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Note 2, page 197, col. 1. Mona, the dark Island. Ynys Douyil, the dark island.
Note 3, page 197, col. 1.
The palace of Gwynedd, or North Wales. Rhodri Mawr, about the year 873, fixed the seat of government here, which had formerly been at Dyganwy, but latterly at Caer Seiont in Arvon, near the present town of Caernarvon. “It is strange,” says Warrington, a that he should desert a country where every mountain was a natural fortress, and in times of such difficulty and danger, should make choice of a residence so exposed and defenceless.” But this very danger may have been his motive. The Danes, who could make no impression upon England against the great Alfred, had turned their arms upon Wales; Mona was the part most open to their ravages, and it may have been an act as well of policy as of courage in the king to fix his abode there. He fell there, at length, in battle against the Saxons. A barn now stands upon the site of the palace, in which there are stones, that by their better workmanship, appear to have belonged to the original
The order of the royal hall was established by law. The men to whom the right of a seat in the hall belongs are fourteen, of whom four shall sit in the lower, and ten in the upper part of the hall. The king is the first, he shall sit at the pillar, and next him the chancellor; and after him the guest, and then the heir apparent, and then the master of the hawks. The foot-bearer shall sit by the dish opposite the king, and the meadmaker at the pillar behind him. The priest of the household shall be at another pillar, who shall bless the meat,
and chaunt the pater noster. The crier shall strike the pillar above the king's head. Next him shall be the judge of the palace, and next to him the musician, to whom the right of the seat belongs. The smith of the palace shall be at the bottom before the knees of the priest. The master of the palace shall sit in the lower hall with his left hand towards the door, with the serving men whom he shall chuse, and the rest shall be at the other side of the door, and at his other hand the musician of the household. The master of the horse shall sit at the pillar opposite the king, and the master of the hounds at the pillar opposite the priest of the household.— Laws of Hoel Dha'.
1165. The king gather'd another armie of chosen men, through all his dominions, as England, Normandy, Anjow, Gascoine, and Gwyen, sending for succours from Flanders and Brytain, and then returned towards North Wales, minding utterlie to destroy all that had life in the land; and coming to Croes Oswalt, called Oswald's-tree, incamped there. On the contrarie side, Prince Owen and his brother Cadwallader, with all the power of North Wales; and the Lord Rees, with the power of South Wales; and Owen Cyveilioc and the sonnes of Madoc ap Meredyth, with the power of Powyss, and the two sonnes of Madoc ap Ednerth, with the people betwixt Wye and Seavern, gathered themselves togither and came to Corwen in Edeyrneon, purposing to defend their country. But the king understanding that they were nigh, being wonderfull desirous of battel, came to the river Ceireoc, and caused the woods to be hewn down. Whereupon a number of the Welshmen understanding the passage, unknown to their captains met with the king's ward, where were placed the picked men of all the armie, and there began a hote skirmish, where diverse worthie men were slaine on either side; but in the end the king wanne the passage, and came to the mountain of Berwyn, where he laid in campe certaine days, and so both the armies stood in awe of each other; for the king kept the open plains, and was afraid to be intrapped in straits; but the Welshmen watched for the advantage of the place, and kept the king so straitlie, that neither forage nor victuall might come to his camp, neither durstanie souldiour stir abroad. And to augment their miseries there fell such raine, that the king's men could scant stand upon their feete upon those slipperie hilles. In the end, the king was compelled to return home without his purpose, and that with great loss of men and munition, besides his charges. Therefore in a great choler he caused the pledges eies, whom he had received long before that, to be put out; which were Rees and Cawdwalhon the sonnes of Owen, and Cynwric and Meredith the sonnes of Rees, and other.— Powell.
Note 9, page 199, col. 1. The fool that day, who, in his masque attire, Sported before Ring Henry. Brienston in Dorsetshire was held in grand serjeantry by a pretty odd jocular tenure; viz. by finding a man to go before the king's army for forty days, when he should make war in Scotland, (some records say in Wales), bareheaded and barefooted, in his shirt aud linen drawers, holding in one hand a bow without a string,
in aucther an arrow without feathers.-Gibson's Camden.
Note io, page 199, col. 1. Though I knew The rebel's worth. : There is a good testimony to Hoel's military talents in the old history of Cambria, by Powell. • At this time Cadel, Meredyth, and Rees, the sons of Gruffyth ap Rees, ap Theodor, did lead their powers against the castle of Gwys; which, after they saw they could not win, they sent for Howel the sonne of Owen, prince of North Wales, to their succour, who for his prowesse in the field, and his discretion in consultation, was counted the flowre of chivalrie; whose presence also was thought only sufficient to overthrow anie hold.”
Note 11, page 199, col. 1. I hate the Saxon.
Of this name Saxon, which the Welsh still use, Higden gives an odd etymology. “Men of that cowntree ben more lyghter and stronger on the see than other scommers or theeves of the see, and pursue theyr enemyes full harde, both by water and by londe, and ben called Saxones, of Saxum, that is, a stone, for they ben as hard as stones, and uneasy to fare with.”—Polycronycon, 1. 26.
Note 12, page 199, col. 1.
Henry in his attempt upon Wales, 1165, a did justice on the sons of Rhys, and also on the sons and daughters of other noblemen that were his accomplices, very rigorously; causing the eyes of the young striplings to be pecked out of their heads, and their noses to be cut off or slit; and the eares of the young gentlewomen to be stuffed. But yet I find in other authors that in this journey King Henry did not greatly prevail against his enemies, but rather lost many of his men of war, both horsemen and footmen; for by his severe proceeding against them, he rather made them more eager to seek revenge, than quieted them in any tumult.”—Holinshed. Among these unhappy hostages were some sons of Owen Gwynedh.
Note 13, page 109, col. 1. The page who chased his feet. • The foot-bearer shall hold the feet of the king in his lap from the time when he reclines' at the board till he goes to rest, and he shall chafe them with a towel; and during all that time he shall watch that no hurt happen to the king. Ile shall eat of the same dish from which the king takes his meat, having his back turned toward the fire. He shall light the first candle before the king at his meal.”—Laws of Hoel Dha'.
Note 14, page 190, col. 2. The officer proclaimed the sovereign will.
The crier to command silence was one of the royal household; first he performed this service by his voice, then by striking with the rod of his office the pillars above the king's head. A fine was due to him for every
disturbance in the court.
* Arrubuerit is the word in Wotton's version. It is evident that the king must have lain at his meal, after the Roman fashion, or this pedifer could not have chafed his feet.
Note 15, page 199, col. 2.
The chief of Bards Then raised the ancient lay.
The lines which follow represent the Bardic system,
as laid down in the Triads of Bardism.
12. There are three Circles of Existence; the Circle of Infinity, where there is nothing but God, of living or dead, and none but God can traverse it; the Circle of Inchoation, where all things are by nature derived from Death, this Circle hath been traversed by man; and the Circle of Happiness, where all things spring from Life, this man shall traverse in Heaven.
13. Animated Beings have three States of Existence: that of Inchoation in the Great Deep, or Lowest point of Existence; that of Liberty in the State of Humanity; and that of Love, which is Happiness in Heaven.
14. All animated Beings are subject to three Necessities: Beginning in the Great Deep; Progression in the Circle of Inchoation; and Plenitude in the Circle of Happiness. Without these things nothing can possibly exist but God.
a 15. Three things are necessary in the circle of Inchoation; the least of all animation, and thence Beginning; the matterials of all things, and thence Increase, which cannot take place in any other state; the formation of all things out of the dead mass, and thence Discriminate Individuality.
• 16. Three things cannot but exist towards all animated Beings from the nature of Divine Justice: Cosufferance in the Circle of Inchoation, because without that none could attain to the perfect knowledge of any thing; Co-participation in the Divine love; and Co-ultimity from the nature of God's Power, and its attributes of Justice and Mercy.
• 17. There are three necessary occasions of Inchoation: to collect the materials and properties of every nature; to collect the knowledge of every thing; and to collect power towards subduing the Adverse and the Devastative, and for the divestation of Evil. Without this traversing every mode of animated existence, no state of animation, or of any thing in nature, can attain to Plenitude.”
Note 16, page 109, col. 2. Till evil shall be known. And being known as evil, cease to le. • By the knowledge of three things will all Evil and Death be diminished and subdued; their nature, their cause, and their operation. This knowledge will be obtained in the Circle of Happiness.”—Triads of Lardism, Tr. 35. Note 17, page 199, col. 2. Death, the Enlarger. Angau, the Welsh word for Death, signifies EnlargeInent. Note 18, page 199, col. 2. The eternal newness of eternal joy. Nefoedd, the Welsh word for Heaven, signifies RenoWau oil. “The three Excellencies of changing the mode of Existence in the Circle of Happiness: Acquisition of Knowledge; beautiful Variety; and Repose, from not being able to endure uniform Infinity and uninterrupted Eternity. “Three things none but God can do: endure the Eternities of the Circle of Infinity; participate of every state of Existence without changing; and reform and renovate every thing without the loss of it. * The three Plenitudes of Happiness: Participation of every nature, with a plenitude of One predominant; conformity to every cast of genius and character, possessing superior excellence in One; the Love of all Beings and Existences, but chiefly concentered in One object, which is God: and in the predominant One of each of these will the Plenitude of Happiness consist.” –Triads of Bardism, 40, 38, 45. Note 35, page 206, col. 1. —— a race Mightier than they, and wiser, and by Heaven Beloved and favoured more, • They are easily persuaded that the God that made
Note 19, page 199, ccl. 2.
* I will extol the generous Hero, descended from the race of Roderic, the bulwark of his country, a Prince eminent for his good qualities, the glory of Britain: Owen, the brave and expert in arms, that neither hoardeth nor coveteth riches.
* Three fleets arrived, vessels of the main, three powerful fleets of the first rate, furiously to attack him on the sudden : one from Iwerddon," the other full of well-armed Lochlynians, making a grand appearance on the floods; the third from the transmarine Normans, which was attended with an immense though successless toil.
* The dragons of Mona's sons were so brave in action, that there was a great tumult on their furious attack; and before the prince himself there was vast confusion, havoc, conflict, honourable death, bloody battle, horrible consternation, and upon Tal Mavra, a thousand banners: there was an outrageous carnage, and the rage of spears and hasty signs of violent indignation. Blood raised the tide of the Menai, and the crimson of human gore stained the brine. There were glittering cuirasses, and the agony of gashing wounds, and the mangled warriors prostrate before the chief, distinguished by his crimson lance. Loegria was put into confusion; the contest and confusion was great, and the glory of our Prince's wide-wasting sword shall be celebrated in an hundred languages to give him his merited praise. --Panegyric upon Owen Gwynedd, Prince of North Wales, by GwalchMAt the son of Melir, in the year 1157. Evans's Specimens of Welsh
Dinas Wawr, the Great Palace, the residence of the Princes of Deheubarth, or South Wales. This also was erected by Rhodri Mawr.
Note 21, page 200, col. 1. Hoel seized the throue.
I have taken some liberties here with the history. Hoel kept possession of the throne nearly two years; he then went to Ireland to claim the property of his mother Pyvog, the daughter of an Irish chieftain; in the mean time David seized the government. Hoel raised all the force he could to recover the crown, but after a severe conflict was wounded and defeated. He returned to Ireland with the remains of his army, which probably consisted chiefly of Irishmen, and there died of his wounds.-Cambrian Biography.
Note 22, page aol, col. 1. —— hast thou known the consummated, crime, And heard Cynetha's fate? The history of Cynetha and his brothers is very honestly related in the Pentarchia. Cadwallonis crat primarvus jure Cynetha; Proh pudor hunc oculis patruus privavit 0enus Testiculisque simul, fundum dum raptat a vitum. Houel ab irato suspensus rege Johanne, Et Leolinus, eum privarunt lumine fratres. This curious summary of Welsh history still remains unprinted. Note 23, page 202, col. 2. As thy fair uplands lessened on the view. “Two of the names of Britain were derived from its hills: Clas Merddin, the high lands in the sea, and Clas Meiddin, the hilly lands or fields.”—E. WilL1AMs's Poems.
spiritu, regimente. Quae utraque diffusa per membra omnia, aeterna: molis vigorem exerceant. Sicut ergo in corporibus nostris commertia sunt spiritalia, ita in profundis Oceani nares quasdam mundi constitutas, per quas emissi anhelitus, vel reducti, modo efilent maria quomodo revocent.”—Solinus, cap. 36.
« I suppose the waters,” says Pietro Martire, a to be driven about the globe of the carth by the incessant moving and impulsion of the heavens, and not to be swallowed up and cast out again by the breathing of Demogorgon, as some have imagined, because they see the scus by increase and decrease, to flow and reflow.” Dec. 3, c. 6.
Note 30, page 204, col. 1.
• Our first notice of the approach of land was the fragrant and aromatic smell of the continent of South America, or of the islands in its vicinity, which we sensibly perceived as a squall came from that quarter.”— M'KiNNEN's Tour through the British h'est Indies.
Dogs always are sensible when land is near, before it can be seen.
Note 31, page aos, col. 1.
“And for as much as I have made mention of their houses, it shall not be greatly from my purpose to describe in what manner they are builded: they are made round, like bells or round pavilions. Their frame is raysed of exceeding high trees, set close together, and fast rampaired in the ground, so standing aslope, and bending inward, that the toppes of the trees joyne together, and bear one against another, having also within the house certain strong and short proppes or posts, which susteyne the trees from falling. They cover them with the leaves of date trees and other trees strongly compact and hardened, wherewith they make them close from winde and weather. At the short posts, or proppes, within the house, they tie ropes of the cotton of gossampine trees, or other ropes made of certain long and rough roots, much like unto the shrubbe called Spartum, whereof in old time they used to make bands for vines, and tables and ropes for shippes. These they tie overthwart the house from post to post; on these they lay as it were certain mattresses made of the cotton of gossam pine trees, which grow plentifully in these islandes. This cotton the Spanyards call Algodon, and the Italians Bomba sine, and thus they sleepe in hanging bedoles.”—Pi Erno M A R rifle.
Note 32, page 205, col. 1. will ye believe The wonders of the ocean : how its shoals Sprung from the wave. I have somewhere seen an anecdote of a sailor's inother, who believed all the strange lies which he told her for his amusement, but never could be persuaded to believe there could be in existence such a thing as a flying fish. A Spanish author, who wrote before the voyage of Columbus, describes these fish as having been seen on the coast of Flauders. " Hay alli unos pescados que vuelan sobre el agua; algunos dellos atravesaban volando por encima de las galeras, eann algunos dellos caian dentro.o Coronica de D. Pero Nino. A still earlier author mentions such a sight in the
in the ocean with a variety of beautiful colours; has
Straits as a miracle. “As they sailed from Algesiras, a fish came flying through the air, and fell upon the deck of the Infantes Galley, with which they had some fresh food that day; and because I, who write this history, have never heard or seen of any like thing, I here recount it, because it appears to me a thing marvellous, and in my judgement out of the course of nature.”— Gomes EAN N Es. • At Barbadoes the negroes, after the example of the Charaibs, take the flying fish very successfully in the dark; they spread their nets before a light, and disturb the water at a small distance; the fish, rising eagerly, tly towards the light, and are intercepted by the nets." —M KINNEN.—These flying fishes, says the writer of Sir Thomas Roe's Voyage, are like men professing two trades, and thrive at neither.
Note 33, page 205, col. 1.
Language cannot paint
Atkins, with some feeling describes the Dolphin as a glorious coloured fish. A laboured description of its beauty would not have conveyed so lively a sense of admiration. He adds, quite naturally, that it is of dry taste, but makes good broth.-1'oyage to Guinea in his Majesty's Ships the Swallow and IP'eymouth.
Ilerbert has given this fish a very extraordinary character, upon the authority of the ancients.
« The dolphin is no bigger than a salmon, it glitters
few scales; from its swiftness and spirit metonymically sirnamed the Prince and Arrow of the sea ; celebrated by many learned Pens in sundry Epithets; Philanthropoi, for affecting men, and Monogamoi, for their turtle constancy; generated they be of sperme, nourisht like men, imbrace, join, and go to months great. In facient versi dulces celebrant hymenteos Delphines, similes hominis complexibus haerent: A careful husband over his gravid associate, detesting iucest, abl:orring bigamy, tenderly affecting Parents, whom, when 300 years old, they feed and defend against hungry fishes; and, when dead, (to avoid the Shark and like marine Tyrants) carry them ashore, and there (if Aristotle, 4-lyan, and Pliny, erre not) inhume and bedev their Sepulchres; they were glad of our company, as it were affecting the signt and society of men, many hundred milesin an eager and unwearied pursuit, frisking about us; and as a Poet observed, Undique dans saltus, multaque aspergine rorant, Emurjunique it rum, redeuntoue sub a quora rursus, Inque chori ludunt speciem lastivaque jactant Corpore, et acceptum patulis mare marilus estlant." HERBER ros Travels.
Englishmen is a greater God than theirs, because he hath so richly endowed the English above themselves. But when they hear that about 1 boo years ago England and the inhabitants thereof were like unto themselves, and since have received from God clothes, books, etc. they are greatly affected with a secret hope concerning themselves.” A Key into the language of America, by Rogen Williams, 1643.
Note 36, page 206, col. 1. Her husband's war-pole.
“The war-pole is a small peeled tree painted red, the top and boughs cut off short. It is fixed in the ground opposite the door of the dead warrior, and all his implements of war are hung on the short boughs of it till they rot. a-Ad Ain.
This author, who knew the manners of the North American Indians well, though he formed a most wild theory to account for them, describes the rites of mourning. “The widow, through the long term of her weeds, is compelled to refrain from all public company and diversions, at the penalty of an adultress, and likewise to go with towing hair, without the privilege of oil to anoint it. The nearest kinsmen of the deceased husband keep a very watchful eye over her conduct in this respect. The place of interment is also calculated to wake the widow's grief, for he is entombed in the house under her bed; and if he was a war-leader, she is obliged, for the first moon, to sit in the day-time under his mourning war-pole, which is decked with all his martial trophies, and must be heard to cry with bewailing notes. But none of them are fond of that month's supposed religious duty, it chills, or sweats and wastes them so exceedingly, for they are allowed no shade or shelter.”
Note 37, page 207, col. 1.
So dazzlingly white were the houses at Zempoalla, that one of the Spaniards galloped back to Cortes to tell him the walls were of silver.—Ben Nal Diaz, 30.
Torquemada also says, a that the temple and palace courts at Mexico were so highly polished, that they actually shone like burnished gold or silver in the sun." –T. 1, p. 251.
I have described Aztlan like the cities which the How large and how
Spaniards found in New Spain. magnificent they were may be learnt from the True isistory of the Conquest of Mexico, by Bernal Diaz. This delightful work has been rendered into English by Mr Keating, and if the reader has not seen it, he may thank me for recommending it to his notice. Gomera's description of Zempoallan will show, that cities as splendid in their appearance as Aztlan did exist among the native Americans. • They descried Zempoallan, which stoode a myle distant from them, all beset with fayre Orchardes and Gardens, verye plesaunte to beholde: they used alwayes to water them with sluices when they pleased. There proceeded out of the Towne many persons to behold and recey've so strange a people unto them. They
came with smiling countenance, and presented unto them divers kinde of floures and sundry fruites which mone of our menne had heretofore scene. These people came without feare among the ordinance; with this pompe, triumphe, and joy, they were received into the Citie, which scemed a beautiful Garden : for the trees were so greene and high that scarcely the houses appeared. «Sixe horsemen, which had de gone before the army to discover, returned backe as Cortes was entering into the Citie, saying, that they had seene a great house and court, and that the walles were garnished with silver. Cortes commanded them to proceed on, willing them not to shew any token of wonder of any thing that they should sce. All the streetes were replenished with people, whiche stoode gapping and wondering at the horses and straungers. And passing through a great market place, they saw, on their right hand a great walled house made of lyme and stone, with loupe holes and towers, whiled with playster that shined like silver, being so well burnished and the sunne (listering upon it, and that was the thing that the Spaniards thought had beene walles of silver. I doe believe that with the imagination and great desire which they had of golde and silver, all that shined they deemed to be of the same metall.»–Conquest of the Peast India. Cortes himself says of Cholulla, that he counted above four hundred temple towers in that city; and the city of Iztapalapa, he says, contained from 12,000 to 15,000 inhabitants.--Carta de Relacion, 16, 20.
Note 38, page 207, col. 1. A floating islet. Islets of this kind, with dwelling huts upon them, were common upon the Lake of Mexico. They were moved at pleasure from bay to bay, as the inhabitants wanted sunshine or shelter.—CLAvig Eno.
Note 39, page 207, col. 1.
Each held a luruing censer in his hand.
Tendilli, says the old translator of Gomara, according to their usance, did his reverence to the Captaine, burn| ing frankincense, and little strawes touched in bloud of his own bodie. And at Chiauiztlan, the Lord toke a little chasyng-dishe in his hande, and cast into it a certaine gum, whyche savoured in sweete smel much like unto frankincense; and with a censer he smoked Cortes, with the ceremonye they use in theyr salutations to theyr Gods and nobilitic. So also the Tlascallan Embassadors burnt copal before Cortes, having thrice made obcicence, and they touched the ground with their hands, and kissed the earth. The nexte day in the morning, the Spaniards came to Chololla, and there came out near ten thousand Indians to recey've him, with their Captaines in good order. Many of them presented unto him bread, foules, and roses : and every Captayne, as he approached, welcomed Cortes, and then stood aside, that the rest, in order, mighte come unto him; and when he came entering into the citie, all the other citizens recey'ved him, marvelling to see such men and horses. After all this came out all the religious menne, as, Pricsts and Ministers to the idols, who were many and straunge to behold, and all were clothed in white, like unto surplices, and hemmed with common threede; some brought instruments of musicke like unto Cor