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known during the rebellion. Mr. Lydiat was made proba. tioner fellow in 1591, and two years after, actual fellow. Then taking his degree in arts, he applied himself to astronomy, mathematics, and divinity, in the last of which studies he was very desirous of continuing; but, finding a great defect in his memory and utterance, he chose rather to resign his fellowship, which he could not hold without entering the church, and live upon his small patrimony. This was in 1603; and he spent seven years after in finishing and printing such books as he had begun when in college. He first appeared as an author in 1605, by pub. lishing his “ Tractatus de variis annorum formis.” Of this he published a defence in 1607, against the censures of Joseph Scaliger, whom he more directly attacked in his “ Emendatio Temporum ab initio mundi huc usque compendio facta, contra Scaligerum et alios," 1609. This he dedicated to prince Henry, eldest son of James I. He was chronographer and cosmographer to that prince, who had a great respect for him, and, had he lived, would certainly have made a provision for him. In '1609, he became acquainted with Dr. Usher, afterwards archbishop of Armagh, who took him into Ireland, and placed him in the college at Dublin, where he continued two years; and then purposing to returu to England, the lord-deputy and chancellor of Ireland made him, at his request, a joint promise of a competent support, upon his coming back thither. This appears to have been the mastership of the school at Armagh, endowed with 50l. per annum in land.
When he came to England, which appears to have been . in 1611, he is supposed to have been married, and to Usher's sister; but for either supposition there seems very little foundation. Soon after his return, however, the rectory of Okerton becoming void, was offered to him; and though, while he was fellow of New-college, he had refused the offer of it by his father, who was the patron, yet he now accepted it, and was instituted in 1612. Here he seems to have lived happily for many years : but being imprudently security for the debts of a near relation, which he was unable to pay, he was successively imprisoned at Oxford, the King's-bench, and elsewhere, in 1629, or 1630, and remained a prisoner till sir William Boswell, a great patron of learned men, joining with Dr. Pink, warden of New-college, and Dr. Usher, paid the debt, and teleased him; and archbishop Laud also, at the request of
refused ugh, while he coming void, turn, ho
sir Henry Martin, gave his assistance on this occasion *.' He had no sooner got his liberty, than, out of an ardent zeal to promote literature and the honour of his country, he petitioned Charles I. for his protection and encourage. ment to travel into Turkey, Ethiopia, and the Abyssinian empire, in search of manuscripts relating to civil or ecclesiastical history, or any other branch of learning, and to print them in England. For the farther advancement of this design, he also requested the king would apply, by his ambassadors and ministers, tp such princes as were in alliance with him, for a similar privilege to be granted to Lydiat and his assigns: this was a spirited design, but it was impossible for the king at that unhappy period to pay attention to it.
This disappointment, however, did not diminish his loyalty, and on that account he was a great sufferer during the rebellion. He was a man of undaunted mind, and talked frequently and warmly in behalf both of the king and the bishops, refused to comply with the demands of money made upon him by the parliament army, and with great personal courage defended bis books and papers against their attempts to seize them.' For these offences he was four times plundered by some troops of the parlia. ment, at Compton-house in Warwickshire, to the value of at least 70l. ; was twice carried away from his house at Okerton; once to Warwiek, and another time to Banbury; he was treated infamously by the soldiers, and so much debarred from decent necessaries, that he could have ng change of linen for a considerable time, without borrowing from some charitable person. At length, after he had lived at his parsonage several years, in indigence and obscurity, he died April 3, 1646, and was interred the next day in the chancel of Okerton church, which had been rebuilt by him. A stone was laid over his grave in 1669, by the society of New-college, who also erected an honorary monument, with an inscription to his memory, in the cloister of their college.
In his person he was low in stature, and of mean appearance. In the matter of church discipline and ceremonies he is said to have thought with the non-conformists, but
* In 1633, he wrote a defence of Laud's setting up altars in churches, and dedicated it to him, in gratitude for his assistance in procuring his re
lease. This may be given as a proof that what is afterwards reported of his non-conformily has very little founds, tion,
be long duratiYet the me Mr. Josephine foreign Briggs, Das
not enough, it would appear, to gain their protection, He was, however, highly esteemed by his learned contemporaries, particularly primate Usher, sir Adam News ton, secretary, and sir Thomas Chaloner, chamberlain to prince Henry, Dr. J. Bainbridge, Mr. Henry Briggs, Dr. Péter Turner, and others : and some foreigners did not scruple to rank him with Mr. Joseph Mede, and even with lord Bacon., Yet the memory of this learned mån was not of long duration, for when his misfortunes were alluded to by Dr. Johnson in bis « Vanity of Human Wishes," in these lines,
“ If dreams yet flatter, once again attend;
Hear Lydiat's life, and Galileo's end :" it was à subject of inquiry, who Lydiat was?
The following is, we believe, a correct list of his works, including those already mentioned. 1. “ Tractatus de variis annorum formis," 1605, 8vo. 2. “ Præléctio astronomica de natura cæli & conditionibus elementorum." 3. “ Disquisitio physiologica de origine fontium." These Iwo are printed with the first. 4. “ Defensio tractatus de variis annorum formis, contra Jos. Scaligeri obtrectationem," 1607, 8vo. 5. 6 Examen canonum chronologiæ isagogicorum," printed with the “ Defensio." 6. “Emendatio temporum, &c. contra Scaligerum & alios," 1609, 8vo. 7. “ Explicatio & additamentum argumentorum in libello emendationis temporum compendio facta de nativitate Christi, & ministerii in terris," 1613, 8vo. 8.“ Solis & luna periodus seu annus magnus," 1620, 8vo, &c. 9. “ De anni solaris mensura epistola astronomica," &c. 1621, 8vo. 10. “ Numerus aureus melioribus lapillis insignitus," &c. 1621 ; a single large sheet on one side. 11. “ Canones chronologici," &c. 1675, 8vo. 12.“ Letters to Dr. James Usher, primate of Ireland," printed in the Appendix of bis life by Dr. Parr. 13. “Marmoreum chronicum Arundelianum, cuin Annotationibus," printed in the “ Marmora Oxoniensia,” by Humpbrey Prideaux. He also left twenty-two manuscripts, two of which were written in Hebrew, in the hands of Dr. John Lamphire.'
LYE (EDWARD), a learned linguist and antiquary, the author of an excellent dictionary of the Saxon and Gothic languages, was bora at Totnes in Devonshire, in 1704.
Gen. Dict.-Biog. Brit.-Ath. Ox. vol. 11. -Puller's Worthies.-Usher's Life and Letters.
He was educated partly at home, under his father, who kept a school at Totnes, partly under other preceptors, but chiefly (being obliged to return home from consumptive complaints) by bis own private care and application. At the age of nineteen, he was admitted at Hart hall (now Hertford college) in Oxford, took his bachelor's degree in 1716, was ordained deacon in 1717, and priest in 1719, soon after which he was presented to the living of Houghton-parva in Northamptonshire. In this retreat he laid the foundation of his great proficiency in the Anglo-Saxon language. He became master of arts in 1722.
Having now qualified himself completely for a work of that nature, he undertook the arduous task of publishing the “ Etymologicum Anglicanum” of Francis Junius, from the manuscript of the author in the Bodleian Library. To this undertaking he was led, as he tells us in his preface, by the commendations which Hickes and other learned antiquaries had given to that unpublished work. In the seventh year from the commencement' of his design, he published the work, with many additions, and particularly that of an Anglo-Saxon Grammar prefixed. The work was received with the utmost approbation of the learned. In 1750, Mr. Lye became a member of the society of antiquaries, and about the same time was presented by the earl of Northampton to the vicarage of Yardley Hastings, on which accession he resigned his former living of Houghton; giving an illustrious example of primitive moderation, especially as he had hitherto supported his mother, and had still two sisters dependent upon him. The next publication which he issued, was that of the Gothic Gospels, undertaken at the desire of Eric Benzelius, bishop of Upsal, who had collated and corrected them. This, which he had been long preparing, appeared from the Oxford press in the same year, with a Gothic Grammar prefixed. His last years were employed chiefly in finishing for the press his own great work, the Anglo-Saxon and Gothic Dictionary, which was destined to owe that to another editor, which he had performed for Juvius. His manuscript was just completed, and given to the printer, when he died at Yardley Hastings, in 1767; and was there buried, with a comniendatory but just and elegant epitaph. His Dictionary was published in 1772, in two volumes folio, by the rev. Owen Manning, with a grammar of the two languages united, and some memoirs of the author, from
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which this account is taken. It appears by some original correspondence between Mr. Lye and Dr. Ducarel (for the perusal of which we are indebted to Mr. Nichols), that Mr. Lye had been employed on his dictionary a long time before 1765, and that he had almost relinquished the design from a dread of the labour and expence. In the labour he had none to share with bin, but at the time above mentioned archbishop Secker offered him a subscription of 50l, to forward the work, and be appears to have hoped for similar instances of liberality.'
LYFORD (WILLIAM), a pious clergyman of the seventeenth century, was born about 1598, at Peysmere, near Newbury in Berkshire, of which place his father was rector. Iu 1614 he became a commoner of Magdalen hall, Oxford, and a demy of Magdalen college in 1617. In 1622 he took his degree of M. A. and was then chosen a fellow. In 1631 he was admitted to the reading of the sentences, and, having taken orders, was presented to the living of Shirburne, in Dorsetshire, by John Earl of Bristol. Here, says Wood, “he was very much resorted to for his edifying and practical way of preaching ;” and appears indeed to have deserved the affections of his flock, by the most constant diligence in discharging the duties of bis office. He divided his day into the following portions : nine hours for study, three for visits and conferences with his parishioners, three for prayers and devotion, two for his affairs, and the rest for his refreshment. He divided likewise his estate into three parts, one for the use of his family, one for a reserve in case of future wants, and one for pious uses. His parish be divided into twentyeight parts, to be visited in twenty-eight days every month, “ leaving," says one of bis biographers, “knowledge where he found ignorance, justice where he found oppression, peace where he found contention, and order where he found irregularity.”
A man of this disposition was not likely to add to the turbulence of the times; and although he is said to have inclined to the presbyterian party, and was chosen one of the assembly of divines, he never sat among them, but remained on his living, employed in preaching, catechizing, &c. until his death, Oct. 3, 1653. Fuller and Wood unite in their praises of Mr. Lyford's character, and in their
| Memoirs as above. -MS Letters in Mr. Nichols's possession.