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DISSOLUTION OF THE HOLY ROMAN EMPIRE.

In no country were the effects of Napoleon's policy more striking or important than in Germany. The cession of the Left Bank of the Rhine implied a complete territorial reconstruction of the remainder of Germany, since the dispossessed princes were to be indemnified within the Empire. This led to the great Imperial Recess (Reichsdeputationshauptschluss) of 1803. The ecclesiastical states and the free imperial towns were, with few exceptions, incorporated in the neighboring states. The map of Germany was in this way much simplified, especially as the knights were within a few years illegally deprived of their independence by the newly created “ sovereigns" within whose dominions their territories lay. The treaty of Pressburg recognized the rulers of Bavaria and Würtemberg as kings and (article 14) provided that they, with the elector of Baden, should enjoy " the plenitude of sovereignty” and all rights derived therefrom precisely as did the Emperor and the king of Prussia. Nor was the Emperor to hinder in any way any manifestation of this sovereignty. This, by explicitly abolishing the dependence of its members, rendered the existence of the old Imperial union impossible. The Constitution of the Confederation of the Rhine was drawn up at Paris, the future members being allowed very little influence in its formation. Napoleon had no desire to unify Germany but wished to maintain several independent states or groups of states which could be easily controlled. The characteristic document given below was the method taken of informing the Diet of the creation of the new Confederation of the Rhine. This was almost immediately followed by the abdication of the Emperor, who in this way, formally put an end to the most imposing office, with that of the Pope, ever conceived by political thinkers.

Droysen's Historischer Handatlas, map 45, gives a clear view of the changes in 1803. Many more changes looking toward a farther simplification of Germany are found in the Act of the Confederation of the Rhine. Häusser Deutsche Geschichte II 657 gives an admirable account of the formation of this union. The best special maps of Würtemberg, Bavaria and Baden before the unification are to be found in the later editions of Putzger's Historischer Handatlas (costing only two marks).

THE MESSAGE OF NAPOLEON ANNOUNCING TO THE DIET THE FORMATION OF THE CONFEDERA.

TION OF THE RHINE.

August 1,1806. From the French, Meyer Corpus juris Confoederationis Germanicæ, 2nd. Ed. I, 101

seq., also Martens' Recueil, VIII, 492. The undersigned, chargé d'affaires of His Majesty the Emperor of the French and King of Italy at the general Diet of the German Empire, has received orders from His Majesty to make the following declarations to the diet:

claims and titles resulting from these claims upon the said fiefs.

ART. XIV.-In accordance with Article XI of the Treaty of Campo Formio the navigation of the Adige, forming the boundary between the territory of his Imperial and Royal Majesty and of the Cisalpine Republic, shall be free, and neither government may establish there any tolls or maintain

any

vessel of war. ART. XV.-All prisoners of war made by either party, as well as hostages given or received during the war who have not yet been returned, shall be given back during the forty days following the date of the signature of the present treaty.

Art. XVI. - [Relates to the disposal of the personal possessions of the dispossessed Austrian princes in Italy.]

ART. XVII.- Articles XII, XIII, XV, XVI, XVII and XXIII of the Treaty of Campo Formio are particularly to be mentioned in order that their provisions may be fully executed as if they were inserted word for word in the present treaty.

ART. XVIII.-No farther exactions of military supplies or of contributions of any kind shall be made after the date upon which the ratifications of the present treaty shall be exchanged between His Majesty the Emperor and the German Empire upon the one hand, and the French Republic upon the other.

ART. XIX.—The present treaty shall be ratified by His Majesty the Emperor and King, the Empire and the French Republic within a period of thirty days, or sooner, if possible, and it is farther understood that the armies of the two powers shall remain in their present positions both in Germany and Italy until the said ratifications of the Emperor and King, of the Empire and of the French Republic shall have been simultaneously exchanged at Lunéville between the respective plenipotentiaries. It is also agreed that within ten days after the exchange of the said ratifications, the armies of His Imperial and Royal Majesty shall be withdrawn into his hereditary possessions, which shall be evacuated within the same space of time by the French armies ; and within thirty days after the said exchange the French armies shall have completely evacuated the territory of the said Empire.

Done and signed at Lunéville, February 9, 1801. (The 20th Pluviôse of the year Nine of the French Republic.)

Signed,

Louis, COUNT OF COBENZL.

JOSEPH BONAPARTE. 1 The promulgation and ratification, in Latin, of the above Articles by the Emperor are omitted. The treaty was ratified by the Imperial Diet at Regensburg March 7, 1801.

DISSOLUTION OF THE HOLY ROMAN EMPIRE.

states,

In no country were the effects of Napoleon's policy more striking or important than in Germany. The cession of the Left Bank of the Rhine implied a complete territorial reconstruction of the remainder of Germany, since the dispossessed princes were to be indemnified within the Empire. This led to the great Imperial Recess (Reichsdeputationshauptschluss) of 1803. The ecclesiastical states and the free imperial towns were, with few exceptions, incorporated in the neighboring

The map of Germany was in this way much simplified, especially as the knights were within a few years illegally deprived of their independence by the newly created “sovereigns" within whose dominions their territories lay. The treaty of Pressburg recognized the rulers of Bavaria and Würtemberg as kings and (article 14) provided that they, with the elector of Baden, should enjoy “the pleni. tude of sovereignty” and all rights derived therefrom precisely as did the Emperor and the king of Prussia. Nor was the Emperor to hinder in any way any mani. festation of this sovereignty. This, by explicitly abolishing the dependence of its members, rendered the existence of the old Imperial union impossible. The Constitution of the Confederation of the Rhine was drawn up at Paris, the future members being allowed very little influence in its formation. Napoleon had no desire to unify Germany but wished to maintain several independent states or groups of states which could be easily controlled. The characteristic document given below was the method taken of informing the Diet of the creation of the new Confederation of the Rhine. This was almost immediately followed by the abdication of the Emperor, who in this way, formally put an end to the most imposing office, with that of the Pope, ever conceived by political thinkers.

Droysen's Historischer Handatlas, map 45, gives a clear view of the changes in 1803. Many more changes looking toward a farther simplification of Germany are found in the Act of the Confederation of the Rhine, Häusser Deutsche Geschichte II 657 gives an admirable account of the formation of this union. The best special maps of Würtemberg, Bavaria and Baden before the unification are to be found in the later editions of Putzger's Historischer Handatlas (costing only two marks).

THE MESSAGE OF NAPOLEON ANNOUNCING TO THE DIET THE FORMATION OF THE CONFEDERA

TION OF THE RHINE.

August 1, 1806. From the French, Meyer Corpus juris Confoederationis Germanicæ, 2nd. Ed. I, 101

seq., also Martens' Recueil, VIII, 492. The undersigned, chargé d'affaires of His Majesty the Emperor of the French and King of Italy at the general Diet of the German Empire, has received orders from His Majesty to make the following declarations to the diet:

Their Majesties the Kings of Bavaria and of Würtemberg, the Sovereign Princes of Regensburg, Baden, Berg, Hesse-Darmstadt and Nassau, as well as the other leading princes of the south and west of Germany have resolved to form a confederation between themselves which shall secure them against future emergencies, and have thus ceased to be states of the Empire.

The position in which the Treaty of Pressburg has explicitly placed the courts allied to France, and indirectly those princes whose territory they border or surround, being incompatible with the existence of an empire, it becomes a necessity for those rulers to reorganize their relations upon a new system and to remove a contradiction which could not fail to be a permanent source of agitation, disquiet and danger.

France, on the other hand, is directly interested in the maintenance of peace in Southern Germany and yet must apprehend that, the moment she shall cause her troops to recross the Rhine, discord, the inevitable consequence of contradictory, uncertain and ill-defined conditions, will again disturb the peace of the people and reopen, possibly, the war on the continent. Feeling it incumbent upon her to advance the welfare of her allies and to assure them the enjoyment of all the advantages which the Treaty of Pressburg secures them and to which she is pledged, France cannot but regard the confederation that they have formed as a natural result and a necessary sequel to that treaty.

For a long period successive changes have, from century to century, reduced the German constitution to a shadow of its former self. Time has altered all the relations in respect to size and importance which originally existed among the various members of the confederation, both as regards each other and the whole of which they have formed a part.

The Diet has no longer a will of its own. The sentences of the superior courts can no longer be executed. Everything indicates such serious weakness that the federal bond no longer offers any protection whatever and only constitutes a source of dissension and discord between the powers.

The results of three coalitions have increased this weakness to the last degree. An electorate has been suppressed by the annexation of Hanover to Prussia. A king in the north has incorporated with his other lands a province of the Empire: The Treaty of Pressburg assures complete sovereignty to their majesties the Kings of Bavaria and of Würtemberg and to His Highness the Elector of Baden. This is a prerogative which the other electors will doubtless demand, and which they are justified in demanding ; but this is in harmony neither with the letter nor the spirit of the constitution of the Empire.

1 The confederation was joined from time to time by many more German states.

* This probably refers to the incorporation of Pomerania by the King of Sweden (June 1806).

His Majesty the Emperor and King is, therefore, compelled to declare that he can no longer acknowledge the existence of the German Constitution, recognizing, however, the entire and absolute sovereignty of each of the princes whose states compose Germany to-day, maintaining with them the same relations as with the other independent powers of Europe.

His Majesty the Emperor and King has accepted the title of Protector of the Confederation of the Rhine. He has done this with a view only to peace, and in order that by his constant mediation between the weak and the powerful he may obviate every species of dissension and disorder.

Having thus provided for the dearest interests of his people and of his neighbors, and having assured, so far as in him lay, the future peace of Europe and that of Germany in particular, heretofore constantly the theatre of war, by removing a contradiction which placed people and princes alike under the delusive protection of a system contrary both to their political interests and to their treaties, His Majesty the Emperor and King trusts that the nations of Europe will at last close their ears to the insinuations of those who would maintain an eternal war upon the continent. He trusts that the French armies which have crossed the Rhine have done so for the last time, and that the people of Germany will no longer witness, except in the annals of the past, the horrible pictures of disorder, devastation and slaughter which war invariably brings with it.

His Majesty declared that he would never extend the limits of France beyond the Rhine and he has been faithful to his promise. At present his sole desire is so to employ the means which Providence has confided to him as to free the seas, restore the liberty of commerce and thus assure the peace and happiness of the world,

BACHER. Regensburg, August 1, 1806.

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