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LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS.

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1. Gateway at Labna...................... - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - Frontispio.

2. Great Mound near Miamisburg.................................. 16

8. Square Mound near Marietta................................... . 18

4. Works at Cedar Bank, Ohio..................................... 19

5. Works in Washington County, Mississippi...................... 20

6. Works at Hopeton, Ohio........................................ 22

7. Principal Figures of the Hopeton Works........................ 23

8. Graded Way near Piketon, Ohio ................................ 25

9. Great Serpent Inclosure........................................ 29 10. Fortified Hill, Butler County, Ohio.............................. 30 11. Stone-work in Paint Creek Valley, Ohio......................... 35 12. Work on North Fork of Paint Creek............................ 36 13. Ancient Work, Pike County, Ohio .............................. 38 14. Work near Brownsville, Ohio................................... 38 15. Works near Liberty, Ohio ........... - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - ... 39 16. Work in Randolph County, Indiana........................ ... . . 40 i. |vases from the Mounds....................................... 41 19. Ancient Mining Shaft..................................... - - - - - - 45 20. Pueblo Ruin at Pecos....................... - e - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 80 21. Modern Zuni................................................... 81 22. Ruins in the Valley of the Gila.................................. 83 23. Pueblo Building restored............... - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 87 24. Ground Plan of the Building.................................... 88 25. Arch of Los Monjas, Uxmal..................................... 98 26. Arch most common in the Ruins................................ 100 27. Casa No. 1, Palenque.................................... - - - - - - - - 107 28. Casa No. 2 (La Cruz), Palenque.................................. 108 29. Great Wall at Copan ........................................... 112 80. Ruins at Mitla.................................. . . . . . . . . . 116 81. Great Hall at Mitla............................................. 118 82. A ruined “Palace” at Mitla.................................... . 119 33. Mosaic Decoration at Mitla............ - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 120 34. Great Mound at Mayapan....................................... 127 85. Circular Edifice at Mayapan .................................... 129 86. Casa del Gobernador, Uxmal................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 132 87. Ground Plan ...................... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 132 88. Two-headed Figure at Uxmal.................. - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 133 - 1’ago Decorations over Doorway, Uxmal.............................. # . Ground Plan of Las Monjas, Uxmal.............................. 136 . Ruined Arch at Kabah. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 139 Casa Colorada, Chichen-Itza..................................... 141 Great Stone Ring.............................. * - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 143 . Great Mound at Xcoch ........... - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - ... 145

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Bottom of an Aguada. . . . . . . . . . . . . - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 146 Subterranean Reservoir.................... - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 147 Plan of the Walls of Tuloom.................................... 148 Watch-tower at Tuloom....... - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 149 Specimen of Inscriptions on Stone................ ------........ 190 Specimen of the Manuscript Writing.............------......... 191 Ancient Masonry at Cuzco...................................... 227 52. Ruins of a “Temple” on the Island of Titicaca.................. 228 53. Ruin on the Island of Titicaca ........ - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 229 54. Ruin on the Island of Coati......... - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 231 55. Monolithic Gateway at Tiahuanaco.............................. 233 56. Remains of Fortress Walls at Cuzco............... * - - - - - - - - - - - - - 234

57. End View of Fortress Walls at Cuzco.............

58. End View of Walls at Gran-Chimu............ - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

: |Decorations at Chimu-Canchu 61. Edifice at Old Huanuco...................... - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 239 62. Ground Plan of the Edifice ............... - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 240 63. “Look-out” at Old Huanuco ............................ - - - - - - - 240 64. Ruins at Pachacamac .......................................... . 243 65. Peruvian Copper Knives........................................ 249 66. Copper Tweezers.................. - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 249 67. Golden Vase of Ancient Peru .......... - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 251 68. Ancient Peruvian Silver Vase.............. - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 251 69. Ancient Peruvian Pottery..... - - - - - - - • - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - . 253

70. Ancient Peruvian Pottery..................... - - - - - - - - - o: 253

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A NCIENT A MERIC A.

I.

THE MOUND-BUILDERS.

ONE of the most learned writers on American antiquities, a Frenchman, speaking of discoveries in Peru, exclaims, “America is to be again discovered ' We must remove the veil in which Spanish politics has sought to bury its ancient civilization P’ In this case, quite as much is due to the ignorance, indifference, unscrupulous greed, and religious fanaticism of the Spaniards, as to Spanish politics. The gold-hunting marauders who subjugated Mexico and Peru could be robbers and destroyers, but they were not qualified in any respect to become intelligent students of American antiquity. What a select company of investigators, such as could be organized in our time, might have done in Mexico and Central America, for instance, three hundred and fifty years ago, is easily understood. In what they did, and in what they failed to do, the Spaniards who went there acted in strict accordance with such character as they had ; and yet we

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are not wholly without obligation to some of the more intelligent Spaniards connected with the Conquest.

There are existing monuments of an American ancient history which invite study, and most of which might, doubtless, have been studied more successfully in the first part of the sixteenth century, before nearly all the old books of Central America had been destroyed by Spanish fanaticism, than at present. Remains of ancient civilizations, differing to some extent in degree and character, are found in three great sections of the American continent: the west side of South America, between Chili and the first or second degree of north latitude; Central America and Mexico; and the valleys of the Mississippi and the Ohio. These regions have all been explored to some extent—not completely, but sufficiently to show the significance and importance of their archaeological remains, most of which were already mysterious antiquities when the continent was discovered by Columbus. I propose to give some account of these antiquities, not for the edification of those already learned in American archaeology, but for general readers who have not made the subject a study. My sketches will begin with the Mississippi Valley and the regions connected with it.

THE MOUND-BUILDERS–THEIR WORKS.

An ancient and unknown people left remains of set. tled life, and of a certain degree of civilization, in the valleys of the Mississippi and its tributaries. We have no authentic name for them either as a nation or a race;

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