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herself for a certain price, and all that she can thus acquire she carries to the priest of the idol, that he may apply it to the service of the temple. Let us, says the Mohammedan relater, bless the almighty and glorious God, that he has chosen us, to exempt us from all the crimes into which men are led by their unbelief.-Anciennes Relations.
Incited, unquestionably, says Mr Maurice, by the hieroglyphic emblem of vice so conspicuously elevated, and so strikingly painted in the temples of Mahadeo, the priests of that deity industriously selected the most beautiful females that could be found, and, in their tenderest years, with great pomp and solemnity, consecrated them (as it is impiously called) to the service of the presiding divinity of the pagoda. They were trained up in every art to delude and to delight; and, to the fascination of external beauty, their artful betrayers added the attractions arising from mental accomplishments. Thus was an invariable rule of the Hindoos, that women have no concern with literature, dispensed with upon this infamous occasion. The moment these hapless victims reached maturity, they fell victims to the lust of the Brahmins. They were early taught to practise the most alluring blandishments, to roll the expressive eye of wanton pleasure, and to invite to criminal indulgence, by stealing upon the beholder the tender look of voluptuous languishing. They were instructed to mould their elegant and airy forms into the most enticing attitudes and the most lascivious gestures, while the rapid and graceful motion of their feet, adorned with golden bells, and glittering with jewels, kept unison with the exquisite melody of their voices. Every pagoda has a band of these young syrens, whose business, on great festivals, is to dance in public before the idol, to sing hymns in his honour, and in private to enrich the treasury of that pagoda with the wages of prostitution. These women are not, however, regarded in a dishonourable light; they are considered as wedded to the idol, and they partake of the veneration paid to him. They are forbidden ever to desert the pagoda where they are educated, and are never permitted to marry; but the offspring, if any, of their criminal embraces are considered as sacred to the idol: the boys are taught to play on the sacred instruments used at the festivals, and the daughters are devoted to the abandoned occupations of their mothers.-Indian Antiquities.
These impostors take a young maid, of the fairest they can meet with, to be the bride (as they speak and bear the besotted people in hand) of Jagannat, and they leave her all night in the temple (whither they have carried her) with the idol, making her believe that Jagannat himself will come and embrace her, and appointing her to ask him, whether it will be a fruitful year, what kind of processions, feasts, prayers, and alms he demands to be made for it. In the mean time one of : these lustful priest enters at night by a little back-door into the temple, deflowereth this young maid, and maketh her believe any thing he pleaseth ; and the next day, being transported from this temple into another with the same magnificence, she was carried before upon the chariot of triumph, on the side of Jagannat her bridegroom: these Prahmans make her say aloud, before all the people, whatsoever she hath been taught of these cheats, as if she had learnt it from the very mouth of Jagannat — Ben N1 ER.
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Note 70, page 331, col. 1. Baly. The fifth incarnation was in a Bramin dwarf, under the name of Vamen; it was wrought to restrain the pride of the giant Baly. The latter, after having conquered the gods, expelled them from Sorgon; he was generous, true to his word, compassionate, and charitable. Wichenou, under the form of a very little Bramin, presented himself
before him while he was sacrificing, and asked him for
three paces of land to build a hut. Baly ridiculed the apparent imbecility of the dwarf, in telling him, that he out;ht not to limit his demand to a bequest so tritling; that his generosity could bestow a much larger donation of land. Wamen answered, That, being of so small a stature, what he asked was more than sufficient. The prince immediately granted his request, and, to ratify his donation, poured water into his right hand, which was no sooner done than the dwarf grew so prodigiously, that his body filled the universe . He measured the earth with one pace, and the heavens with another, and then summoned Baly to give him his word for the third. The prince then recognised Wichenou, adored him, and presented his head to him; but the god, satisfied with his submission, sent him to govern the Padalon, and permitted him to return every year to the earth, the day of the full moon, in the month of November.—SoNNE. RAT's Poyages, vol. i. p. 24.
Note 71, page 331, col. 2.
The Brahmans who officiate at the temples generally go with their heads uncovered, and the upper part of the body naked. The Zennar, or sacred string, is hung round the body from the left shoulder; a piece of white cotton cloth is wrapped round the loins, which descends under the knee, but lower on the left side than on the other; and in cold weather they sometimes cover their bodies with a shawl, and their heads with a red cap.– The Zennar is made of a particular kind of perennial
cotton, called Perma : it is composed of a certain num
ber of threads of a fixed length: the Zennar worn by the Khatries has fewer threads than that worn by the Brahmans, and that worn by the Bhyse fewer than that worn by the Khatries; but those of the Soodra cast are excluded from this distinction, none of them being per mitted to wear it.—Caufus D.
Note 72, page 332, col. 1. The City of Baly. Ruins of Mahābalipúr, the City of the great Baly. A rock, or rather hill of stone, is that which first engrosses the attention on approaching the place; for as it rises abruptly out of a level plain of great extent, con
sists chiefly of one single stone, and is situated very near
to the sea-beach, it is such a kind of object as an inquisitive traveller would naturally turn aside to examine. Its shape is also singular and romantic, and, from a distant view, has au appearance like some antique and lofty edifice. On coming near to the foot of the rock from the north, works of imagery and sculpture crowd so thick upon the eye, as might seem to favour the idea of a petrified town, like those that have been fabled in different parts of the world, by too credulous travellers. Proceeding on by the foot of the hill, on the side facing the sea, there is a pagoda rising out of the ground, of one pose. The top is arched, and the style of architecture according to which it is formed different from any now used in those parts. A little further on, there appears, upon a huge surface of stone, that juts out a little from the side of the hill, a numerous group of human figures, in bass relief, considerably larger than life, representing the most remarkable persons whose actions are celebrated in the Mahabharit, each of them in an attitude, or with weapons, or other insignia, expressive of his character; or of some one of his most famous exploits. All these figures are doubtless much less distinct than they were at tirst; for upon comparing these and the rest of the sculptures that are exposed to the sea-air, with others at the same place, whose situation has afforded them protection from that element, the difference is striking; the former being every where much defaced, while the others are fresh as recently finished. An excavation in another part of the east side of the great rock appears to have been made on the same plan, and for the same purpose, that Chowitries are usually built in that country, that is to say, for the accommodation of travellers. The rock is hollowcd out to the size of a spacious room, and two or three rows of pillars are left, as a seeming support to the mountainous mass of stone which forms the roof. The ascent of the hill on the north is, from its natural shape, gradual and easy at first, and is in other parts rendered more so, by very excellent steps, cut out in several places where the communication would be difficult or impracticable without them. A winding stair of this sort leads to a kind of temple cut out of the solid rock, with some figures of idols in high relief upon the walls, very well finished. From this temple there are flights of steps, that seem to have led to some edifice formerly standing upon the hill; nor does it seem absurd to suppose that this may have been a palace, to which this temple may have appertained; for, besides the small detached ranges of stairs that are here and there cut in the rock, and seem as if they had once led to different parts of one great building, there appear in many places small water channels cut also in the rock, as if for drains to an house; and the whole top of the hill is strewed with small round pieces of brick, which may be supposed, from their appearance, to have been worn down to their present form during the lapse of many ages. On a plain surface of the rock, which may once have served as the floor of some apartment, there is a platform of stone, | about 8 or 9 feet long, by 3 or 4 wide, in a situation rather elevated, with two or three steps leading up to it, perfectly resembling a couch or bed, and a lion very well executed at the upper end of it, by way of pillow : the whole of one piece, being part of the hill itself. This the Bramins, inhabitants of the place, call the bed of Dhermarajah, or Judishter, the eldest of the five brothers, whose exploits are the leading subject in the Mahabharit. And at a considerable distance from this, at such a distance, indeed, as the apartments of the women might be supposed to be from that of the men, is a bath, excavated also from the rock, with steps in the inside, which the Bramins call the Bath of Dropedy, the wife of Judishter and his brothers. How much credit is due to this tradition, and whether this stone couch may not have been anciently used as a kind of throne, rather proportion to the elephant in size, that the elephant itself does to a common sheep. In one of the prints to Mr Kindersley’s “Specimens of Hindoo Literature,” an aullay is represented taking up an elephant with his trunk. Note 75, page 333, col. 2. —— Did then the Ocean wage His war for love and envy, not in rage, 0 thou fair City, that he spares thee thus?
solid stone, about sixteen or cighteen feet high, which than a bed, is matter for future enquiry. A circumseems to have been cut upon the spot, out of a detached stance, however, which may seem to favour this idea is, rock, that has been found of a proper size for that pur- that a throne, in the Shanscrit and other Hindoo lan
guages, is called Singhaisen, which is compounded of Sing, a lion, and disen, a seat.
But though these works may be deemed stupendous, they are surpassed by others that are to be seen at the distance of about a mile or mile and half, to the south of the hill. They consist of two pagodas, of about 30 feet long, by zo feet wide, and about as many in height, cut out of the solid rock, and each consisting originally of one single stone. Their form is different from the style of architecture according to which idol temples are now built in that country. These sculptures approach nearer to the Gothic taste, being surmounted by arched roofs, or domes, not semicircular, but composed of two segments of circles meeting in a point at top. Near these also stand an elephant full as big as life, and a lion much larger than the natural size, both hewn also out of one stone.
The great rock is about 50 or loo yards from the sea; but close to the sea are the remains of a pagoda built of brick, and dedicated to Sib, the greatest part of which has evidently been swallowed up by that element; for the door of the innermost apartment, in which the idol is placed, and before which there are always two or three spacious courts surrounded with walls, is now washed by the waves, and the pillar used to discover the meridian at the time of founding the pagoda, is seen standin; at some distance in the sea. In the neighbourhood of this building there are some detached rocks, washed also by the waves, on which there appear sculptures, though now much worn and defaced : And the natives of the place declared to the writer of this account, that the more aged people among them remembered to have seen the tops of several pagodas far out in the sea, which, being covered with copper, (probably gilt.) were particularly visible at sun-rise, as their shining surface used then to reflect the sun's rays, but that now that effect was no longer produced, as the copper had since become incrusted with mould and verdigrease.—ChamBERs. Asiatic Researches.
Malecheren, (which is probably another name for Baly), in an excursion which he made one day alone, and in disguise, came to a garden in the environs of his city Mahabalipoor, where was a fountain so inviting, that two celestial nymphs had come down to bathe there. The Rajah became enamoured of one of them, wilo condescended to allow of his attachment to her; and she and her sister nymph used thenceforward to have frequent interviews with him in that garden. On one of those occasions they brought with them a male inhabitant of the heavenly regions, to whom they introduced the Rajah; and between him and Malecheren a strict friendship ensued; in cousequence of which he agreed, at the Rajah's earnest request, to carry him in disguise to see the court of the divine Inder, a favour never before granted to any mortal. The Rajah returned from thence with new ideas of splendour and magnificence, which he immediately adopted in regulating his court and his retinue, and in beautifying his seat of government. By this means Malabalipoor became soon celebrated beyond all the cities of the earth; and an account of its magnificence having been brought to the gods assembled at the court of Inder, their jealousy was so much excited at it, that they sent orders to the God of the Sea to let loose his billows, and overflow a place which impiously pretended to vie in splendour with their celestial mansions. This command he obeyed, and the city was at once overflowed by that furious element, nor has it ever since been able to rear its head. —Chambers. Asiat. Res.
Note 76, page 334, col. 1. Round those strange waters they repair. In the Bahia dos Artifices, which is between the river Jagoarive and S. Miguel, there are many springs of fresh water, which may be seen at low tide, and these springs are frequented by fish and by the sea-cow, which they say comes to drink there.--Noticias do Brazil. MSS. i, 8. The inhabitants of the Feroe Islands seek for cod in places where there is a fresh-water spring at the bottom. —LANDr. Note 77, page 337, col. 2. The sheckra. This weapon, which is often to be seen in one of the wheel-spoke hands of a Hindoo god, resembles a quoit: the external edge is sharp: it is held in the middle, and, being whirled along, cuts wherever it strikes.
Note 78, p.g. 28, col. 1. The writing which, at thy nativity, All-knowing Nature wrought upon thy brain.
Brahma is considered as the immediate creator of all things, and particularly as the disposer of each person's fate, which he inscribes within the skull of every created being, and which the gods themselves cannot avert. —Ki Ndeasley, p. 21. Niec AMP. vol. i., p. 10. sect. 7.
i It is by the sutures of the skull that these lines of des.
tiny are formed. See also a note to Thalaba upon a like superstition of the Mahorn medans. * Quand on leur reproche quelque vice, ou qu'on les repreud d'une mauvaise action, ils repondent froidement. que cela est écrit sur leur tete, et qu'ils n'ont pn faire autrement. Si vous paroissez étonné de ce langage nonweau, et que vous demandiez a voir ou cela est ecrit, ils vous montrentles diverses jointures du crane deleur tete, pretendant que les sutures meme sont les caracteres de cette écriture mystericuse. Si vous les pressez de dechis. frerces caracteres, et devous faire connoitre ce qu'ils sig. niiient, ils avouent qu'ils me le scavent pas. Mais puisque vous ne scavez pas lire cette écriture, disois-je quelquefois a ces gens entetes, qui est-ce done qui vous la lit! quiest. ce qui vous en explique le sens, et qui vous fait connoitre ce qu’elle contient Dailleurs ces pretendus caracteres etant les memes sur la tête detous les hommes, d'ouvient qu'ils agissent si differemment, et qu'ils sont si contraites les uns aux autres dans leurs vues, dans leurs desseins, et dans leurs projets?» “Les Brames mécoutoient de sang froid, et sans sin. quiéter ni des contradictions ou ils tomboient, ni des consequences ridicules qu'ils étoient obliges d'avouer. Ensin, lorsqu'ils se sentoient vivement presses, toute leur ressource etoit de se retirer sans rien dire.”—P. Matbuir, Lettres Edifiantes, t. x, p. 248.
Note 79, page 339, col. 1. The Seven Earths.
The seas which surround these earths are, i. of salt water, inclosing our inmost earth; 2. of fresh water; 3. of tyre, curdled milk; 4. of ghee, clarified butter; 3. of cauloo, a liquor drawn from the pullum tree; 6 of liquid sugar; 7. of milk. The whole system is inclosed in one broad circumference of pure gold, beyond which reigns impenetrable darkness.-K1 N densley.
I know not whether the following fable was invented to account for the saltness of our sea:
* Agasiya is recorded to have been very low instatute; and one day, previously to the rectifying the too oblique posture of the earth, walking with Veeshnu on the short
lance, Agastya and Veeshnu separated: when the latter,
Note 80, page 339, col. 2.
The residence of Ixora is upon the silver mount Calaja, to the south of the famous mountain Mahameru, being a most delicious place, planted with all sorts of trees, that bear fruit all the year round. The roses and other flowers send forth a most odoriferous scent; and the pond at the foot of the mount is inclosed with pleasant walks of trees, that afford an agreeable shade, whilst the peacocks and divers other birds entertain the ear with their larmonious noise, as the beautiful women do the eyes. The circumjacent woods are inhabited by a certain people called Munis, or Rixis, who, avoiding the conversation of others, spend their time in offering daily sacrifices to their god. It is observable, that though these pagans are generally black themselves, they do represent these Rixis to be of a fair complexion, with long white beards, and long garments hanging cross-ways, from about the neck down over the breast. They are in such high esteem among them, they believe that whom they bless are blessed, and whom they curse are cursed. Within the mountain lives another generation, called sexaquin mera and Quendra, who are free from all trouble, spend their days in continual contemplations, praises, and prayers to God. Round about the mountain stand seven ladders, by which you ascend to a spacious plain, in the middle whereof is a bell of silver, and a square table, surrounded with nine precious stones, of divers colours. Upon this table lies a silver rose, called Tamara Pua, which contains two women as bright and fair as a pearl: one is called Brigasiri, i. e. the Lady of the Mouth; the other Tarasiri, i. e. the Lady of the Tongue, −because they praise God with the mouth and tongue. In the centre of this rose is the triangle of Quivelinga, which they say is the permanent residence of God.— BALDEUs.
Note 81, page 340, col. 1.
0 All-embracing Mind, Thou who art every-where.
perhaps it would have been better if I had written all-containing mind.
& Even I was even at first, not any other thing; that which exists, unperceived, supreme: afterwards I am that which is; and he who must remain, am I.
• Except the First Cause, whatever may appear, and may not appear, in the mind, know that to be the mind's Maya, or delusion, as light, as darkness.
• As the great elements are in various beings, entering, yet not entering, (that is, pervading, not destroying,) thus am I in them, yet not in them.
... Even thus far may inquiry be made by him who seeks to know the principle of mind in union and separation, which must be everywhere, always.”—Asiat. Researches. Sir W. Jones, from the Bhagavat,
I am the creation and the dissolution of the whole universe. There is not any thing greater than 1, and all things hang on me, even as precious gems upon a string. I am moisture in the water, light in the sun and moon, invocation in the Peds, sound in the firmament, human nature in mankind, sweet-smelling savour in the earth, glory in the source of light: In all things I am life; and i am real in the zealous; and know, O Arjoon! that I am the eternal seed of all nature. I am the understanding of the wise, the glory of the proud, the strength of the strong, free from lust and anger; and in animals I am desire regulated by moral fitness-Karksiina, in the Bhagavat-Geeta.
Note 82, page 340, col. 1.
Being now in the splendorous lustre of the divine bliss and glory, I there saw in spirit the choir of the holy angels, the choir of the prophets and apostles, who, with heavenly tongues and music, sing and play around the throne of God; yet not in just such corporeal forms or shapes as are those we no" bear and walk
gels in the shape of a multitude of tames of fire, the souls of believers in the shape of a multitude of glittering or luminous sparkles; God's throne in the shape, or under the appearance of a great splendour-Hans ExG.E.L.B RECH. T.
Something analogous to this unendurable presence of Seeva is found amid the nonsense of Joanna Southcott. Apollyon is there made to say of the Lord, « thou knowest it is written, he is a consuming fire, and who can dwell in everlasting burningst who could abide in devouring flames? Our backs are not brass, nor our sinews iron, to dwell with God in heaven.”-Dispute between the Woman and the Powers of Darkness.
Note 83, page 340, col. 1.
The Sun himself had seem'd A speck of darkness there. & There the sun shines not, nor the moon and stars: these lightnings flash not in that place ; how should even fire blaze there God irradiates all this bright substance, and by its effulgence the universe is enlightened.»–From the Yajurveda. Asiat. Res. Harc nit, et sese radiorum nocte suorum Claudit inaccessum.-Cathana.
Note 84, page 341, col. 2.
whose cradles from some tree
I heard a voice crying out under my window; l
looked out, and saw a poor young girl lamenting the clasped it to his breast. Mean time Yhamen came unhappy case of her sister. On asking what was the down from his buffle, threw a rope about the youth's
matter, the reply was, Boot Laggeosa, a demon has neck, and held him fast therewith, as also the Lingam, scized her. These unhappy people say Boot Laggeosa, which Marcandem grasp'd with all his strength, and
if a child newly born will not suck; and they expose it to death in a basket, hung on the branch of a tree. One day, as Mr Thomas and I were riding out, we saw a basket hung in a tree, in which an infant had been exposed, the skull of which remained, the rest having been devoured by ants.-Periodical Accounts of the Baptist Missionaries.
Note 85, page 342, col. t.
That strange Indian Bird. The Chatookee. They say it never drinks at the streams below, but, opening its bill when it rains, it catches the drops as they fall from the clouds.-Periodi
cal Accounts of the Baptist Missionaries, vol. ii, p. 309.
Note 86, page 343, col. 1.
Fama was a child of the Sun, and thence named Paivaswata; another of his titles was Dhermaraja, or
King of Justice; and a third Pitripeti, or Lord of the
Patriarchs: but he is chiefly distinguished as Judge of departed souls; for the Hindus believe, that, when a soul leaves its body, it immediately repairs to Yamapur, or the city of Fama, where it receives a just sentence from him, and thence either ascends to Swerga, or the first Heaven; or is driven down to Narae, the region of serpents; or assumes on earth the form of some animal, unless its offence has been such, that it ought to be condemned to a vegetable, or even to a mineral prison.—Sir W. Jones. There is a story concerning Yamen which will remind the reader, in its purport, of the fable of Love and Death. “A famous penitent, Morrugandumagarexi by name, had, during a long series of years, served the gods with uncommon and most exemplary piety. This very virtuous man having no children, was extremely desirous of having one, and therefore daily besought the god Xiven (or Seeva) to grant him one. At length the god heard his desire, but, before he indulged it him, he asked him, whether he would have several children, who should be long-lived and wicked, or one virtuous and prudent, who should die in his sixteenth year? The penitent chose the latter : his wife conceived, and was happily delivered of the promised son, whom they named Marcandem. The boy, like his father, zealously devoted himself to the worship of Xiven, but as soon as he had attained his sixteenth year, the officers of Yliamen, god of death, were sent on the earth, to remove him from thence. « Young Marcandem being informed on what errand they were come, told them, with a resolute air, that he was resolved not to die, and that they might go back, if they pleased. They returned to their master, and told him the whole affair. Yhamen immediately mounted his treat buffle, and set out. Being come, he told th youth that he acted very rashly in refusing to leave the world, and it was unjust in him, for Xiven had promised him a life only of sixteen years, and the term was ex
divine necessity, it is reproduced. That which, upon
of Him, it says, whose glory is so great, there is no
was going to drag them both into hell, when Xiven
issued out of the Lingam, drove back the king of the dead, and gave him so furious a blow, that he killed him on the spot.
“The god of death being thus slain, mankind multi
plied so that the earth was no longer able to contain
them. The gods represented this to Xiven, and he, at their entreaty, restored Whamen to life, and to all the
power he had before enjoyed. Yhamen immediately dispatched a herald to all parts of the world, to summon all the old men. The herald got drunk before he set out, and, without staying till the fumes of the wine were dispelled, mounted an elephant, and rode up and down the world, pursuant to his commission; and, instead of publishing this order, he declared, that it was the will and pleasure of Yliamen, that, from this day forward, all the leaves, fruits, and slowers, whether
ripe or green, should fall to the ground. This procla
mation was no sooner issued than men began to yield to death : But before Yhamen was killed, only the old were deprived of life, and now people of all ages are summoned indiscriminately.”—Picant.
Note 87, page 345, col. 1. And Brama's region. where the heavenly Hours Weave the vast circle of his age-long day. They who are acquainted with day and night know that the day of Brahma is as a thousand revolutions of the Poogs, and that his night extendeth for a thousand more. On the coming of that day all things proceed from invisibility to visibility; so, on the approach of night, they are all dissolved away in that which is called invisible. The universe, even, having existed, is again dissolved; and now again, on the approach of day, by
the dissolution of all things else, is not destroyed, is superior and of another nature from that visibility : it is invisible and eternal. He who is thus called invisible and incorruptible is even he who is called the Supreme Abode; which men having once obtainca, they never more return to earth: that is my mansion.—Kneeshna, in the Bhagavat-Geeta. The guess, that Brama and his wife Saraswadi may be Abraham and Sarah, has more letters in its favour than are usually to be found in such guesses.—Niecamr, p. i, c. 10. sect. 2. The true cause why there is no idol of Brama (except the head, which is his share in the Trimourter) is probably to be found in the conquest of his sect. A different reason, however, is implied in the Veeda :
image:—He is the incomprehensible Being which illu-
Note 88, page 346, col. 1. Two forms inseparable in unity, Hath Yamen.
pired. But this reason did not satisfy Marcandem, who The Dharma-Raja, or king of justice, has two counpersisted in his resolution not to die; and, fearing lest tenances; one is mild and full of benevolence; those the god of death should attempt to take him away by alone who abound with virtue see it. He holds a court
force, he ran to his oratory, and taking the Lingam, of justice, where are many assistants, among whom are