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all the territory belonging to the Germanic Empire as far as his hereditary possessions.

ART. XIV.—The present secret articles shall have the same force as if they were inserted word for word in the open treaty of peace signed to-day. These shall be ratified at the same time by the contracting parties and the acts of ratification shall be exchanged in due form at Rastadt.

Done and signed at Campo Formio, October 17, 1797. (The 27th Vendémiaire of the year six of the French Republic, One and Indivisible.)


THE PEACE OF LUNÉVILLE OF 1801. From the French version given by P. A. G. von Meyer; Corpus juris Confoederationis Germanicæ, 2d ed., Vol. I, pp. 2 sqq.

His Majesty the Emperor, the King of Hungary and of Bohemia, and the First Consul of the French Republic, in the name of the French people, induced by a common desire to put an end to the evils of war, have resolved to proceed to the conclusion of a definitive treaty of peace and amity. His said Imperial and Royal Majesty desiring no less sincerely to extend the benefits of peace to the German Empire, and the existing conditions not affording the necessary time for consulting the Empire, or permitting its representatives to take part in the negotiations, has resolved, in view of the concessions made by the Deputation of the Empire at the recent Congress of Rastadt, to treat in the name of the German Union, as has happened before under similar circumstances.

Hence the contracting parties have named the following as their plenipotentiaries :

His Imperial and Royal Majesty, the Sieur Louis, Count of Cobenzl, Minister of Conferences and Vice Chancellor of the Court and of State, etc.

The First Consul of the French Republic, in the name of the French people, Citizen Joseph Bonaparte, Councillor of State. These having exchanged their credentials, have agreed upon the following Articles :

ARTICLE I.-Peace, amity and a good understanding shall hereafter exist forever between His Majesty the Emperor, King of Hungary and of Bohemia, acting both in his own name and in that of the German Empire, and the French Republic ; His Majesty agreeing that the said Empire shall ratify the present treaty in due form. The contracting parties shall make every effort to maintain a perfect agreement between themselves, and to prevent the commission of any acts of hostility by land or sea upon any ground or pretence whatsoever ; striving in every way to maintain the concord thus happily re-established. No aid or protection shall be given either directly or indirectly to any one attempting to injure either of the contracting parties.

ART. II.—The cession of the former Belgian Provinces to the French Republic, stipulated in Article III of the Treaty of Campo Formio, is renewed here in the most solemn manner, His Majesty the Emperor and King therefore renounces for himself and his successors, as well on his own part as on that of the German Empire, all right and title to the above specified provinces, which shall be held in perpetuity by the French Republic in full sovereignty and proprietary right, together with all territorial possessions belonging to them. His Imperial and Royal Majesty cedes likewise to the French Republic, with the due consent of the Empire : 1. The County of Falkenstein with its dependencies ; 2. The Frickthal and all the territory upon the left bank of the Rhine between Zurzach and Basle belonging to the House of Austria ; the French Republic reserving the future cession of this district to the Helvetian Republic.

ART. III.—Moreover, in confirmation of Article VI of the Treaty of Campo Formio, His Majesty the Emperor and King shall possess in full sovereignty and proprietary right the countries enumerated below, to wit : Istria, Dalmatia and the Islands of the Adriatic, formerly belonging to Venice, dependent upon them; the Mouths of the Cattaro, the City of Venice, the Lagunes, and the territory included between the hereditary States of His Majesty the Emperor and King, the Adriatic Sea and the Adige from the point where it leaves Tyrol to that where it flows into the Adriatic, the thalweg of the Adige forming the bound

1 A technical term of international law meaning the centre of the deepest channel of a navigable stream.

ary line. And since by this line the cities of Verona and Porto-Legnago are separated into two parts, draw-bridges indicating the frontier shall be established in the middle of the bridges connecting the two parts of the said towns.

Art. IV.-Article XVIII of the Treaty of Campo Formio is likewise renewed inasmuch as His Majesty the Emperor and King agrees to cede to the Duke of Modena, as an indemnity for the territory which this prince and his heirs possessed in Italy, the Breisgau, which he shall possess upon the same conditions as those upon which he held Modena.

ART. V.—It is farther agreed that His Royal Highness the Grand Duke of Tuscany shall renounce for himself, his successors or possible claimants, the Grand Duchy of Tuscany and that part of the Island of Elba belonging to it, as well as all rights and titles resulting from the possession of the said states, which shall hereafter be held in full sovereignty and proprietary right by His Royal Highness the Infante Duke of Parma. The Grand Duke shall receive a complete and full indemnity in Germany for the loss of his states in Italy. The Grand Duke shall dispose according to his pleasure of such possessions as he holds, particularly in Tuscany, whether by personal acquisition or by inheriting the personal acquisitions of the late emperor his father, His Majesty the Emperor Leopold II, or his grandfather, the Emperor Francis I. It is farther agreed that debts due the state, public institutions or other property of the Grand Duchy, as well as the debts duly secured by mortgage upon this country, shall pass to the new Grand Duke.

ART. VI.-His Majesty the Emperor and King, consents not only on his part but upon the part of the German Empire that the French Republic shall hereafter possess in full sovereignty and proprietary right the territory and domains lying on the left bank of the Rhine and forming a part of the German Empire, so that, in conformity with the concessions granted by the Deputation of the Empire at the Congress of Rastadt and approved by the Emperor, the Thalweg of the Rhine shall hereafter form the boundary between the French Republic and the German Empire from that point where the Rhine leaves Helvetian territory to the point where it reaches Batavian territory. In view of this the French Republic formally renounces all possessions whatsoever upon the right bank of the Rhine and agrees to restore to their owners the following places: Düsseldorf, Ehrenbreitstein, Philippsburg, the fortress of Cassel and other fortifications across from Mainz on the right bank of the stream, and the fortress of Kehl and Alt Breisach, under the express provision that these places and forts shall continue to exist in the condition in which they are left at the time of the evacuation.

ART. VII.—Since in consequence of this cession made by the Empire to the French Republic various Princes and States of the Empire find themselves individually dispossessed in part or wholly of their territory, while the German Empire should collectively support the losses resulting from the stipulations of the present treaty, it is agreed between His Majesty the Emperor and King (both on his part and upon the part of the German Empire) and the French Republic that, in accordance with the principles laid down at the Congress of Rastadt the Empire shall be bound to furnish the hereditary princes who have lost possessions upon the left bank of the Rhine an indemnity within the Empire, according to such arrangements as shall be determined later in accordance with the stipulations here made.

ART. VIII-IX.-[Relate to financial matters.]

ART. X.-The contracting parties shall also raise all sequestrations due to the war, placed upon the goods, dues or revenues of the subjects of His Majesty the Emperor, or of the Empire, within the territory of the French Republic, or of French citizens in the territories of His said Majesty or of the Empire.

Art. XI.—The present treaty of peace, especially Articles VIII, IX, X and XV (below), is declared to be common to the Batavian, Helvetian, Cisalpine and Ligurian Republics. The contracting parties mutually guarantee the independence of the said republics and the freedom of the inhabitants of the said countries to adopt such form of government as they shall see fit.

ART. XII.- His Majesty the Emperor and King renounces for himself and for his successors in favor of the Cisalpine Republic all rights and titles depending upon such rights, which His Majesty might assert over the territories in Italy which he possessed before the war and which, according to the terms of Article VIII of the Treaty of Campo Formio, now form a part of the Cisalpine Republic which shall hold them in full sovereign and proprietary right together with all the territorial possessions dependent upon them.

ART. XIII.—His Majesty the Emperor and King confirms both in his own name and in the name of the German Empire the sanction already given by the Treaty of Campo Formio to the union of the former Imperial Fiefs to the Ligurian Republic and renounces all claims and titles resulting from these claims upon the said fiefs.

Art. XIV.-In accordance with Article XI of the Treaty of Campo Formio the navigation of the Adige, forming the boundary between the territory of his Imperial and Royal Majesty and of the Cisalpine Republic, shall be free, and neither government may establish there

any tolls or maintain any vessel of war.

ART. XV.-All prisoners of war made by either party, as well as hostages given or received during the war who have not yet been returned, shall be given back during the forty days following the date of the signature of the present treaty.

ART. XVI.-[Relates to the disposal of the personal possessions of the dispossessed Austrian princes in Italy.]

ART. XVII.- Articles XII, XIII, XV, XVI, XVII and XXIII of the Treaty of Campo Formio are particularly to be mentioned in order that their provisions may be fully executed as if they were inserted word for word in the present treaty.

ART. XVIII.-No farther exactions of military supplies or of contributions of any kind shall be made after the date upon which the ratifications of the present treaty shall be exchanged between His Majesty the Emperor and the German Empire upon the one hand, and the French Republic upon the other.

ART. XIX.—The present treaty shall be ratified by His Majesty the Emperor and King, the Empire and the French Republic within a period of thirty days, or sooner, if possible, and it is farther understood that the armies of the two powers shall remain in their present positions both in Germany and Italy until the said ratifications of the Emperor and King, of the Empire and of the French Republic shall have been simultaneously exchanged at Lunéville between the respective plenipotentiaries. It is also agreed that within ten days after the exchange of the said ratifications, the armies of His Imperial and Royal Majesty shall be withdrawn into his hereditary possessions, which shall be evacuated within the same space of time by the French armies ; and within thirty days after the said exchange the French armies shall have completely evacuated the territory of the said Empire.

Done and signed at Lunéville, February 9, 1801. (The 20th Pluviôse of the year Nine of the French Republic.)



JOSEPH BONAPARTE." 1 The promulgation and ratification, in Latin, of the above Articles by the Emperor are omitted. The treaty was ratified by the Imperial Diet at Regensburg. March 7, 1801.

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