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...And advises him to go to Legality. 35

their shoulders; yea, to my knowledge he hath done a great deal of good this way : aye, and besides, he hath skill to cure those that are somewhat crazed in their wits with their burdens. To him, as I said, thou mayest go and be helped presently. His house is not quite a mile from this place; and if he should not be at home himself, he hath a pretty young man to his son, whose name is Civility, that can do it, to speak on) as well as the old gentleman himself. There,

say, thou mayest be eased of thy burden ; and if thou art not minded to go back to thy former habitation, as indeed I would not wish thee, thou mayest send for thy wife and children to thee to this village; where there are houses now stand empty, one of which thou mayest have at reasonable rates. Provision is there also cheap and good ; and that which will make thy life more happy, is to be sure there thou shalt live by honest neighbours in credit and good fashion.(q)

Now was Christian somewhat at a stand; but present

he concluded, If this be true which this gentleman has . 36 Christian sets out for JMorality.

(*) The village Morality represents that large company, who, in nations favoured with revelation, abstain from scandalous vices, and practise reputable duties, without any genuine fear or love of God, or regard to his authority or glory. This decency of conduct, connected with a system of notions, and a stint of external worship, is substituted in the place of Christianity: but it is faulty in its principle, its measure, and its object. It results wholly from self-love; it is restricted to the outward observance of some scriptural precepts, while the rest are disregarded ; and it aims principally at the acquisition of reputation, or temporal advantages, with only a subordinate respect even to the interests of eternity. It is entirely different from humble, cheerful, unreserved obedience; it leaves the heart in the possession of some worldly idol ; and never constitutes a spiritual worshipper, or renders a man meet for the pleasures of heaven. Yet this mutilated religion draws multitudes off from attending either to the holy requirements of the law, or the humbling doctrines of ule gospel. The most noted inhabitant of this village derives his name, Legality, not from making the law of God his rule and standard, (for “by the law is the knowledge of sin,” which tends to increase the convinced sinner's distress;) but from his teaching men, to depend on a defective obedience to a small part of the law, falsely explained, according to the method of the scribes and pharisees. These teachers, however, are admired by the wise men of this world, and are deemed very skilful in relieving troubled consciences, and recovering men from religious distractions !-Civility represents those who persuade themselves and others, that a decent, benevolent, and obliging behaviour, will secure men from all future punishment, and insure an inheritance in heaven, if indeed there be any such place t Counsellors of this description can ease the consciences of ignorant persons, who superficially alarmed, almost as well as those who superadd a form of godliness. a few doctrinal opinions, and a regard to some precepts of Christianity. Both are at hand in every place: and the wise men of this world are zealous in recommending them : observing, that no doubt the immoral and proligat should reform their lives; as this will please their relatives, and conduce to their advantage; but the strait Gate and the narrow Way would prove their ruin ' Must Pilgrims aro assailed by such counsellors ; and few are able to detect the falla

ey of their reasonings till their own folly corrects them.

my wisest course is to take his advice; and with that he thus farther spoke. Chr. §: which is my way to this honest man's house P World. Do you see yonder high hill P Chr. Yes, very well. World. By that hill you must go, and the first you come at is his. So Christian turned out of his way to go to Mr. Legality's house for help. But behold when he was got now hard by the hill, it seemed so high, and also that side of it that was next the way side did hang so much over, that Christian was afraid to venture further, lest the hill should fall on his head; wherefore there he stood still and he wot not what to do. Also his burden now seemed heavier to him than while he was in his way. There came also flashes of fire out of the hill, that made Christian afraid that he should be burned ;* here therefore he did sweat and quake for fear. And now he began to be sorry that he had taken Mr. Worldly-wiseman’s counsel. And with that he saw Evangelist coming to meet him ; at the sight also of whom he began to blush for shame. So Evangelist drew nearer and nearer; and coming up to him he looked upon him with a severe and dreadful countenance, and thus began to reason with Christian. “What doest thou here P’ said he. At which word Christian knew not what to answer; wherefore at present he stood speechless before him. Then said Evangelist further, “Art not thou the man that I found crying without the walls of the City of Destruction P’ (r) Chr. Yes, dear sir, I am the man. Evan. Did not I direct thee the way to the little Wicketgate P

* Exod. xix. 16–18. Heb. xii. 21.

(r) Christian must go past mount Sinai to the village Morality: not that such men, as depend on their own reformation and good works, pay a due regard to the holy law of God, for “they are alive without the law;” but they substitute their own scanty obedience in the place of the righteousness and atonement of Christ. They who are not humbled in true repentance, perceiving little danger, pass on securely; but the true penitent finds every attempt “to establish his own righteousness” entirely abortive: the more he compares his conduct and character with the divine law, the greater is his alarm; and he sometimes trembles lest its curses should immediately fall upon him, with vengeance more tremendous than the most awful thunder. Then the counsels of worldly wisdom appear in their true light, and the sinner is prepared to welcome free salvation: and should the minister, whose instructions he had forsaken, meet him, conscious shame would be added to his terror; and he would even be tempted to shun his faithful friend, through fear of merited reproof.

Evangelist sharply rebitkes Christian. ‘āī

Yes, dear Sir, said Christian. Evan. How is it then that thou art so quickly turned aside P for thou art now out of the way.

Chr. I met with a gentleman so soon as I had got over the Slough of Despond, who persuaded me that I might, in the village before me, find a man that could take off my burden. Evan. What was he 8 Chr. He looked like a gentleman, and talked much to me, and got me at last to yield; so I came hither : but when I beheld this hill, and how it hangs over the way, I suddenly made a stand lest it should fall on my head. Evan. What said that gentleman to you ?

Chr. Why he asked me whither I was going; and I told him.

Evan. And what said he then &

Chr. He asked me if I had a family, and I told him: but, said I, I am so loaden with the burden that is on my back, that I cannot take pleasure in them as formerly,

Evan. And what said he then #

Chr. He bid me with speed get rid of my burden, and I told him 'twas ease that I sought: and, said I, I am therefore going to yonder Gate to receive further direction how I may get to the place of deliverance. So he said that he would shew me a better way, and short, not so attended with difficulties, as the way, Sir, that you set me; which way said he, will direct you to a gentleman's house, that hath ji to take off these burdens. So I believed him, and turned out of that way into this, if haply I might be soon eased of my burden : but when I came to this place, and beheld things as they are, I stopped for fear, as I said, of danger : but I now know not what to do.

Then, said Evangelist, stand still a little, that I may shew thee the words of God.—So he stood trembling. Then, said Evangelist, “See that ye refuse not him that speaketh, for if they escaped not, who refused him that spake on earth, much inore . not we escape, if we turn away from him that speaketh from heaven.” He said moreover, “Now the just shall live by faith; but if any man draws back, my soul slall have no pleasure in him.”f He also did thus apply them. Thou art the man, that art running into this misery. Thou hast begun to reject the counsel of the Most High, and to

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38 Evangelist refutes Worldly-wiseman's Counsel.

draw back thy foot from the way of peace, even almost to the

hazarding of thy perdition. Then Christian fell down at his foot as dead, cr ing, Wo

is me, for I am undone. At the sight of which £o

caught him by the right hand, saying, “All manner of sin

and blasphemies, shall be forgiven unto men :” “Be not faithless, but believing.” Then did Christian again a little revive, and stood up trembling, as at first, before Evangelist. (s

e o know proceeded, saying, “Give more earnest heed to the things” that I shall tell thee of . I will now shew thee who it was that deluded thee, and who 'twas also to whom he sent thee. The man that met thee is one Worldly-wiseman, and rightly is he so called; partly because he favoureth only the doctrine of this world, f (therefore he always goes to the town of Morality to church ;) (t) and partEvangelist refutes Worldly-wiseman's Counsel. 39.

* Matt. xii. 31.-Mark iii. 28, 29. t1 John iv. 5. * = (s) It appears from this passage, that the author judged it right, in dealing with persons under great terror of conscience, to aim at preparing them for solid peace, rather than hastily giving them comfrt.-Men may be greatly dismayed, and in some degree humbled, and yet not be duly so sible of the heinousness and aggravations of their guilt. In this case, further instructions are needful to excite them to proper diligence and self-denial,and to make way for abiding peace and consolation. Whereas, a compassionate, but injudicious method, of proposing consolatory topicks indiscriminately to all under trouble of conscience, lulls many into a fatal sleep, and gives others a transient peace which soon terminates in deeper despondency: as a wound, hastily skinned over by an ignorant practitioner, instead of being effectually cured by the patient attention of a skilful surgeon, will soon become worse than before. The communication of more knowledge may indeed augment a man's terror and distress; but if it produce a deeper humiliation, it will effectually warn him against carnal counsellors and false dependences—Turning aside from the gospel implies a direct refusal to hearken to Christ ; and all who do thus, run intomisery and leave the way of peace, to the hazard of their souls.” These denunciations are despised by the stouthearted, but the contrite in spirit, when consciously guilty, if thus addressed, would fall into despair, did not the ministers of Christ encourage them by the grace of the gospel. The following lines are here inserted, as before, in the old editions:“When Christiáns unto carnal men give ear, Out of their way they go, and pay for’t dear: For Master Worldly-wiseman can but show A saint the way to bondage and to wo.’

(i) Worldly-wiseman goes to church at the town of Morality: for the persons here reprosented, in great measure support their confidence and reputation for religion by attending on those preachers, who substitute a proud scanty morality in the place of the gospel. This both flatters their self-preference, and coincides with their carnal pursuits: and they verily think they have found out the secret of reconciling the friendship of the world with the favour of God; and set up for teachers of the same convenient system.

* Gal. v. 4.


ly, because he loveth that doctrine best, for it saveth him from the cross;” and because he is of this carnal temper, therefore he seeketh to pervert my ways, though right. Now there are three things in this man's counsel that thou must utterly abhor:-His turning thee out of the way;-His labouring to render the cross odious to mee;—And his setting thy feet in that way that leadeth unto the administration of Death. First, Thou must abhor his turning thee out of the way : yea, and thine own consenting thereto : because this is to reject the counsel of God, for the sake of the counsel of a Worldly-wiseman. The Lord says, “Strive to enter in at the strait gate,”, (the Gate to which I sent thee;) “for strait is the gate that leadeth unto life, and few there be that find it.”f From this little Wicket-gate, and from the way thereto hath this wicked man turned thee, to the bringing of thee almost to destruction: hate therefore his turning thee out of the way, and abhor thyself for hearkening to him. Secondly, Thou must abhor his labouring to render the cross odious unto thee; “for thou art to prefer it before the treasures of Egypt:”# besides, the King of Glory hath told thee, that, “he that will save his life shall lose it;” and, “he that comes after him, and hates not his father, and mother, and wife, and children, and brethren, and sisters, yea, and his own life also, he cannot be my disciple.”$ I say therefore, for a man to labour to persuade thee, that that shall be thy death, without which the Truth has said, thou canst not have eternal life;—This doctrine theu must abhor. Thirdly, Thou must hate his setting of thy feet in the way that leadeth to the ministration of death. And for this thou must consider to whom he sent thee, and also how unable that person was to deliver thee from thy burden. He to whom thou wast sent for ease, being by name Legality, is the son of the bond-woman, which now is, and is in bondage with her children; and is in a mystery this Mount Sinai, which thou hast feared will fall on thy head. Now if she with her children are in bondage, how canst thou expect by them to be made free ? This Legality therefore is not able to set thee free from thy burden. No man was as yet ever rid of his burden by him; no, nor ever is like to be : “Ye

* Gal. vi. 12. +Matt. vii. 13, 14.—Luke xiii. 24. Heb. xi. 25, 26. ; Matt. x. 39. Mark viii. 34, 35. Luke xiv. 26, 37. John xii. 25. 1 Gal. iv. 21-37.

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