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AT NORWICH, A. D. 1389. English : Toulmin Smith, English Gilds, pp. 19–21. To the most excellent prince and lord, our lord Richard, by the grace of God, king of England and France, and to his council in his chancery, his humble lieges, the guardians of a certain fraternity of St. Katharine the virgin and martyr, in the church of St. Simon and St. Jude in Norwich, all subjection and reverence and honor. By virtue of a certain proclamation recently made according to royal command by the sheriff of the county of Norfolk at Norwich, we certify to your excellency according to the form of the aforesaid proclamation, that our aforesaid fraternity was founded in the year 1307, by certain parishioners of the said church, and by others devoted to God, to the honor of the Holy Trinity, and of the blessed Virgin Mary, and of St. Katharine the virgin and martyr, and of all saints, and for keeping up an increase of light in the said Church; under certain ordinances made and issued with common consent of the brothers and sisters of the aforesaid fraternity. The tenor of these ordinances follows in these words.

In the first place with one assent it is ordained that all the brethren and sisters of this gild shall come together to the parish church of St. Simon and St. Jude, in Norwich, on the day of St. Katharine, to go in the procession with their candle, which is borne before them, and to hear the mass of St. Katharine in the aforesaid church; and at that mass every brother and sister shall offer a half-penny.

And also it is ordained that what brother or sister shall be absent at the procession aforesaid, or at mass, or at offering, he shall pay to the chattels of the gild two pounds of wax, but they may be excused reasonably.

And also it is ordained, that where a brother or a sister is dead, and every

brother and sister shall come to dirige and to mass; and at the mass, each shall offer a half-penny, and give a half-penny to alms ; and for a mass to be sung for the soul of the dead, a penny. And at the dirige, every brother and sister that is lettered shall say, for the soul of the dead, placebo and dirige, in the place where they shall come together; and every brother and sister that is not lettered shall say for the soul of the dead, twenty times, the Paternoster, with ave Maria; and from the chattels of the gild shall there be two candles of wax, of sixteen pounds weight, about the body of the dead.

And also it is ordained, that if any brother or sister die out of the city of Norwich, within eight miles, six of the brethren that have the chattels of the gild in keeping, shall go to that brother or sister that s dead; and if it be lawful, they shall carry it to Norwich, or else it be buried there; and if the body be buried out of Norwich, all the brethren and sisters shall be warned to come to the foresaid church of St. Simon and St. Jude, and there shall be done for the soul of the dead ali service, light and offering as if the body were there present. And what brother or sister be absent at placebo and dirige, or at mass, he shall pay two pounds of wax to the chattels of the gild, unless he be reasonably excused.

And nevertheless he shall do for the dead as it is said before.

And also it is ordained that, on the morrow after the gild day all the brethren and sisters shall come to the aforesaid church, and there sing a mass of requiem for the souls of the brethren and sisters of this gild, and for all Christian souls, and each offer there a farthing. And whoso is absent he shall pay a pound of wax.

And also it is ordained that if any brother or sister fall into poverty, through adventure of the world, his estate shall be helped by every brother and sister of the gild, with a farthing in the week.

And also it is ordained by common assent that if there be any discord between brothers and sisters, that discord shall be first showed to other brothers and sisters of the gild, and by them shall accord be made, if it may be skillfully. And if they cannot be so brought to accord, it shall be lawful to them to go to the common law, without

any maintenance. And whoso does against this ordinance, he shall pay two pounds of wax to the light.

Also it is ordained, by common assent, that if any brother of this gild be chosen into office and refuse it, he shall pay two pounds of wax to the light of St. Katharine.

Also it is ordained, by common assent, that the brethren and sisters of this gild, in the worship of St. Katharine, shall have a livery of hoods in suit, and eat together in their gild day, at their common cost ; and whoso fails, he shall pay two pounds of wax to the light.

Also it is ordained, by common assent, that no brother or sister shall be received into this gild but by the alderman and twelve brethren of the gild.

And as to the goods and chattels of the said fraternity, we make known to your excellency, likewise, that we the aforesaid guardians, have in our custody, for the use of the said fraternity, twenty shillings of silver.


Gross, Charles : A Bibliography of British Municipal History, including

Gilds and Parliamentary Representation. I vol. New York, 1897. This is a remarkably complete list of all works on the subjects indicated by the title, accompanied with valuable comments and criticism.

Gross, Charles : The Gild Merchant. 2 vols. Oxford, 1890.

The standard work on the subject.

Ashley, W.J.: English Economic History. 2 vols. New York, 1892.

The second chapter of the first volume gives an outline account of the mediæval towns and gilds; and the first three chapters of the second volume present a much more detailed and quite original study of the changes of the fourteenth, fifteenth and sixteenth centuries.

Cunningham, W.: Growth of English Industry and Commerce. 2 vols.

Cambridge, 1890. Scattered through these two volumes is much valuable discussion of the subject, especially of the craft gilds.

Seligman, E. R. A.: Two Chapters on the Mediæval Gilds. Publications of

the American Economic Association, Vol. II, No. 5. Baltimore, 1887.

Smith, J. T.: English Gilds. Publications of the Early English Text So

ciety. London, 1870. An edition of the original ordinances, statutes, and customs of certain towns and craft and religious gilds, especially of the fourteenth century.

Brentano, L. J.: On the History and Development of Gilds.

An introductory essay to the preceding publication, but subsequently published separately.

the ears, fell down to his shoulders. He had on a strait coat, closely buttoned

up, decorated with a very narrow gold embroidery, and wore a tri-colored plume in his hat. At first glance the face did not seem to me a fine one, but the striking features, a quick and searching eye, and abrupt, animated gestures, proclaimed an ardent soul, while the broad, serious forehead showed a deep thinker. He had me sit down by him and we talked about Italy. His speech was quick and at this time very incorrect.

On the 13th of Prairial (June 1st) I found Bonaparte at the mag. nificent residence of Montebello,' in the midst of a brilliant court rather than the headquarters of an army. Severe etiquette was already maintained in his presence. His aides-de-camp and officers were no longer received at his table and he exercised great care in the choice of those whom he did admit, so that to sit down with him was considered a rare honor, to be obtained only with difficulty. He dined so to speak in public, and during the meal the inhabitants of the country were admitted to the dining room and allowed to feast their eyes upon him. He showed himself, however, in no way embarrassed or confused by this exhibition of esteem, and received them as if he had always been accustomed to such tributes. His salons and a great canopy which he had had raised in front of the palace toward the gardens, were constantly filled with a throng of generals, officials, and purveyors, as well as the highest nobility and the most distinguished men of Italy who came to solicit the favor of a glance or a moment's conversation.

Bonaparte took us for a walk in the extensive gardens of his beautiful residence. The promenade lasted toward two hours, during which the general talked almost continuously.

« What I have done so for is nothing," he said to us ; “I am but at the opening of the career I am to run. Do you suppose that I have gained my victories in Italy in order to advance the lawyers of the Directory, the Carnots and the Barras ? Do you think, either, that my object is to establish a Republic? What a notion! A republic of thirty million people, with our morals and vices ! How could that ever be? It is a chimera with which the French are infatuated but which will pass away in time like all the others. What they want is glory and the gratification of their vanity ; as for liberty, of that they have no conception. Look at

1 The interview here described took place a year later (1797) than that mentioned in the preceding extract. Montebello is a villa just out of Milan.

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