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Twenty-third Session, Chapter IV.-Inasmuch as in the sacrament of Orders, as also in Baptism and Confirmation, a character is imprinted which can neither be effaced nor taken away, this holy council with reason condemns the opinions of those who assert that the priests of the New Testament have only a temporary power; and that those who have once been properly ordained can again become laymen, if they do not exercise the ministry of God. And if anyone affirm that all Christians indiscriminately are priests of the New Testament, or that they are all mutually endowed with an equal spiritual power, he clearly does nothing but confound the ecclesiastical hierarchy,—which is “as an army set in array;"—as if, contrary to the doctrine of blessed Paul, “all were apostles, all prophets, all evangelists, all pastors, all doctors.” Wherefore this holy Synod declares that, besides the other ecclesiastical degrees, bishops, who have succeeded to the place of the apostles, especially belong to this hierarchical order ; that they are placed, as the same apostle says, “by the Holy Ghost, to rule the Church of God,” that they are superior to priests, administer the sacrament of Confirmation, ordain the ministers of the Church; and that they can perform very many other things, over which functions others of an inferior order bave no power. Furthermore, the sacred and holy synod teaches that, in the ordination of bishops, priests, and of the other orders, neither the consent, nor vocation, nor authority, whether of the people or of any civil power or magistrate whatsoever, is required in such wise that, without this, the ordination is invalid : nay, rather doth it decree that all those who being once called and instituted by the people, or by the civil power and magistrate, ascend to the exercise of the ministrations, and those who of their own rashness assume them to themselves, are not ministers of the Church, but are to be looked upon as “thieves and robbers, who have not entered by the door."
Twenty-third Session, Canon I.-If any one shall say that the New Testament does not provide for a distinct, visible priesthood, or that this priesthood has no power to consecrate and offer up the true body and blood of the Lord, or remit or refuse to remit sins, but that its sole function is that of preaching the Gospel, and that those who do not preach are not priests, let him be anathema.
Twenty-third Session, Canon IV.-If any one shall say that the Holy Spirit is not given by holy ordination and that consequently the Bishops say in vain “Receive ye the Holy Spirit," and that certain characteristics are not thereby conferred, or that he who has once been a priest can ever be made a layman again, let him be anathema.
Seventh Session, Of the Sacraments, Canon I.-If any one saith that the sacraments of the New Law were not all instituted by Jesus Christ, our Lord; or that they are more or less than seven, to-wit, Baptism, Confirmation, the Eucharist, Penance, Extreme Unction, Orders and Matrimony; or even that any one of these seven is not truly and properly a sacrament, let him be anathema.
Canon VI,—If anyone saith that the sacraments of the New Law do not contain the grace which they signify; or that they do not confer that grace on those who do not place an obstacle thereunto; as though they were merely outward signs of grace or justice received through faith, and certain marks of the Christian profession, whereby believers are distinguished amongst men from unbelievers, let him be anathema.
Canon VIII.-If anyone saith that by the said sacraments of the New Law grace is not conferred through the very performance of the act [ex opere operato], but that faith alone in the divine promise suffices for the obtaining of grace, let him be anathema.
Canon IX.-If anyone saith that in the three sacraments, to-wit, Baptism, Confirmation, and Orders, there is not imprinted in the soul a character, that is, a spiritual and indelible sign, on account of which they cannot be repeated, let him be anathema.
Canon X.-If anyone saith that all christians have power to administer the word and all the sacraments, let him be anathema.
Canon XII.-If anyone saith that a minister, being in mortal sinif so be that he observe all the essentials which belong to the effecting or conferring of the sacrament-neither effects nor confers the sacraments, let him be anathema.
Thirteenth Session, Chapter IV.-Since Christ our Redeemer declared that it was truly his body which he offered up in the form [sub specie] of bread, and since the Church has moreover always accepted this belief, this holy council declares once more that by the consecration of the bread and the wine the whole substance of the bread is converted into the substance of the body of Christ our Lord, and the whole substance of the wine into the substance of his blood, which change is aptly and properly termed transubstantiation by the Catholic Church.
Thirteenth Session, Canon I.-If any one shall deny that the body and blood of our Lord Jesus Christ together with his spirit and divinity, to-wit, Christ all in all, are not truly, really and materially contained in the holy sacrament of the Eucharist, and shall assert that the Eucharist is but a symbol or figure, let him be anathema.
Thirteenth Session, Canon VI.-If any one shall say that Christ, the only-begotten son of God, is not to be worshipped with the highest form of adoration (Latria] including external worship, in the holy sacrament of the Eucharist, or that the Eucharist should not be celebrated by a special festival, nor borne solemnly about in procession according to the praiseworthy and universal rite and custom of the holy Church, nor held up publicly for the veneration of the people and that those who adore it are idolaters, let him be anathema.
Twenty-Second Session, Canon III.—If any one shall say that the sacrifice of the mass is only a praiseworthy deed or act of edification, or that it is simply in commemoration of the sacrifice on the cross and is not in the nature of a propitiation ; or that it can benefit only him who receives it, and ought not to be offered for the living and the dead, for sins, punishment, atonement and other necessary things, let him be anathema.
Halsser, Ludwig : The Period of the Reformation. American Tract Society.
Translated from the German.
This work is the stenographic report of the lectures delivered by one of the most popular of German professors before his students at Heidelberg. His style is admirably clear and his material is selected with skill. As a concise account of the German Reformation from a Protestant standpoint, this is, with Seebohm's volume mentioned below, likely to prove the best introduction to the subject for the beginner. Notes on Books in English Relating to the Reformation. By Prof. George
P. Fisher. 16 mo, Scribners.
Probably the best American work, covering the whole Reformation period. Contains in appendices a chronological table and list of works upon the Reformation.
Seebohm, Frederic: The Era of the Protestant Revolution. 16 mo. Scrib
ners (Epochs Series).
A condensed history of the Reformation period in Europe, of special value as an outline for class work, and useful to the general reader who has already an acquaintance with the general political and social events of the period.
(*) Only a few of the most important and accessible works can be mentioned here from the vast mass of material relating to the Reformation. The student wishing an extended bibliography will turn to DAHLMANN-Waitz, Quellenkunde, 6th Ed., pp. 344, f., or to the bibliographies given in Vol. IV. of the Histoire Générale, edited by Professors Lavisse and Rambaud.
Ranke, Leopold: The History of the Reformation in Germany. Translated
from the German by Sarah Austin. 3 vols.
Only three volumes, reaching the year 1535, of the six volumes of the original (Deutsche Geschichte im Zeitalter der Reformation) are included in the English version, which was never completed. Volume six of the original is, however, devoted entirely to documents.
Bezold. Geschichte der deutschen Reformation. Berlin 1887-90. 2 vols.
Beautifully illustrated, but contains no bibliographical references.
Baumgarten, H.: Geschichte Karls V. Vols. 1-3. (1885–92.)
This important work was interrupted by the author's death. It reaches, how ever, the year 1539.
Creighton: A History of the Papacy During the Period of the Reformation.
Vol. V. (Longmans.)
This is one of the most remarkable historical works relating to continental history ever produced in England. The author has construed the “period of the Reformation"
so liberally that it is only with the beginning of the fifth volume that he reaches the opening of Luther's public career.
Beard, Charles : Martin Luther and the Reformation to the close of the Diet
of Worms. I vol. London, 1889.
Very scholarly. The best treatment of the subject in English. Köstlin, Julius : Martin Luther; sein Leben und seine Schriften., 2 vols,
Berlin, 4th Ed. 1889.
This work is generally regarded as the most scholarly and impartial life of Luther. The author has prepared an abridgment in one volume which has been translated into English and published in two versions. The one issued by Charles Scribner's Sons is preferable since it contains a number of interesting facsimiles.
Since the Reformation Period was characterized by the bitterest animosity between the conservative party, which adhered to the Catholic traditions and organization, and the innovating Protestants, no thorough student will neglect the more scholarly works of those historians who sympathize on the whole with the conservatives. Of the valuable contributions made by Catholic writers the following would probably prove most useful : Janssen, J.: Geschichte der deutschen Volks seit dem Ausgang des Mittel
alters. 8 vols.
This is a very suggestive work furnishing much new material which has been laboriously searched out by the author. A French version is in course of publication; and two volumes of an English translation have been issued. B. Header, St. Louis, Mo.
Döllinger : Die Reformation, ihre innere Entwicklung und ihre Wirkungen
im Umfange des Lutherischen Bekenntnisses. 3 vols. Regensburg, 1846-8.
In this an able historian seeks to prove that at least the early Reformation was regarded as a failure by practically all the cultivated men of the time, and even by Luther himself.
Hefele, Carl J.: Conciliengeschichte, fortgesetzt von J. Cardinal Hergenrother.
Covers the period from 1518–1536, and may be used to supplement the preceding Catholic writers.
Spalding, History of the Protestant Reformation. Baltimore, (n. d.)
Accessible examples of illustrative documents may be found in the following:
First Principles of the Reformation or the Three Primary Works of Dr.
Martin Luther. Edited by Wace and Buchheim. Lutheran Publication
This collection contains translations of Luther's ringing summons to his countrymen issued in 1520, viz.: The Address to the German Nobility, The Babylonish Captivity of the Church and The Liberty of the Christian. The first especially should be read by every one who would feel the influence of Luther's eloquence and understand why he was accepted as a leader.
The same works have been published in the original by Dr. L. Lemme, Die drei grossen Reformationsschriften Luther's vom Jahre 1520 (Gotha, 1884), with useful notes.
The Augsburg Confession is to be had in translation from the Lutheran
Publication Society, Philadelphia. Price, 10 cents. Especially the second part, in which the reforms are discussed, is extremely valuable to the student.
The German version of the Augsburg Confession can be found in Ranke, Zeitalter der Reformation. Vol. VI.
Gieseler: A Compendium of Ecclesiastical History. Vol. V.
This work is little more than a series of voluminous foot-notes in which valuable extracts from the sources are supplied in a convenient form.
Decrees and Canons of the Council of Trent, translated by Rev. J. Water
worth. London & New York, (n. d.)