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mean taxes as well, I humbly submit it to consideration, whether Issachar doth not typify John Bull.

Note 34, page 240, col. 2.
Tiger of the War.

This was one of the four most honourable titles among the Mexicans: the others were Shedder of Blood, Destroyer of Men, and Lord of the Dark House. Great Slayer of Men was also a title among the Natchez; but to obtain this it was necessary that the warrior should have made ten prisoners, or brought home twenty scalps.

The Chinese have certain soldiers whom they call Tygers of War. On their large round shields of basket work are painted monstrous faces of some imaginary animal, intended to frighten the enemy.—BAknow's Travels in China.

Note 35, page 240, col. 2. Whose conquered Gods lie idle in their chains, And with 1ame weakness brook captivity. The Gods of the conquered nations were kept fastened and caged in the Mexican temples. They who argued for the Phaenician origin of the Indians, might have compared this with the triumph of the Philistines over the Ark, when they placed it in the temple of Dagon. Note 36, page 241, col. 1. —peace offerings of repentance fill The temple courts. Before the Mexican temples were large courts, kept

well cleansed, and planted with the trees which they call Ahuchuetl, which are green throughout the year, and give a pleasant shade, wherefore they are much esteemed by the Indians: they are our savin (sabines de Espana). In the comfort of their shade the Priests sit, and await those who come to make offerings or sacrifice to the idol.—Historia de la Fundacion y Discurso de la Provincia de Santiago de Mexico de la orden Predicadores; por el Maestro FRAY AugustiN DAvila Padilla. Brusseles, 1625.

Note 37, page 241, col. 1.

Ten painful months Immured amid the forest had he dwelt, In abstinence and solitary prayer Passing his nights and days.

Torquemada, L. Q. c. 25. Clavigero.

The most painful penance to which any of these Priests were subjected, was that which the Chololtecas performed every four years in honour of Quetzalcoal. All the Priests sat round time walls in the temple, holding a censer in their hands: from this posture they were not permitted to move, except when they went out for the necessary calls of nature; two hours they might sleep at the beginning of the night, and one after the sunrise; at midnight they bathed, smeared themselves with a black unction, and pricked their ears to offer the blood: the twenty-one reinaining hours they sate in the same posture incensing the liol, and in that same posture took the little sleep permitted them; this continued sixty days; if any one slept out of his time, his companions pricked him: the ceremony continued twenty days longer, but they were then permitted more rest.—Torque MADA, L. 1 o' c. 32.

Folly and madness have had as much to do as knavery in priestcraft. The knaves in general, have made

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the fools their instruments, but they not unfrequently have suffered in their turn.

Note 38, page 241, col. 2. Coatlantona. The mother of Mexitli, who being a mortal woman, was made immortal for her son's sake, and appointed Goddess of all herbs, flowers, and trees.—CLAvig Eko.

Note 39, page 242, col. 2. Mammuth. Mr Jefferson informs us that a late governor of Virginia, having asked some delegates of the Delawares what they knew or had heard respecting this animal,

the chief speaker immediately put himself into an oratorical attitude, and, with a pomp suited to the eleva

tion of his subject, informed him, that it was a tradition

handed down from their fathers, that in ancient times

a herd of them came to the Bio-bone-licks, and began

an universal destruction of the bears, deer, clks, buffa

loes, and other animals which had been created for the use of the Indians; that the Great Man above, looking down and seeing this, was so enraged, that he seized his lightning, descended to the earth, and seated himself upon a neighbouring mountain on a rock, on which his seat and the print of his feet are still to be seen, and hurled his bolts among thern till the whole were slaughtered, except the Big Bull, who, presenting his forehead to the shafts, shook them off as they sell; but at length missing one, it wounded him on the side, whereon springing around, he bounded over the Ohio, the Wabash, the Illinois, and, finally, over the great lakes, where he is living at this day. Colonel G. Morgan, in a note to Mr Morse, says, “ these bones are found only at the Salt Licks on the Ohio; some few scattered grinders have, indeed, beca found in other places; but it has been supposed these have been brought from the above-mentioucd deposit by Indian warriors and others who have passed it, as we know many have been spread in this manner. When I first visited the Salt Licks,” says the Colonel. « in 1766, I met here a large party of the Iroquois aud Wyandot Indians, who were then on a war-expedition

against the Chicasaw tribe. The head chief was a very

old man to be engaged in war; he told me he was eighty-four years old; he was probably as much as eighty. I fixed on this venerable Chief, as a person from whom some knowledge might be obtained. After making him some acceptable presents of tobacco, paint, ammunition, etc. and complimenting him upon the wisdom of his nation, their prowess in war, and prudence in peace, 1 intimated my ignorance respecting the great bones before us which nothing but his superior knowledge could remove, and accordingly requested him to inform me what he knew concerning them. Agreeably to the customs of his nation, he informed me in substance as follows:

st whilst I was yet a boy, I passed this road several

times to war against the Catawbas ; and the wise old

chiefs, among whom was my grandfather, then gave me the tradition, handed down to us, respecting these bones, the like to which are found in no other part of the country ; it is as follows: After the Great Spirit first formed the world, ime made the various birds and beasts which now inhabit it. He also made man ; but having formed him white, and very imperfect and ill

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tempered, he placed him on one side of it where he now inhabits, and from whence he has lately found a passage across the great water, to be a plague to us. As the Great Spirit was not pleased with this his work, he took a black clay, and made what you call a negro, with a woolly head. This black man was much better than the white man : but still he did not answer the wish of the Great Spirit; that is, he was imperfect. At last the Great Spirit having procured a piece of pure, fine red clay, formed from it the red man, perfectly to his mind; and he was so well pleased with him, that he placed him on this great island, separate from the white and black men, and gave him rules for his conduct, promising happiness in proportion as they should He increased exceedingly, and was perfectly happy for ages; but the foolish young people, at length forgetting his rules, became exceedingly ill-tempered and wicked. In consequence of this the Great Spirit created the Great Buffalo, the bones of which you now see before us: these made war upon the hu

man species alone, and destroved all but a few, who re

pented and promised the Great Spirit to live according to his laws, if he would restrain the devouring enemy: whereupon he sent lightning and thunder, and destroyed the whole race, in this spot, two excepted, a male and a female, which he shut up in yonder mountain, ready to let loose again, should occasion require.” The following tradition, existing among the natives, we give in the very terms of a Shawanee Indian, to shew that the impression made on their minds by it must have been forcible. “Ten thousand moons ago, when nought but gloomy forests covered this land of the sleeping sun, long before the pale men, with thunder and fire at their command, rushed on the wings of the wind to ruin this garden of nature, when nought but the untamed wanderers of the woods, and men as unrestrained as they were the lords of the soil; a race of animals were in being, huge as the frowning precipice, cruel as the bloody panther, swift as the descending eagle, and terrible as the angel of night. The pines crashed beneath their feet, and the lake shrunk when they slaked their thirst; the forceful javelin in vain was hurled, and the barbed arrow fell harmless from their side. Forests were laid waste at a meal; the groans of expiring animals were every where heard; and whole villages inhabited by men were destroyed in a moment. The cry of universal distress extended even to the region of peace in the west, and the Good Spirit interposed to save the unhappy. The forked lightnings gleamed all around, and loudest thunder rocked the globe. The bolts of heaven were hurled upon the cruel destroyers alone, and the mountains echoed with the bellowings of death. All were killed except one male, the fiercest of the race, and him even the artillery of the skies assailed in vain. He ascended the bluest summit which shades the source of the Monongahela, and, roaring aloud, bid defiance to every vengeance. The red lightning scorched the lofty firs, and rived the knotty oaks, but only glanced upon the enraged monster. At length, maddened with fury, he leaped over the waves of the west at a bound, and this moment reigns the uncontrolled monarch of the wilderness, in despite of even Omnipotence itself. " — winternorham. The tradition probably is Indian, but certainly not the bombast.

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Note 4o, page 242, col. 2. In your youth Ye have quaffed manly blood, that manly thoughts Might ripen in your hearts. In Florida when a sick man was bled, women who were suckling a man-child drank the blood, if the patient were a brave or strong man, that it might strengthen their milk and make the boys braver. Pregnant women also drank it.—Le Moy NE of Morgues. There is a more remarkable tale of kindred barbarity in Irish history. The royal family had been all cut off except one girl, and the wise men of the country fed her upon children's flesh to make her the sooner marriageable. I have not the book to refer to. and cannot therefore give the names; but the story is in Keating's history.

Note 41, page 243, col. 1. The spreading radii of the mystic wheel.

This dance is described from Clavigero; from whom also the account of their musical instruments is taken.

Note 42, page 243, col. 2.

On the top of yon magnolia the loud turkey's voice Is heralding the dawn.

“I was awakened in the morning early, by the cheer|ing converse of the wild turkey-cock (Meleagris occidentalis) saluting each other, from the sun-brightened tops of the lofty Cupressus disticha and Magnolia grandiflora. They begin at early dawn, and continue till sun-rise, from March to the last of April. The high forests ring with the noise, like the crowing of the domestic cock, of these social centinels, the watch-word being caught and repeated, from one to another, for hundreds of miles around ; insomuch, that the whole country is, for an hour or more, in an universal shout. A little after sunrise, their crowing gradually ceases, they quit their high lodging-places and alight on the earth, where, expanding their silver-bordered train, they strut and dauce round about the coy female, while the deep forests seem to tremble with their shrill noise.”—Barth AM.

Note 43, page 244, col. 2.
His cowl was white.

• They wore large garments like surplices, which were white, and had hoods such as the Canons wear ; their hair long and matted, so that it could not be parted, and now full of fresh blood from their ears, which they had that day sacrificed; and their nails very long.”—B. Diaz. Such is the description of the Mexican priests by one who had seen them.

Note 44, page 245, col. 1.
Tlaloona.

The Paradise of Tlaloc.

• They distinguished three places for the souls when separated from the body: Those of soldiers who died in battle or in captivity among their enemies, and those of women who died in labour, went to the House of the Sun, whom they considered as the Prince of Glory, where they led a life of endless delight; where, every day, at the first appearance of the sun's rays, they hailed his birth with rejoicings; and with dancing, and the music of instruments and of voices, attended him to his meridian; there they met the souls of the women, and with the same festivity accompanied him to his setting: they next supposed, that these spirits, after four years of that glorious life, went to animate clouds, and birds of beautiful feathers and of sweet song, but always at liberty to rise again to heaven, or to descend upon the earth, to warble and suck the flowers.- The souls of those that were drowned or struck by lightning, of those who died of dropsy, tumours, wounds, and other such diseases, went along with the souls of children, at least of those which were sacrificed to Tlaloc the God of Water, to a cool and delightful place called Tlalocan, where that God resided, and where they were to enjoy the most delicious repasts, with every other kind of pleasure.— Lastly, the third place allotted to the souls of those who suffered any other kind of death, was the Mictlan, or Hell, which they conceived to be a place of utter darkness, in which reigned a God, called Mictlanteuetli, Lord of Hell, and a Goddess, named Miclancihuatl. I am of opinion that they believed Hell to be a place in the centre of the earth, but they did not imagine that the souls underwent any other punishment there than what they suffered by the darkness of their abode. Siguenza thought the Mexicans placed Hell in the northern part of the earth, as the word Mictlampa signified towards both.” –CLAvige ao. When any person whose manner of death entitled him to a place in Tlalocan was buried (for they were never burnt), a rod or bough was laid in the grave with him, that it might bud out again and flourish in that Paradise.—ToaqueMADA, I. 13, c. 48. The souls of all the children, who had been offered to Tlaloc, were believed to be present at all after sacrifices, under the care of a large and beautiful serpent, called Xiuhcoatl.—Torque MADA, 1.8, c. 14, it back to his hand, either to renew his throw, or to use it in close combat. This weapon was called Cat and Catai.-Cambrian Register. The Irish horsemen were attended by servants on foot commonly called Daltini, armed only with darts or javelins, to which thongs of leather were fastened, wherewith to draw them back after they were cast.— Sir JAMES WARE's Antiquities of Ireland.

Note 45, page 245, col. 1. Green islets float along.

Artificial islands are common in China as well as in Mexico.

«The Chinese fishermen, having no houses on shore, nor stationary abode, but moving about in their vessels upon the extensive lakes and rivers, have no inducement to cultivate patches of ground, which the pursuits of their profession might require them to leave for the profit of another; they prefer, therefore, to plant their onions on rafts of bamboo, well interwoven with reeds and long grass, and covered with earth : and these floating gardens are towed after their boats.”—BABRow's China.

Note 46, page 245, col. 2. To Tlaloc it was hallowed, and the stone Which closed its entrance, never was removed, Save when the yearly festival returned, And in its womb a child was sepulchred, The living victim. There were three yearly sacrifices to Tlaloc: At the first, two children were drowned in the Lake of Mexico; but in all the provinces they were sacrificed on the mountains; they were a boy and girl, from three to four years old: in this last case the bodies were preserved in a stone chest, as relics, I suppose, says Torquemada, of persons whose hands were clean from actual sin; though their souls were foul with the original stain, of which they were neither cleansed nor purged, and

therefore they went to the place appointed for all, like them who perish unbaptized.— At the second, four children, from six to seven years of age, who were

bought for the purpose, the price being contributed by

the chiefs, were shut up in a cavern, and left to die with hunger; the cavern was not opened again till the next year's sacrifice.—The third continued during the three rainy months, during all which time children were offered up on the mountains; these also were bought; the heart and blood were given in sacrifice, the bodies were feasted on by the chiefs and priests.--TonqueMADA, L. 7. c. 21.

« In the country of the Mistecas was a cave sacred to the Water God. Its entrance was concealed, for, though this Idol was generally reverenced, this his temple was known to few; it was necessary to crawl the length of a musket-shot, and then the way, sometimes open and sometimes narrow, extended for a mile, before it reached the great dome, a place 70 feet long, and 40 wide, where were the Idol and the altar; the Idol was a rude column of stalactydes, or incrustation, formed by a spring of petrifying water, and other fantastic figures had thus grown around it. The ways of the cave were so intricate, that sometimes those who had unwarily bewildered themselves there perished. The Friar who discovered this Idol destroyed it, and filled up the entrance.”—PAdilla, p. 643.

Note 47, page 247, col. 1.
The temple serpents.

« The head of a sacrificed person was strung up; the limbs eaten at the feast; the body given to the wild beasts which were kept within the temple circuits: moreover, in that accursed house they kept vipers and venomous snakes, who had something at their tails which sounded like morris-bells, and they are the worst of all vipers; these were kept in cradles, and barrels, and earthen vessels upon feathers, and there they laid their eggs, and nursed up their smakclings, and they were fed with the bodies of the sacrificed and with dogs' flesh. We learnt for certain, that, after they had driven us from Mexico, and slain above 85 o of our soldiers and of the men of Narvaez, these beasts and snakes, who had been offered to their cruel Idol to be in his company, were supported upon their flesh for many days. When these lions and tigers roared, and the

jackals and foxes howled, and the snakes hissed, it was

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Note 48, page 247, col. 2. He had been confined Where myriad insects on his nakedness Infixed their venomous anger, and no start, No shudder, shook his frame. Some of the Orinoco Tribes required these severe probations, which are described by Gumilla, c. 35; the principle upon which they acted is strikingly stated by the Abbé Marigny in an Arabian anecdote. “Ali having been chosen by Nasser for Emir, or general of his army against Makan, being one day before this prince, whose orders he was receiving, made a convulsive motion with his whole body on feeling an acute bite: Nasser perceived it not. After receiving his orders, the Emir returned home, and taking off his clothes to examine the bite, found the scorpion that had

bitten him. Nasser, learning this adventure, when next

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he saw the Emir, reproved him, for having sustained the evil, without complaining at the moment, that it might have been remedied. “ How, Sir," replied the Emir, a should I be capable of braving the arrow's point, and the sabre's edge, at the head of your armies and far from you, if in your presence I could not bear the bite of a scorpion', r

Rank in war among savages can only be procured by superior skill or strength.

Y desde niñez al ejercicio
Los apremian por fuerza y los incitan,
Yen el belico estudio y duro officio
Entraudo en mas edad los ejercitan;
Si alguno de flaqueza da un indicio
Del uso militar lo inhabilitan,
Y el que sale en las armas señalado
Conforme à su valor le dan el grado.

Los cargos de la guerra y preem inencia
No son por flatos medios proveidos,
Ni van por calidad, ni por herencia
Nipor hacienda, y sermejor nacidos;
Mas la virtud del brazo y la excelencia,
Esta hace los hombres preferidos,
Esta ilustra, habilita, perficiana,
Y quilata el valor de la persona.
Araucana, I.

Note 49, page 247, col. 2.

—from the slaughtered brother of their king He stript the skin, and formed of it a drum, Whose sound affrighted armies. In some provinces they flead the captives taken in war, and with their skins covered their drums, thinking with the sound of them to affright their enemies: for their opinion was, that when the kindred of the slain heard the sound of these drums, they would immediately be seized with fear and put to flight.—Garcilaso de la Pega. • In the Palazzo Caprea at Bologna are several Turkish bucklers lined with human skin, dressed like leather; they told us it was that of the backs of Christian prisoners taken in battle ; and the Turks esteem a buckler lined with it to be a particular security against the impression of an arrow, or the stroke of a sabre.”— Laby Millen's Letters from Italy.

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Note 52, page 249, col. 2.

And with the sound of sonorous instruments,
And with their shouts and screams and yells drove back
The Britons' sainter war-cry.

Music seems to have been as soon applied to military as to religious uses.

Con flautus, cuernos, roncos instrumentos, Alto estruendo, alaridos desdenosos, Salen los fieros barbaros sangrientos Contra los Espanoles valerosos. Araucana, C. 4.

• James Reid, who had acted as Piper to a rebel regiment in the Rebellion, suffered death at York on Nov. 15, 1746, as a rebel. On his trial it was alleged in his defence, that he had not carried arms. But the Court observed, that a Highland Regiment never marched without a Piper, and therefore his bagpipe, in the eye of the law, was an instrument of war.”—WAlken's Irish Bards.

The construction was too much in the spirit of military law. Esop's trumpeter should not have served as a precedent. Croxall's Fables have been made of much practical consequence: this poor Piper was hung for not remembering one, and Gilbert Wakefield imprisoned for quoting another.

Note 53, page 250, col. 1.

A line of ample measure still retained The missile shaft.

A retractile weapon of tremendous effect was used by the Gothic tribes. Its use is thus described in a very interesting poem of the sixth century.

At monus pugnar Helmnod successit, et inse
Incertuin triplici, gestabat fune iridentern,
Quem post terga quidem stantes socii tenuerunt :
Consiliumque suit, dum cuspes missa sederet
In clypeo, cuncti pariter traxisse studerent,
Ut vel sic hominem dejecissent furibundum, -
Atque sub hac certum sibi spe posuere triumphyu.
Necmora; Dux, totas fundens in brachia vires,
Misit in adversum magna cum voce tridentem,
Et dicens, finis ferro tili, calve, sub isto.
Qui, ventos penetrans, jaculorum more coruscat:
Quod genus aspidis, ex alta sese arlore, tanto
Turbine demittit, quo cuncta obstantia vinent.
Quid moror? umbonem scind it, peltaque resultat.
Clamorem Franci tollunt, saltusque resultan
Obnixique trahunt restim simulatiue vicissi
Nec dubitat princeps talise aptare labori;
Manarunt cunctis sudoris flumina membris:
Sed tamen bic intra velut escilus astitit heros,
Quinon plus petit astra comis, quam tartara fibris,
Contemnens omnes ventorum, immola, fragores.

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Note 54, page 250, col. 1. Paynalton.

When this name was pronounced it was equivalent to a Proclamation for rising in mass.--TorqueMADA, L. 6. c. 22.

Note 55, page 250, col. 1. The House of Arms.

The name of this arsenal is a tolerable specimen of Mexican sesquipedalianism; Tlacochcalcoatlyacapan.— Tokous MADA, L. 8. c. 13.

Cortes consumed all the weapons of this arsenal in the infamous execution of Qualpopoca and his companions.—ll ERRERA, 2, 8, 9.

Note 56, page 250, col. 1. the ablution of the Stone of Sacrifice. An old Priest of the Tlatelucas, when they were at war with the Mexicans, advised them to drink the holy beverage before they went to battle: this was made by washing the Stone of Sacrifice; the King drank first, and then all his chiefs and soldiers in order; it made them eager and impatient for the fight.—TokoueMADA, L. 2. c. 58. To physic soldiers before a campaign seems an odd way of raising their courage, yet this was done by one of the fiercest American tribes. « When the warriors among the Natchez had assembled in sufficient numbers for their expedition, the Medicine of War was prepared in the Chief's cabin. This was an emetic, composed of a root boiled in water. The warriors, sometimes to the number of three hundred, seated themselves round the kettles or cauldrons; about a gallon was served to each : the ceremony was to swallow it at one draught, and then discharge it again with such loud eructations and efforts as might be heard at a great distance.”—Henior's History of Canada. Odd as this method of administering medicine may appear, some tribes have a still more extraordinary mode of dispensing it. • As I was informed there was to be a physic dance at night, curiosity led me to the town-house to see the preparation. A vessel of their own make, that might contain twenty gallons (there being a great many to take the medicine), was set on the fire, round which stood several gourds filled with river water, which was poured into the pot. This done, there arose one of the beloved Women, who, opening a deer-skin filled with various roots and herbs, took out a small handful of something like fine salt, part of which she threw on the head man's seat, and part on the fire close to the pot; she then took out the wing of a swan, and, after flourishing it over the pot, stood fixed for near a minute muttering something to herself; then taking a shrub like laurel, which I supposed was the physic, she threw it into the pot and returned to her seat. As no

more ceremony seemed to be going on, I took a walk till the Indians assembled to take it. At my return [ found the house quite full; they danced near an hour round the pot, till one of them, with a small gourd that might hold about a gill, took some of the physic, and drank it, after which all the rest took in turn. One of their head men presented me with some, and in a manner compelled me to drink, though I would willingly have declined. It was, however, much more palatable than I expected, having a strong taste of sassafras; the Indian who presented it told me it was taken to wash away their sins, so that this is a spiritual medicine, and might be ranked among their religious ceremonies. They are very solicitous about its success; the conjuror for several mornings before it is drank, makes a dreadful howling, yelling, and hollowing from the top of the town-house, to frighten away apparitions and evil spirits n-Timberlake.

Note 57, page 253, col. 2.
— two fire-flies gave
Their lustre.

It is well known that Madame Merian painted one of these insects by its own light.

• In Hispaniola and the rest of the Ocean Islandes, there are plashy and marshy places, very fitt for the feeding of heardes of cattel. Gnattes of divers kindes, ingendered of that moyste heate, grievously afflict the colonies seated on the brinke thereof, and that not only in the night, as in other countries; therefore the inhabitants build low houses, and make little doores therein, scarce able to receive the master, and without holes, that the gnatts may have no entrance. And for that cause also, they forbeare to light torches or candels, for that the gnatts by natural instinct follow the light; yet neverthelesse they often finde a way in. Nature hath given that pestilent mischiefe, and hath also given a remedy; as she hath given us cattes to destroy the filthy progeny of mise, so hath she given them pretty and commodious hunters, which they call Cucuij. These be harmless winged worms, somewhat less than battes or reere mise, I should rather call them a kind of beetles, because they have other wings after the same order under their hard-winged sheath, which they close within the sheath when they leave flying. To this lit. tle creature (as we see flyes shine by night, and certaine sluggish worms lying in thick hedges) provident nature hath given some very cleere looking-glasses; two in the seate of the eyes, and two lying hid in the flank, under the sheath, which he then sheweth, when, after the manner of the beetle, unsheathing his thin wings, he taketh his flight into the ayre; whereupon every Cucuius bringeth four lights or candels with him. But how they are a remedy for so great a mischiefe, as is the stinging of these gnatts, which in some places are little less than becs, it is a pleasant thing to hear. Hee who understandeth he hath those troublesome guestes (the gnattes) at home, or feareth lest they may get in, diligently hunteth after the Cucuij, which he deceiveta by this means and industry, which necessity (effecting wonders) hath sought out: whoso wanteth Cuckij, goeth out of the house in the first twilight of the night carrying a burning fire-brande in his hande, and ascend: eth the next hillock, that the Cucuij may see it, and hee swingeth the fire-brande about calling cucuius aloud, and beateth the ayre with, often calling and cry.

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