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of name, and nothing more. Besides this Farming Book, Mr. Best has left behind him an Account Book, which forms the First Appendix, and on page 83 he mentions "our allmanacke."

The Second Appendix contains the descent of the manor; various papers connected with its history and extent, and a brief account of the family of Best of Elmswell. The Manuscript whence the text of the present volume is transcribed, is in the possession of the elder coheiress of that house, and to the kindness of that lady the members of the Surtees Society are indebted for one of the most interesting of their publications; and she has conferred an additional favour upon them in allowing it to be illustrated by her accurate pencil.

CHARLES BEST ROBINSON.

Snaith,

July 21, 1857.

TABLE OF CONTENTS.

OF SHEEPE. 1-31. How to know Tuppes from Wethers, 1 ; of Lambes, 2; how to

choose a Good Tuppe, 4; Signs of a Good Ewe, 6; usual Markes of an 11-thriv-

inge Sheepe, 7; howe to make one Ewe take another Lambe, 7; for Sellinge of

Sheepe, 9; for Weaninge of Lambes, 12; for Foldinge of Sheepe, 14; for

Providinge of Folde Barros, 15; for Washinge of Sheepe, 17; for Clippinge of

Sheepe, ž0; for Geldinge of Lambes, 23; for Pilinge and Tithinge of Wooll,

24; for Teendinge of Lambes, 25; for puttinge of Ewes to the Tuppes, 27;

for Greasinge of Lambes, 29, 69; how to make Salve, 30; for Sellinge of Woll,
30; for Fotheringe of Sheep, 72; other Short Remembrances, 79; of Sheep, 94 ;

My Lord Finche's Custom at Watton for Clippinge, 96; concerning Sheepe, 97.

DIRECTIONS FOR CUTTINGE OF GRASSE AND TIFTINGE OF Har. 31-42. For Lead-

inge of Hey, 35; of the Number of Dayworkes and Loades of Hey that weare

in evcrie particular Close, 38.

OF HARVEST WORKES, &c., AND FIRST OF SHEARINGE. 42-108. For Leadinge of

Winter Corne, 46; for Mowinge of Haver, 48; for Leadinge of Oates, 51; for
Mowinge of Barley, 53; for Traylinge of the Sweathrake, 55; for Leadinge of
Barley, 56; for Pullinge of Peasc, 56 ; for Thatchinge of a Stacke, 59; for
Pullinge and Workinge amongst Pease, 83; Miscellaneous Observations, 108,

143; for Thatchinge, 138; of Thatchinge, 144; for Eizinge of a Wall, 146.

OF BEES AND HOWE TO ORDER THEM. 61. Howe to take Bees, 65; for Mak-

inge and Orderinge of lIoney, 67; for Destroyinge of Robbers from amongst

Bees, 107.

T'HE MANNER OR FORME OF A DISTRINGAS OR LEVY, 85-91. The Forme or

Manner of Collecting a Subsidy, 86; the Manner of Ratinge, Assessinge, and

Levyinge of Polle-moncy, 91.

For MARKETING. 99-125. For Sellinge of Corne, 99; for sending of Cornc to the

Mill for the Ilowse-use, 103; for Buyinge of Butter, 105; for Businge of all
sorts of Linnen Cloaths, 105 ; for Choosinge of Firre-deales, 110; of the Chiefe

Fayres hereaboutes, 112; for Buyinge of Firre-deales, 125.

OTHER SHORT REMEMBRANCES. For Makinge and Mendinge of Earthen Floores,

107 ; for Breedinge and Bringinge up of Partridges, 109; Concerninge our

Fashions att our Country Weddinges, 116; for Providinge of Hecke-stowers,

120; for Beakinge of Wilfes and Saughs, 122 ; of Swannes and theire Breed,

122; of the Weights used among Physiclans, 136; for Keepinge of Waines

and Coupes from Wette, 137.

For LETTINGE or FARMES AND COTTAGES, 124; a Note shewinge howe the Landes

have formerly layen in the Pasture, 126 ; of the Carre, 128 ; of the Pasture

afore it was inclosed, 129.

For HTRINGE OF SERVANTES, 132; Shorte Remembrances for Workemens Wages,

140.

OBSERVATIONS CONCERNING BEASTES, 117; for takinge of Gates or Geastes for

Beastes, 118; how we use to dispose of our Beastes in Summer time, 144.

APPENDIX A. The Account Book of Henry Best, of Elmswell, 149-164.

APPENDIX B. Elmswell and its Owners, 165-176.

GLOSSARY, 177-185.

ADDENDA, 186.

RURAL ECONOMY IN YORKSHIRE

IN 1641.

Tuppes are eyther

OF SHEEPE.

Sheepe is not onely a common name for both sexes, but is likewise putt and taken for all generally, as when men say a flocke, a keepinge, or a folde of sheepe:

!Tuppes, i. e. Rammes.
Weathers.
Riggons.

Hunge tuppea
Close tuppes.
Riggon tuppes.

Hunge tuppes are such as have both the stones in the cockle, and they onely are to bee kept for breeders; because of the experienced adage, omne anima1 generat sibi simi1e. Close tuppes are such as have both the stones in the ridge of the backe, and are therefore very difficult to geld. Riggon tuppes are such as have one stone in the codde, and the other in the ridge of the backe, and therefore the most dainger and difficidtie is in geldinge of these, beinge to bee cutt in two places before they can be made cleane weathers.

Howe To Knowe Tuppes From Wetheks.

If the tuppe be either close tuppe or riggon tuppe, yow may (if hee bee an horned tuppe) knowe him by the bignesse and greenesse of his hornes, whiche in a weather seeme deade, and are both smaller and shorter; but if hee bee a dodded tuppe, yow may knowe him best by the brantnesse of his foreheade, which appearith high and sharpe in the sj>ace l>etwixt eyebrow and the nose grissles; but in an ewe, or weather, seemeth low and flatte.

B

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