the yeay

obliged to wander from place to place in disguise, was at being far spent, to put in execution the design on 19

last taken and put to death a: Cyprus. Ventidius pursu- which they had come. However, as Antony was imPacorus de-ing his advantage, gained several other victories; and patient to get back to Cleopatra, he left behind him feated and at last entirely defeated the Parthian army under Paco

most of the baggage of the army, and 300 waggons Venuidias.

rus, cutting almost the whole of them in pieces, and the loaded with battering rams and other military engines
prince himself among the rest. He did not, bowever, for sieges; appointing Statianus, one of his lieutenants,
pursue this last victory as he might bave done ; being with a body of 19,020 men, to guard them, and to
afraid of giving umbrage to Antony, who had already bring them, by slow marches, after the army. With
become jealous of the great honour gained by his lieu- the rest of the forces he marched more than 300 miles
tenant. He therefore contented himself with reducing before the rest, without allowing his men any respite till
those places in Syria and Phænicia which the Parthians be arrived at Praaspa or Phrahata, the capital of Media,
had taken in the beginning of the war, until Antony ar- which he immediately invested. But the Parthians, well
rived to take the command of the army upon bimself. knowing that he could not make any progress without

Orodes was almost distracted with grief on receiving his military machines, passed by his army, in order to
the dreadful news of the loss of his army and the death

attack Statianus; which they did with such success, that of his favourite son. However, when time had resto- the body commanded by him were all to a man cut off, Ten thoured the use of his faculties, he appointed Phrahates, the and all their military engines taken, among which was

sand Roeldest but the most wicked, of all his children, to suc- a battering ram 80 feet long. ceed him in the kingdom, admitting him at the same

Antony, not withstanding this disaster, continued the time to a share of the sovereign authority with bimself. siege of Praaspa; but was daily harassed by sallies of the The consequence of this was, that Phrahates very soon garrison from within, and the enemy's army without.

attempted to poison his father with hemlock. But this, At last he began to think of a retreat when his provivurdered contrary to expectation, proving a cure for the dropsy, sions were almost exhausted, finding it impossible to be

which an excess of grief had brought upon the king, the come master of the city. But as he was to march 300
unnatural son bad him stilled in bed, and soon after not miles through the enemy's country, be thought proper
only murdered all his own brethren, who were thirty in first to send ambassadors to the Parthian monarch, ac-
number, but cut off all the rest of the royal family, not quainting him that the Roman people were willing to
sparing even his own eldest son, lest the discontented allow him a peace, provided he would restore the stand-
Parthians should place him, as he was already of age, ards and prisoners taken at Carrhæ. Phrabates received
on the throne.

the ambassadors, sitting on a golden throne ; and, after
Many of the chief lords of Parthia being intimidated having bitterly inveighed against the avarice and un-
by the cruelty of Phrahates, retired into foreign coun- bounded ambitition of the Romans, told them that he
tries : and among those one Monæses, a person of great would not part with the standards and prisoners ; but
distinction, as well as skill and experience in war. This that if Antony would immediately raise the siege of
man, baving fled to Antony, soon gained his confidence, Praaspa, he would suffer him to retire unmolested.
and was by him easily prevailed upon to engage in a war Antony, who was reduced to great straits, no sooner

received

killed by

22

nians cut off.

Orodes

a

thia in

tress.

24.

Parthia. received this answer than be broke up the siege, and all Chaldea and Assyria, the two richest provinces of Part

marched towards Armenia. However, Phrahates was the Parthian empire. From Babylon he marched to

not so good as his word; for the Romans were attacked Ctesipbon, the metropolis of the Parthian monarchy ;
Antony
leaves Par-

by the enemy no fewer than 18 times on their march, which he besieged, and at last reduced. But as to the
and were thrice in the utmost danger of being cut off

. particulars of these great conquests, we are quite in the great dis. A famine also raged in the Roman army; upon which dark ; this expedition, however glorious to the Roman

they began to desert to the enemy; and indeed Antony name, being rather hinted at than described, by the
would probably have been left by himself, had not the writers of those times. While Trajan was thus making
Parthians, in a very cruel as well as impolitic manner, war in the heart of the enemy's country, Cosdroes, hav-
murdered all those who fled to them in sight of the rest. ing recruited his army, marched into Mesopotamia, with
At last, after having lost 32,000 men, and being re- a design to recover that country, and cut off all commu-
dueed to such despair that he was with difficulty pre- nication between the Roman army and Syria. On his
vented from laying violent hands on himself, he reached arrival in that province, the inhabitants Rocked to him
the river Araxes; when bis men, finding themselves out from all parts; and most of the cities, driving out the
of the reach of the enemy, fell down on the ground, and garrisons left by Trajan, opened their gates to him.
kissed it with tears of joy.

Hereupon the emperor detached Lucius and Maximus,
Antony was no sooner gone, than the kings of Me- two of his chief commanders, into Mesopotamia, to keep
dia and Parthia quarrelled about the booty they had such cities in awe as bad not revolted, and to open a
taken; and after various contests Phrabates reduced all communication with Syria. Maximus was met by Cos-
Media and Armenia. After this, being elated with his droes; and having ventured a battle, his army was en-
conquests, he oppressed his subjects in such a cruel and tirely defeated, and himself killed. But Lucius being
tyrannical manner, that a civil war took place ; in joined by Euricius and Clarius, two other commanders
which the competitors were alternately driven out and sent by 'Trajan with fresh supplies, gained considerable
restored, till the year 50, when one Vologeses, the son advantages over the enemy, and retook the cities of
of Gortarzes, a former king, became peaceable posses- Nisibis and Seleucia, which had revolted.
sor of the throne. He carried on some wars against And now Trajan, seeing himself possessed of all the
the Romans, but with very indifferent success, and at best and most fruitful provinces of the Parthian empire,
last gladly consented to a renewal of the ancient treaties but at the same time being well apprised that he could
with that powerful people.

not, without a vast expence, maintain his conquests, nor Parthia From this time the Parthian history affords nothing keep in subjection so fierce and warlike a people at such subdued remarkable till the reign of the emperor Trajan ; when, a distance from Italy; resolved'to set over them a king by Tra

the Parthian king, by name Cosdroes, infringed the of his own choosing, who should hold the crown of him jan.

treaty with Rome, by driving out, the king of Arme- and his successors, and acknowledge them as his lords
nia. Upon this Trajan, who was glad of any pre- and sovereigns. With this view be repaired to Ctesi-
tence to quarrel with the Parthians, immediately hast- phon ; and having there assembled the chief men of the
ened into Armenia. His arrival there was so sudden nation, he crowned one of the royal family, by name

25 and unexpected, that be reduced almost the whole Parthanaspates, king of Parthia, obliging all who were Partha

he country without opposition ; and took prisoner Partha- present to pay him their allegiance: He chose Partha- naspates masiris, the king whom the Parthians had set up. Af- naspates, because that prince had joined bim at his first appointed ter this he entered Mesopotamia, took the city of Nisi- entering the Parthian dominions, conducted bim with king by the bis, and reduced to a Roman province the whole of that great fidelity, and shown on all occasions an extraordiwealthy country.

vary attachment to the Romans. Thus the Parthians soon after
Early in the spring of the foilowing year, Trajan, were at last subdued, and their kingdom made tributary driven out.
who had kept his winter quarters in Syria, took the to Rome. But they did not long continue in this state
field again ; but was warmly opposed by Cosdroes.-- of subjection : for they no sooner heard of Trajan's
He found him encamped on the banks of the Euphrates, death, which happened shortly after, than, taking up
with a design to dispute his passage; whiclr he did with arns, they drove Parthanaspates from the throne ; and

;
such vigour, that the emperor, after having several times recalling Cosdroes, who had retired into the country of
attempted to ford that river, and been always repulsed the Hyrcanians, openly revolted from Rome. Adrian,
with great slaughter, was obliged to cause boats to be who was then commander in chief of all the forces in the
built on the neighbouring mountains, which he privately east, and soon after acknowledged emperor by the army,
conveyed from thence on carriages to the water side ; did not wish, though he was at that time in Syria with a
and having in the night time formed a bridge with very numerous army, to engage in a new war with the
them, he passed his army the next day; but not with- Parthians; but contented himself with preserving the
out great loss and danger, the Parthians barassing his ancient limits of the empire, without any

ambitious pro-
men the whole time with incessant showers of arrows, spects of further conquests. Therefore, in the beginning
which did great execution. Having gained the opposite of his reign, he abandoned those provinces beyond the

,
bank, he advanced boldly into Assyria, the Parthians Euphrates which Trajan bad conqnered; withdrew the
flying everywhere before him, and made himself master Roman garrisons from Mesopotamia; and, for the great-
of Arbela. Thence he pursued his march; subduing, er safety of other places, made the Euphrates the boun-
with incredible rapidity, countries where the Roman dary of, and barrier in, those parts, posting bis legions
standard had never been before displayed. Bahylonia, along the banks of that river.

Unsuccesso or the province of Babylon, voluntarily submitted to Cosdroes died after a long reign, and was succeeded ful wars of him. The city itself was, after a vigorous resistance, by his eldest son Vologeses: in ivhose reign the Alani Vogeses taken by storm; by which means he became master of breaking into Media, then subject to the Parthians, Romans

. 4

committed

peror, but

26

with the

Parthia. committed there great devastations; but were prevail- against the only nation that was then formidable to l'arthis.

ed upon, with rich presents sent them by Vologeses, Rome. But he had no sooner crossed the Euphrates
to abandon that kingdom, and return home. Upon than Vologeses recovered all the provinces except Me.
their retreat, Vologeses, having no enemy to contend sopotamia, which be bad reduced. These expeditions
with at home, fell unexpectedly upon Armenia ; sur- were chargeable to the Romans, and cost them much
prised the legions there ; and having cut them all in blood, without reaping any advantages from them; for
pieces to a man, entered Syria ; defeated with great as they had not sufficient forces to keep in awe the pro-
slaughter Attilius Cornelianus, governor of that pro- vinces they had subdued, the inhabitants, greatly attach-
vince; and advanced without opposition to the neigh- ed to the family of Arsaces, never failed to it turn to
hourhood of Antioch ; putting everywhere the Ro- their ancient obedience as soon as the Roman armies
mans, and those who favoured them, to the sword. were withdrawn. Vologeses was soon after engaged
Hereupon the emperor Verus, by the advice of his in a war still more troublesome and destructive, witla
colleague Antoninus surnamed the Philosopher, leaving his brother Artabanus, who, encouraged by some of
Rom.e, lastened into Syria : and having driven the Par- the discontented nobles, attempted to rob bim of thọ
thians out of that province, ordered Statius Priscus to crown, and place it on his own bead. Vologeses gained
invade Armenia, and Cassius with Martius Verus to several victories over his brother and rebellious subjects;
enter the Parthian territories, and carry the war into the but died before be could restore the empire to its former
enemy's country. Priscus made himself master of Ar- tranquillity.
taxata; and in one campaign drove the Parthians, though Artabanus, who had a numerous army at his devo-
not without great loss on his side, quite out of Armenia. tion, did not meet with any opposition in seizing the
Cassius, on the other hand, having in several encounters throne, vacant by the death of his brother, though
defeated Vologeses, though he had an army of 400,000 Tiridates had a better tittle to it, as being his elder
men under his command, reduced, in four years time, all brother. He had scarce settled the affairs of his king-
those provinces which had formerly submitted to Trajan, dom, when the emperor Caracalla, desirous to signa-
took Seleucia, burnt and plundered the famous cities of lize himself as some of his predecessors had done,
Babylon and Ctesiphon, with the stately palaces of the by some memorable exploit against the Parthians, sent
Parthian monarchs, and struck terror into the most re- & solemn embassy to him, desiring bis daughter in
mote provinces of that great empire. On bis return, he marriage. Artabanus, overjoyed at this proposal,
lost above half the number of his forces by sickness and fa- which he thought would be attended with a lasting
mine; so that, after all, the Romans, as Spartianus ob- peace between the two empires, received the ambassa-
serves, had no great reason to boast of their victories dors with all possible marks of honour, and readily

23 and conquests.

complied with their request. Soon after, Caracalla Infamous' However, Verus, who liad never stirred during the sent a second embassy to acquaint the king that he treachery whole time of the war from Antioch and Daphne, took was coming to solemnize the nuptials ; whereupon Ar- of the emupon him the Infty titles of Parthicus and Armenicus, as tabanus went to meet bim, attended with the chief of peror Cara •

calia.
if he had acquired them jostly in the midst of his plea the nobility and his best troops, all unarmed, and in
sures and debaucheries. After the revolt and death of most pompous habits : but this peaceable train no sooner
Cassius, Antoninus the Philosopher repaired into Syria approached the Roman army, than the soldiers, on a sige
to settle the affairs of that province. On his arrival nal given them, falling upon the king's retinue, made a
there, he was met by ambassadors from Vologeses ; who most terrible slaughter of the unarmed multitude, Ar-
having recovered most of the provinces subdued by Cas- tabanus himself escaping with great difficulty. The
sius, and being unwilling either to part with them or en- treacherous Caracalla, having gained by this exploit
gage in a new war, solicited the emperor to confirm him great booty, and, as he thought, no less glory, wrote a
in the possession of them, promising to bold them of him, long and boasting letter to the senate, assuming the title
and to acknowledge the sovereignty of Rome. To these of Parthicus for this piece of treachery; as he had be-

;
terms Antoninus readily agreed, and a peace was accord- fore that of Germanicus, for murdering, in like manner,
ingly concluded een the two empires; which Volo- some of the German nobility.
geses did not long enjoy, being soon after carried off by a Artabanus, resolving to make the Romans pay dear
distemper, and not murdered by his own subjects, as we for their inhuman and barbarous treachery, raised

the
read in Constantinus Manasses, who calls him Belegeses.
27

most numerous army that had ever been known in ParCtesiphon Upon bis death, Vologeses III, the son of his bro- thia, crossed the Euphrates, and entered Syria, puttaken by ther Sanatruces, and grandson of Cosdroes, was raised ting all to fire and sword. But Caracalla being mur

to the throne. He sided with Niger against the em- dered before this invasion, Macrinus, who had suc-
peror Severus : who thereupon baving settled matters ceeded bim, met the Parthians at the head of a nigbiy
at home, marched with all his forces against bim; and army, composed of many legions, and all the auxilia-

A desperate advancing to the city of Ctesiphon, whither he had re- ries of the states of Asia. The two armies no sooner

tween the tired, laid close siege to that metropolis. Vologeses came in sight of each other, but they engaged with airta ng made a most gallant defence : but the city, after a long the utmost fury. The battle continued two days; ni Rosiege, and much bloodshed on both sides, was at length both Romans and Parthians fighting so obstinately, uns. taken by assault. The king's treasures, with bis wives that night only parted them, without any apparent and children, fell into the emperor's hands : but Volo: advantage on either side ; though both resired when geses himself had the good luck to make his escape ; night had put an end to the contest, crying, Victory, which was a great disappointment to Severus, who im- victory. The field of battle was covered all over wich mediately despatched an express to acquaint the senate dead bodies, there being already above 40,000 killed, with the success that had attended bim in his expedition including both Romans and Parthians i neverileneus Vol. XVI. Part I.

B

Asiabadus,

a

Severus.

a

29

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Parthia, Artabanus was heard to say, that the battle was only PARTIALITY. See Self-purtiality and PRE- Parti
Parti. begun, and that he would continue it till either the
Parthians or Romans were all to a man cut in pieces.

PARTICIPLE, in Grammar, an adjective formed Part
But Macrinus, being well apprised that the king came of a verb; so called because it participates partly of the
highly enraged against Caracalla in particular, and properties of a noun, and partly of those of a verb. See
dreading the consequences which would attend the de- GRAMMAR.
struction of his army, sent a herald to Artabanus, ac- PARTICLE, in Physics, the minute part of a
quainting him with the death of Caracalla, and propo- body, an assemblage of which constitutes all natural
sing an alliance between the two empires. The king, bodies.
understanding that his great enemy was dead, readily In the new philosophy, particle is often used in the
embraced the proposals of peace and amity, upon con- same sense with atom in the ancient Epicurean philo-
dition that all

the prisoners who had been taken by the sophy, and corpuscle in the later. Some writers, treachery of Caracalla should be immediately restored, however, distinguish them; making particle an assemand a large sum of money paid bim to defray the ex- blage or composition of two or more primitive and pences of the war.

physically indivisible corpuscles or atoms; and corThese articles being performed without delay or he. puscle, or little body, an assemblage or mass of severa!

sitation, Artabanus returned into Parthia, and Macri- particles or secondary corpuscles. The distinction, 30 nus to Antioch.

however, is of little moment ; and, as to most purposes
The Per- As Artabanus lost on this occasion the flower of of physics, particle may be understood as synonymous
sians revolt his army, Artaxerxes, a Persian of mean descent, but with corpuscle. Particles are then the elements of
and over-
throw the of great courage and experience in war, revolting from bodies : it is the various arrangement and texture of
Parthian the Parthians, prevailed on his countrymen to join him, these, with the difference of the cohesion, &c. that
empire. and attempt the recovery of the sovereign power, constitute the various kinds of bodies, hard, soft, li-

which he said they had been unjustly deprived of, first quid, dry, heavy, light, &c. The smallest particles or
by the Macedonians, and afterwards by the Parthians, corpuscles cohere, with the strongest attractions, and
their vassals. Artabanus, upon the news of this revolt, always compose larger particles of weaker cohesion ;
marched with the whole strength of his kingdom to and many of these cohering compose larger particles,
suppress it; but being met by Artaxerxes at the head whose vigour is still weaker; and so on for divers suca
of a no less powerful army, a bloody battle ensued, cessions, till the progression end in the largest par-
which is said to have lasted three days. At length ticles, on which the operations in chemistry, and the
the Parthians, though they behaved with the utmost colours of natural bodies, depend, and which, by coher-
bravery, and fought like men in despair, were forced ing, compose bodies of sensible bulks.
to yield to the Persians, who were commanded by a The cohesion of the particles of matter, according
more experienced leader. Most of their troops were to the Epicureans, was effected by hooked atoms; the
cut off in the flight; and the king himself was taken Aristotelians thought it managed by rest, that is, by
prisoner, and soon after put to death at Artaxerxes's nothing at all. But Sir Isaac Newton shows it is by
order. The Parthians having lost in this fatal en- means of a certain power whereby the particles mutual-
gagement both their king and their army, were forced ly attract or tend toward each other, which is still per-
to submit to the conqueror, and become vassals to a na- haps giving a fact without a cause. By this attraction
tion which had been subject to them for the space of of the particles be shows that most of the phenomena of
475 years.

the lesser bodies are effected, as those of the heavenly
For an account of the manners, customs, &c. of the bodies are by the attraction of gravity. See ATTRAC-
ancient Parthians, see the article PERSIA.

TION and COHESION.
PARTI, Partie, Party, or Parted, in Heraldry, PARTICLE, a term in Theology, used in the Latin
is applied to a shield or escutcheon, denoting it divided church for the crumbs or little pieces of consecrated
or marked out into partitions.

bread, called in the Greek church pigides. The Greeks
PARTI per pale, is when the shield is divided perpen- bave a particular ceremony, called two pescième, of the
dicularly into two halves, by a cut in the middle from particles, wherein certain crumbs of bread, not conse-

crated, are offered up in honour of the Virgin, St John PARTI per fess, is when the cut is across the middle Baptist, and several other saints. They also give them from side to side.

the name of a goopoge, oblatio. Gabriel archbishop of PARTI per bend dexter, is when the cut comes from Philadelphia wrote a little treatise express tipi tus the upper corner of the shield on the right hand, and posgidwr, wherein he endeavours to show the antiquity descends athwart to the opposite lower corner.

of this ceremony, in that it is mentioned in the litura PARTI per bend sinister, is when the cut, coming gies of St Chrysostom and Basil. There has been from the upper left corner, descends across to the oppo- much controversy on this bead between the reformed site lower one.

and catholic divines. -Aubertin and Blondel explain All these partitions, according to M. de la Colom- a passage in the theory of Germanus patriarch of Conbiere, have their origin in the cuts and bruises that stantinople, where he mentions the ceremony of the have appeared on shields after engagements ; and be particles as in use in his time, in favour of the former; ing proofs of the dangers to which the bearers had been Messieurs de Port Royal contest the explanation ; bat exposed, they gained them esteem; for which reason M. Simon, in his notes on Gabriel of Philadelphia, they were transmitted to posterity, and became arms endeavours to show that the passage itself is an interand marks of honour to their future families.

polation, not being found in the ancient copies of Ger

manus,

a

top to bottom.

the company:

Farticle manus, and consequently that the dispute is very ill brought to an issue. This kind of contract being ge- Partnergrounded.

nerally private, the parties concerned are not liable for ship PartnerOrganic PARTICLES, are those small moving bodies each other. If one of them purchase goods on trust,

ou ship.

which are imperceptible without the help of glasses ; the furnisher, who grants the credit through confidence
for besides those animals which are perceptible to the in him alone, has no recourse, in case of his insolvency,
sight, some naturalists reckon this exceedingly small against the other partners. They are only answerable
species as a separate class, if not of animals properly for the share of the adventure that belongs to the insol-
so called, at least of moving bodies, which are found vent partner.
in the semen of animals, and which cannot be seen If it be proposed to carry the adventure farther
without the help of the microscope. In consequence than originally agreed on, any partner may withdraw
of these observations, different systems of generation bis interest; and if it cannot be separated from the
have been proposed concerning the spermatic worms others, may insist that the whole shall be brought to an
of the male and the eggs of the female. In the se- issue.
cond volume of Buffon's Natural History, several ex- II. Standing companies, which are generally esta-
periments are related, tending to show that those mov- blished by written contract between the parties, where
ing bodies which we discover

by the help of glasses in the stock, the firm, duration, the division of the gain
the male semen are not real animals, but organic, lively, or loss, and other circumstances, are inserted,
active, and indestructible molecules, which possess All the partners are generally authorized to sign by
property of becoming a new organized body similar to the form of the company, though this privilege may
that from which they were extracted. Buffon found be confined to some of them by particular agreement,
such bodies in the female as well as in the male se- The firm ought only to be subscribed at the place
men; and he supposes that the moving bodies which where the copartnery is established. If a partner has
he observed with the microscope in infusions of the occasion, when absent, to write a letter relating to
germs of plants are likewise vegetable organic molecules, their affairs, he subscribes his own name on account of
Needham, Wrisbery, Spalanzani, and several other wri-

When the same partners carry on bu-
ters on the animal economy, have pursued the same siness at different places, they generally choose differ-
track with M. de Buffon.

ent firms for each. The signature of each partner is Some suppose that these organic molecules in the generally sent to new correspondents; and when a semen answer no purpose but to excite the venercal partner is admitted, although there be no alteration in desire : but such an opinion cannot be well founded; the firm, bis signature is transmitted, with an intiinafor eunuchs, who have no seminal liquor, are neverthe- tion of the change in the copartnery to all their correless subject to venereal desire. With respect to the spondents. Houses that have been long established, beautiful experiments which have been made with the often retain the old firm, though all the original partmicroscope on organic molecules, M. Bonnet, that ners be dead or withdrawn. learned and excellent observer of nature, remarks that The powers of each partner are, in general disthey seem to carry us to the farthest verge of the sen- cretionary; but they ought not to act, in matters of sible creation, did not reason teach us that the smallest importance, without consulting together, when there visible globule of seminal liquor is the commencement is an opportunity. No partner is liable to make good of another universe, which, from its infinite smallness, the loss arising from his judging wrong in a case where is beyond the reach of our best microscopes.-Animal he had authority to act. If he exceeds his power, cules, properly so called, must not be confounded with and the event prove unsuccessful, he must bear the loss; the wonderful organic particles of Buffon. Soe ANI- but if it prove successful, the gain belongs to the comMALCULE.

pany : yet if he acquaints the company immediately Particle, in Grammar, a denomination for all those of what he bas done, they must either acquiesce theresmall words that tie or unite others, or that express the in, or leave bim the.chance of gain, as well as the risk modes or manners of words. See GRAMMAR.

of loss.
PARTING, in Chemistry and Metallurgy, an opera- All debts contracted under the firm of the company
tion by wb
gold and silve

are separated from each are binding on the whole partners, though the money other.' See CHEMSTRY, and ORES, Reduction of. was borrowed by one of them for his private use, with

PARTISAN, in the art of war, a person dexterous out the consent of the rest. And if a partner exceeds in commanding a party; who, knowing the country bis power, the others are nevertheless obliged to implewell, is employed in getting intelligence, or surpris- ment his engagements; though they may render bim ing the enemy's convoys, &c. The word also means responsible for his misbebaviour. an officer sent out upon a party, with the command of Although the sums to be advanced by the partners be a body of light troops, generally under the appellation limited by the contract, if there be a necessity for raise , of the partisan's corps. It is also necessary that this ing more money to answer emergencies or pay the debts corps should be composed of infantry, light borse, and of the company, the partners must furnish what is ne. hussars. PARTNERSHIP., is a contract-among-two or more

cessary, in proportion to their shares.

A debt to a company is not cancelled by the private persons, to carry on a certain business, at their joint debts of the partner: and when a partner becomes in, expence, and sbart the gain or loss which arises from solvent, the company is not bound for his debts beyond it. Of this there are four kinds.

the extent of his share. 1. Occasional joint trade, where two or more mer- The debts of the company are preferable, on the chants agree to employ a certain sum in trade, and company's effects, to the private debts of the partners. divide the gain or loss so soon as the adventure is Partnership is generally dissolved by the death of a

partner;

B 2

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