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maculate Spirit was going to enter therein, it returned,
his followers and abettors, who sided or were partakers with him in his pride and presumptuous disobedience. God now was pleased to publish and make manifest his design of animating man, out of that beautiful and resplendent crystal; and accordingly commanded Gabriel to breathe into the body of clay, that it might become flesh and blood: But at the instant, as the im
and humbling itself before the Lord, said, “O Merciful King! for what reason is it that thou intendest to inclose me in this loathsome prison? I, who am thy serwant, thou shuttest up within mine enemy, where my purity will be defiled, and where, against my will, I shall disobey thee, without being able to resist the instigation and power of this rebellious flesh; whereby I shall become liable to suffer thy rigorous punishment, insupportable and unequal to my strength, for having perpetrated the enormities obnoxious to the frailty of human flesh: Spare me, O Lord! spare me! suffer me not to taste of this bitter draught! To thee it belongs to command, and to me to supplicate thee.” Thus spoke the pure and unspotted Spirit, when God, to give it some satisfaction to these complaints, and that it might contentedly resign itself to obey his commands, ordered it should be conducted near his throne, where, in innumerable and infinite parts thereof, it beheld certain letters decyphered up and down, importing, Mahomet the triumphant leader! And over all the seven heavens, on their gates, and in all their books, he saw those words stamped, exceedingly bright This was the blazon which all the Angels and other celestial beings carried between their beautiful eyes, and for their devices on their apparel. The Spirit having seen all this, returned to the throne of glory, and being very desirous to understand the signification of those cyphers and characters, he asked, what name was that which shined so in every place? To which question, God answered; Know, that from thee, and from that flesh, shall proceed a chieftain, a leader, who shall bear that name, and use that language: by whom, and for whose sake, I the Lord, the heavens, the earths, and the seas, shall be honoured, as thall likewise all who believe in that name. The Spirit, hearing these wonders, immediately conceived so mighty a love to the body, a love not to be expressed, nor even imagined, that it longed with im
patience to enter into it; which it had no sooner done, but it miraculously and artificially was influenced and distilled into every individual part and member thereof whereby the body became animated.—Rabadan.
It is to be regretted, that the original of this very curious poem has not been published, and that it did not meet with a more respectable translator. How well would the erudition of Sale have been employed in elu- | cidating it!
Note 3, page 07, col. 1.
to run away. Abraham coming to hear of her discontent, and fearing she might make away with the child, especially if she came to be delivered without the assistance of some other women, followed her, and found her already delivered of a son; who, dancing with his little feet upon the ground, had made way for a spring to break forth. Hut the water of the spring came forth in such abundance, as also with such violence, that Hagar could make no use of it to quench her thirst, which was then very great. Abraham coming to the place commanded the spring to tilide more gently, and to suffer that water might be drawn out of it to drink: and having thereupon stayed the course of it with a little bank of sand, he took of it, to make Hagar and her child drink. The said spring is to this day called Semsen, from Abraham making use of that word to stay it.—Olearius.
A curious instance of French taste occurs in this part of Brebeuf's translation. The re-animated corpse is made the corpse of Burrhus, of whose wife, Octavia, Sextus is enamoured. Octavia hears that her husband has fallen in battle; she seeks his body, but in vain. A light at length leads her to the scene of Erichtho's incantations, and she beholds Burrhus, to all appearance, living. The witch humanely allows them time for a long conversation, which is very complimentary on the part of the husband.
Brebeuf was a man of genius. The Pharsalia is as well told in his version as it can be in the detestable French heroic couplet, which epigrammatizes every thing. He had courage enough, though a Frenchman, to admire Lucan,—and yet could not translate him without introducing a love-story.
questioning them concerning the business of which they wished to be informed, he muttered his invocations: and the eight arrows, by virtue of these charms, altered their posture, and placed themselves point to point. Whether those on the left, or those on the right, were above the others, decided the question.
Note 7, page 97, col. 2. The powerful gem, etc.
Some imagine that the crystal is snow turned to ice, which has been hardening thirty years, and is turned
to a rock by age.—Mirror of Stones, by Camillus Leo
nardus, physician of Pisaro, dedicated to Caesar Borgia. In the cabinet of the Prince of Monaco, among other rarities, are two pieces of crystal, each larger than both hands clenched together. In the middle of one is about a glass-full of water, and in the other is some moss, naturally inclosed there when the crystals congealed. These pieces are very curious.--Tavernier. Crystal, precious stones, every stone that has a regular figure, and even flints in small masses, and consisting of concentric coats, whether found in the perpendicular fissures of rocks, or elsewhere, are only exudations, or the concreting juices of flint in large masses; they are, therefore, new and spurious productions, the genuine stalactites of flint or of granite.—Buffon.
Note 8, page 97, col. 2. Gem of the gem, etc. Burguillos, or Lope de Vega, makes an odd metaphor from such an illustration: El Verbo de Dios diamente
En el anillo de cobre
Note 9, page 98, col. 1.
With the Arabs either a round skin is laid on the ground for a small company, or large coarse woollen cloths for a great number spread all over the room, and about ten dishes repeated six or seven times over, laid round at a great feast, and whole sheep and lambs boiled and roasted in the middle. When one company has done, another sits round, even to the meanest, till all is consumed. And an Arab Prince will often dine in the street before his door, and call to all that pass, even beggars, in the usual expression, Bisimillah, that is, in the name of God; who come and sit down, and when they have done, give their Hamdellilah, that is, God be praised; for the Arabs, who are great levellers, put every body on a footing with them, and it is by such generosity and hospitality that they maintain their interest.—Pococke.
Note io, page 98, col. 2.
With no false colours, etc. T is the custom of Persia to begin their feasts with fruits and preserves. We spent two hours in eating only those and drinking beer, hydromel, and aquavite. Then was brought up the meat in great silver dishes; they were full of rice of divers colours, and upon that, several sorts of meat, boiled and roasted, as beef, mutton, tame fowl, wild ducks, fish, and other things, all
very well ordered, and very delicate.
The Persians use no knives at table, but the cooks send up the meat ready cut up into little bits, so that
it was no trouble to us to accustom ourselves to their manner of eating. Rice serves them instead of bread. They take a mouthful of it, with the two fore-fingers and the thumb, and so put it into their mouths. Every table had a carver, whom they call Suffret-zi, who takes the meat brought up in the great dishes, to put it into lesser ones, which he fills with three or four sorts of meat, so as that every dish may serve two, or at most three persons. There was but little drunk till towards the end of the repast, and then the cups went about roundly, and the dinner was concluded with a vessel of porcelane, full of a hot blackish kind of drink, which they call Kahawa (Coffee.)—Ambassador's Travels.
They laid upon the floor of the Ambassador's room a fine silk cloth, on which there were set one-and-thirty dishes of silver, filled with several sorts of conserves, dry and liquid, and raw fruits, as Melons, Citrons, Quinces, Pears, and some others not known in Europe. Some time after, that cloth was taken away, that another might be laid in the room of it, and upon this was set rice of all sorts of colours, and all sorts of meat, boiled and roasted, in above fifty dishes of the same metal.-Amb. Tra.
There is not any thing more ordinary in Persia than rice soaked in water; they call it Plau, and eat of it at all their meals, and serve it up in all their dishes. They sometimes put thereto a little of the juice of pomegranates, or cherries and saffron, insomuch that commonly you have rice of several colours in the same dish.Amb. Tra.
Note 11, page 98, col. 2. And whoso drank of the cooling draught.
The Tamarind is equally useful and agreeable; it has a pulp of a vinous taste, of which a wholesome refreshing liquor is prepared ; its shade shelters houses from the torrid heat of the sun, and its fine figure greatly adorns the scenery of the country.—Niebuhr.
Note 12, page 08, col. 2.
As out he pours its liquid, etc. Of pumpkins and melons several sorts grow naturally in the woods, and serve for feeding Camels. But the proper melons are planted in the fields, where a great variety of them is to be found, and in such abundance, that the Arabians of all ranks use them, for some part of the year, as their principal article of food. They afford a very agreeable liquor. When its fruit is nearly ripe, a hole is pierced into the pulp; this hole is then stopped with wax, and the melon left upon the stalk. Within a few days the pulp is, in consequence of this
process, converted into a delicious liquor.—Niebuhr.
Note 13, page 98, col. 2. And listen’d with full hands. L'aspect imprévu de tant de Castillans, D'étonnement, d'effroi, peint ses regards brillans; Ses mains du choix des fruits se forman tune etude, Demeurent un moment dans le même attitude. Mao - or Boccaar. La Colombierde. Note 14, page 99, col. 1.
It is the hour of prayer.
The Arabians divide their day into twenty-four hours, and reckon them from one setting sun to another. As very few among them know what a watch is, and as they conceive but imperfectly the duration of an hour. they usually determine time almost as when we say, it
happened about noon, about evening, etc. The moment standing the sun no longer appears, are hot. The streets when the sun disappears is called Maggrib, about two are deserted, and the dead silence of night reigns every hours afterwards they call it El ascha; two hours later, where. The inhabitants of houses and villages shut them. El maerfa; midnight, Nusel lejl; the dawn of morning, selves up in their houses, and those of the desert in their Elfed jer; sunrise, Es subhh. They eat about nine in tents, or in pits they dig in the earth, where they wait the morning, and that meal is called El ghadda; noon, the termination of this destructive heat. It usually lasts Ed dahir, three hours after noon, El asr of all these three days; but if it exceeds that time, it becomes indivisions of time, only noon and midnight are well as- supportable. Woe to the traveller whom this wind surcertained; they both fall upon the twelfth hour. The | prises remote from shelter! he must suffer all its dread
which is formed time Samiel.
euced it; but it may be compared to the heat of a large
these winds begin to blow, the atmosphere assumes an
The Turks say, in allusion to their canonical hours, that prayer is a tree which produces five sorts of fruit, two of which the sun sees, and three of which he never sees,—Pietro della Palle.
Note 15, page 99, col. 1.
The use of the bath was forbidden the Moriscoes in Spain, as being an anti-christian custom' I recollect no superstition but the Catholic in which nastiness is accounted a virtue; as if, says Jortin, piety and filth were synonymous, and religion, like the itch, could be caught by wearing foul clothes.
Note 16, page 99, col. 1.
The effects of the Simoom are instant suffocation to every living creature that happens to be within the sphere of its activity, and immediate putrefaction of the carcasses of the dead. The Arabians discern its approach by an unusual redness in the air, and they say that they feel a smell of sulphur as it passes. The only means by which any person can preserve himself from suffering by these noxious blasts, is by throwing himself down with his face upon the earth, till this whirlwind of poisonous exhalatious has blown over, which always moves at a certain height in the atmosphere. Instinct even teaches the brutes to incline their heads to the ground oi, these occasions.—Niebuhr.
The Arabs of the desert call these winds Semoum, or poison, and the Turks Shamyela, or wind of Syria, from
Their heat is sometimes so excessive, that it is difficult to form any idea of its violence without having experi
oven at the moneut of drawing out the bread. When
alarming aspect. The sky, at other times so clear in this climate, becomes dark and heavy: the sun loses his
ful consequences, which sometimes are mortal. The danger is most imminent when it blows in squalls, for then the rapidity of the wind increases the heat to such a degree as to cause sudden death. This death is a real suffocation; the lungs, being empty, are convulsed, the cir
culation disordered, and the whole mass of blood driven
by the heart towards the head and breast; whence that
Note 1, page 99, col. 2.
From the Mirror of Stones I extract a few specimens of the absurd ideas once prevalent respecting precious stones.
The Amethyst drives away drunkenness; for, being bound on the navel, it restrains the vapour of the wine, and so dissolves the ebriety.
Alectoria is a stone of a chrystalline colour, a little
splendour, and appears of a violet colour. The air is not cloudy, but grey aud thick, and is in fact filled with an extremely subtile dust, which penetrates every where. This wind, always light and rapid, is not at first remarkably hot, but it increases in heat in proportion as it continues. All animated bodies soon discover it, by the change it produces in them. The lungs, which a too rare
fied air no longer expands, are contracted, and become
painful. Itespiration is short and dificult, the skin parched and dry, and the body consumed by an internal heat. In vain is recourse had to large draughts of water; nothiug can restore perspiration. In vain is coolness sought for; all bodies in which it is usual to find it, deceive the haud that touches them. Marble, iron, water, notwith
darkish, somewhat resembling limpid water; and sometimes it has veins of the colour of flesh. Some call it Gallinaceus, from the place of its generation, the intestines of capons, which were castrated at three years old, and had lived seven; before which time the stone ought not to be taken out, for the older it is, so much the better. When the stone is become perfect in the capon, he don't drink. However, it is never found bigger than a large bean. The virtue of this stone is, to render him who carries it invisible. Being held in the mouth, it allays thirst, and therefore is proper for wrestlers; makes a woman agreeable to her husband; bestows honors, and preserves those already acquired; it frees such as are bewitched; it renders a man eloquent, constant, agree. able, and amiable; it helps to regain a lost kingdom, | also, and closing up the said wound with the powder of
middle the similitude of an eye, and must be taken out
while the dead toad is yet panting; and these are better than those which are extracted from it after a long continuance in the ground. They have a wonderful efficacy in poisons. For whoever has taken poison, let him. swallow this; which being down, rolls about the bowels, and drives out every poisonous quality that is lodged in the intestines, and then passes through the fundament, and is preserved.
Corvia or Corvina, is a stone of a reddish colour, and accounted artificial. On the calends of April, boil the eggs, taken out of a Crow's mest, till they are hard; and, being cold, let them be placed in the nest as they were before. When the crow knows this, she flies a long way to find the stone; and, having found it, returns to the nest; and the eggs being touched with it, they become fresh and prolific. The stone must immediately be snatched out of the nest. Its virtue is to increase riches, to bestow honours, and to foretell many future events.
Kinocetus is a stone not wholly useless—since it will cast out devils.
Note 2, page 99, col 2.
Giafar, the founder of the Barmecides, being obliged to fly from Persia, his native country, took refuge at Damascus, and implored the protection of the Caliph Soliman. When he was presented to that Prince, the Caliph suddenly changed colour, and commanded him to retire, suspecting that he had poison about him. Soliman had discovered it by means of ten stones which he wore upon his arm. They were fastencil there like a bracelet, and never failed to strike one against the other, and make a slight noise when any poison was near. Upon enquiry it was found, that Giafar carried poison in his ring, for the purpose of self-destruction, in case lic had been taken by his enemies.—Atarigny.
These foolish old superstitions have died away, and gems are now neither pounded as poison, nor worn as antidotes. But the old absurdities respecting poisons have been renewed in our days, by authors who have revived the calumnies alledged against the KnightsTemplar, with the hope of exciting a more extensive persecution.
Note 3, page 99, col. 2. From spells, or blunt the hostile weapon's edge.
In the country called Panten, or Tathalamasin, a there be caues called Cassan, which overspread the earth like grasse, and out of every knot of them spring foorth certaine branches, which are continued upon the ground almost for the space of a mile. In the sayd canes there are found certaine stones, one of which stones whosoever carryeth about with him, cannot be wounded with any yron; and therefore the men of that country for the most part carry such stones with them, whithersoever they goe. Many also cause one of the armes of their children, while they are young, to be launced, putting one of the said stones into the wound, healing
a certain fish (the name whereof I do not know), which powder doth immediately consolidate and cure the said wound. And by the vertue of these stones the people aforesaid doe for the most part triumph both on sea and land. Howlicit there is one kind of strataffeine which the enemies of this nation, knowing the vertue of the sayd stones, doe practise against them: namely, they provide themselves armour of yron or steele against their arrowes, and weapons also poisoned with the poy. son of trees; and they carry in their hands wooden stakes most sharp and hard-pointed, as if they were yrou : likewise they shoot arrowes without yron heades, and so they confound and slay some of their unarmed foes, trusting too securely unto the vertue of their stones.—Odoricus in Hakluyt.
We are obliged to jewellers for our best accounts of the East. In Tavernier there is a passage curiously cha. racteristic of his profession. A European at Delhi com: plained to him that he had polished and set a large diamond for Oreng-zebe, who had never paid him for his work. But he did not understand his trade, says Tavernier; for if he had been a skilful jeweller, he would have known how to take two or three pieces out of the stone, and pay himself better than the Mogul would have done.
in the church-yard. Now there was an image or rood
in the church, called our Lady of Chatham. This Lady, say the Monks, went the next night and roused up the clerk, telling him that a sinful person was buried near the place where she was worshipped, who offended her eyes with his ghastly grinning; and unless he wer" " moved, to the great grief of good people she mus'." move from thence, and could work no more miracles. Therefore she desired him to go with her to take him"P. and throw him into the river again: which being done, soon after the body floated again, and was taken up and buried in the church-yard; but from that time all miracles ceased, and the place where he was buried did continually sink downwards. This tale is still remembered by some aged people, receiving it by tradition from the Popish times of darkness and idolatry.—Admira” Curiosities, Rarities, and Wonders in England. When Alburquerque wintered at the Isle of Camara". in the Red Sea, a man at arms, who died suddenly, * thrown into the sea. In the night the watch felt several shocks, as though the ship were striking on a sand bank. They put out the boat, and found the dead body cling" to the keel by the rudder. It was taken up and buried on shore; and, in the morning, it was seen lying on the grave. Frey Francisco was then consulted. He “”
jectured, that the deceased had died under excommunication, and therefore absolved him. They interred him again, and then he rested in the grave.—Joan de Barros. Dec. 2. 3. 3. Note 5, page loo, col. 1. That Earth, etc.
Matthew of westminster says, the History of the old Woman of Berkeley will not appear incredible, if we read the dialogue of St Gregory, in which he relates how the body of a man buried in the church was thrown out by the Devils. Charles Martel also, because he had appropriated great part of the tithes to pay his soldiers, was most miserably, by the wicked Spirits, taken bodily out of his grave. The Turks report, as a certain truth, that the corpse of Heyradin Barbarossa was found, four or five times, out of the ground, lying by his sepulchre, after he had been there inhumed: nor could they possibly make him lie quiet in his grave, till a Greek wizard counselled them to bury a black dog together with the body; which done, he lay still and gave them no farther trouble.—Morgan's History of Algiers. In supernatural affairs, dogs seem to possess a sedative virtue. When peace was made, about the year 1 170, between the Earls of Holland and Flanders, « it was concluded, that Count Floris should send unto Count Philip, a thousand men, expert in making of ditches, to stop the hole which had beene made neere unto Dam, or the Sluce, whereby the countrey was drowned round about at everie high sea; the which the Flemings could by no means fill up, neither with wood, nor any other matter, for that all sunke as in a gulfe without any bottome; whereby, in succession of time, Bruges, and all that jurisdiction, had been in daunger to have bin lost by inundation, and to become all sea, if it were not speedily repaired. Count Floris having taken possession of the isle of Walcharan, returned into Holland, from whence hee sent the best workmen he could sind in all his countries, into Flanders, to make dikes and causcies, and to stop the hole neere unto this Dam, or Sluce, and to recover the drowned land. These liggers being come to the place, they found at the entrie of this bottomless hole a Sea-dog, the which for six dayes together, did nothing but crie out and howle very fearfully. They not i
knowing what it might signifie, having consulted of this
accident, they resolved to cast this dog into the hole. There was a mad-headed Hollander among the rest, who going into the bottome of the dike, tooke the dogge by the taile, and cast him into the middest of the gulfe; then speedily they cast earth and torfe into it, so as they found a bottome, and by little and little filled it up. And for that many workmen came to the repairing of this
dike, who, for that they would not be far from their worke, coucht in Cabines, which seemed to be a pretie towne, Count Philip gave unto all these Hollanders,
Zeelanders, and others, that would inhabit there, as much land as they could recover from Dam to Ardenbourg, for them and their successors, for ever, with many other | immunities and freedoms. By reason whereof many planted themselves there, and in succession of time, made a good towne there, the which by reason of this dog,
which they cast into the hole, they named Hondtsdam,
that is to say, a dog's sluce; Dam in Flemish signifying a since, and Hondt dog; and therefore at this day, the said towne (which is simply called Dan) carrieth a dog
in their armes and blason.—Grimestone's historie of the Netherlands, 1608.
Note 6, page loo, col. 1.
The Vulture is very serviceable in Arabia, clearing the earth of all carcases, which corrupt very rapidly in hot countries. He also destroys the field mice, which multiply so prodigiously in some provinces, that, were it not for this assistance, the peasant might cease from the culture of the fields as absolutely vain. Their performance of these important services induced the ancient Egyptians to pay those birds divine honours, and even at present it is held unlawful to kill them in all the countries which they frequent.—Niebuhr.
Note 7, page lol, col. 1.
The Bedouins, who, at all points, are less superstitious than the Turks, have a breed of very tall greyhounds, which likewise mount guard around their tents; but they take great care of these useful servants, and have such an affection for them, that to kill the dog of a Dedouin would be to endanger your own life.—Sonnini.
Note 8, page 1 ol, col. 2. Or comes the Father, etc. The Arabs call the West and South-West winds which prevail from November to February, the fathers of the rains.—Polney.
Note 9, page o 1, col. 2.
Of the Palm leaves they make mattresses, baskets, and brooms; and of the branches, all sorts of cagework, square baskets for packing, that serve for many uses instead of boxes; and the ends of the boughs that grow next to the trunk being beaten like flax, the fibres separate, and being tied together at the narrow end, they serve for brooms.-Pococke.
Note io, page 1 or, col. 2. Shapes the green basket, etc. The Doum, or wild palm-tree, grows in abundance,
from which these people, when necessity renders them industrious, find great advantage. The shepherds, muledrivers, camel-drivers, and travellers, gather the leaves, of which they make mats, fringes, baskets, hats, shooaris, or large wallets to carry corn, twine, ropes, girths, and covers for their pack-saddles. This plant, with which also they heat their ovens, produces a mild and resinous fruit, that ripens in September and October. It is in form like the raisin, contains a kernel, and is astringent, and very proper to temper and counteract the effects of the watery and laxative fruits, of which these people in summer make an immoderate use. That Power which is ever provident to all, has spread this wild plant over their deserts to supply an infinity of wants that would otherwise beavily burthen a people so poor.—Chenier.
Note 11, page 1 or, col. 2. . . . Or lingers it a vernal brook. we passed two of those vallies so common in Arabia, which, when heavy rains fall, are filled with water, and are then called wadi or rivers, although perfectly dry at other times of the year—we now drew nearer to the river, of which a branch was dry, and having its