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many just and pious kings: Chitragupta acts as chief secretary. These holy men determine what is dharma and adharma, just and unjust. His (Dharma-Raja's) servant is called Carmala: he brings the righteous on celestial cars, which go of themselves, whenever holy men are to be brought in, according to the directions of the Dharma-Raja, who is the sovereign of the Pitris. This is called his divine countenance, and the righteous alone do see it. His other countenance, or form, is | called Pama; this the wicked alone can see: It has large teeth and a monstrous body. Fama is the lord of Patala; there he orders some to be beaten, some to be cut to pieces, some to be devoured by monsters, etc. His servant is called Cashmala, who, with ropes round their necks, drags the wicked over rugged paths, and throws them headlong into hell. He is unmerciful, and hard is his heart; every body trembles at the sight of him.—Wilroad. Asiatic Researches.

Note 89, page 346, col. 2.
Black of aspect, red of eye.

Punishment is the Magistrate; Punishment is the Inspirer of Terror; Punishment is the Defender from Calamity; Punishment is the Guardian of those that sleep; Punishment, with a black aspect and a red eye, tempts the guilty.—Halhko's Gentoo Code, ch. xxi, sect. 8.

Note 90, page 346, col. 2.

In Patala (or the infernal regions) resides the sovereign Queen of the Nagas, (large snakes, or dragons :) she is beautiful, and her name is Asyoruca. There, in a cave, she performed Taparya with such rigorous austerity, that fire sprang from her body, and formed numerous agnitiraths (places of sacred fire) in Patala. These fires, forcing their way through the earth, waters, and mountains, formed various openings or mouths, called from thence the slaming mouths, or juala muihi. By Samudr, (Oceanus,) a daughter was born unto her, called Rama-Devi. She is most beautiful; she is Lacshmi; and her name is Asyotcarsha, or Asyotcrishta. Like a jewel she remains concealed in the Ocean.-Wilroad. Asiat. Res.

Note 91, page 347, col. 1.
He came in all his might and majesty.

what is this to the coming of Seeva, as given us by Mr Maurice, from the Seeva Paurana o

• In the place of the right wheel blazed the Sun, in the place of the left was the Moon; instead of the brazen nails and bolts, which firmly held the ponderous wheels, were distributed Bramins on the right hand, and Reyshees on the left; in lieu of the canopy on the top of the chariot was overspread the vault of Heaven; the counterpoise of the wheels was on the east and west, and the four Semordres were instead of the cushions and bolsters; the four Vedas were placed as the horses of the chariot, and Saraswaty was for the bell; the piece of wood by which the horses are driven was the three-lettered Mantra, while Brama himself was the charioteer, and the Nacshatras and stars were distributed about it by way of ornaments. Sumaru was in the place of a bow, the serpent Seschanaga was stationed as the string, Veeshnu instead of an arrow, and fire was constituted its point. Ganges and other rivers were appointed its precursors; and the setting

out of the chariot, with its appendages and furniture, one would affirm to be the year of twelve months gracefully moving forwards. • When Seeva, with his numerous troops and prodigious army, was mounted, Brama drove so furiously, that thought itself, which, in its rapid career, compasses Heaven and Earth, could not keep pace with it. By the motion of the chariot Heaven and Earth were put into a tremor; and, as the Earth was not able to bear up under this hurthen, the Cow of the Earth, Kam-deva, took upon itself to support the weight. Seeva went with intention to destroy Treepoor; and the multitude of Devatas and Reyshees and Apsaras who waited on his stirrup, opening their mouths, in transports of joy and praise, exclaimed, Jayal Jaya! so that Parvati, not being able to bear his absence, set out to accompany Seeva, and, in an instant, was up with him; while the light which brightened on his countenance, on the arrival of Parvati, surpassed all imagination and description. The Genii of the eight regions, armed with all kinds of weapons, but particularly with agnyastra, or fire-darts, like moving mountains, advanced in front of the army; and Eendra and other Devatas, some of them mounted on elephants, some on horses, others on chariots, or on camels or buffaloes, were stationed on each side, while all the other order of Devatas, to the amount of some lacs, formed the centre. The Munietuvaras, with long hair on their heads, like Saniassis, holding their staves in their hands, danced as they went along; the Syddyhas, who revolve about the heavens, opening their mouths in praise of Seeva, rained flowers upon his head; and the vaulted heaven, which is like an inverted goblet, being appoint ed in the place of a drum, exalted his dignity by its majestic resounding.” Throughout the Hindoo fables there is the constant mistake of bulk for sublimity.

Note 92, page 347, col. 1. By the attribute of Deity self-multiplied The dreadful one appear'd on every side. This more than polypus power was once exerted by Krishna, on a curious occasion. It happened in Dwarka, a splendid city built by Piswakarma, by command of Krishna, on the sea-shore, in the province of Gazerat, that his musical associate, Nareda, had no wife or substitute; and he hinted to his friend the decency of sparing him one from his long catalogue of ladies. Krishna generously told him to win and wear any one he chose, not immediately in requisition for himself. Nareda accordingly went wooing to one house, but found his master there; to a second—he was again forestalled; a third, the same; to a fourth, fifth, the same: in fine, after the round of sixteen thousand of these domiciliary visits, he was still forced to sigh and keepsingle; for Krishna was in every house, variously employed, and so domesticated, that each lady congratulated herself on her exclusive and uninterrupted possession of the ardent deity.—Moon's Hindu Pantheon, p. 204. Eight of the chief gods have each their sacti, or energy, proceeding from them, differing from them in sex, but in every other respect exactly like them, with the same form, the same decorations, the same weapons, and same vehicle.—Asiat. Res. 8vo edit. vol. viii, p. 68,82.

The manner in which this divine power is displayed by Kehama, in his combat with Yamen, will remind some readers of the Irishman, who brought in four pri. soners, and beint; asked how he had taken them, replied, he had surrounded them.

Note 93, passe 348, col. 1. The Amreeta, or Drink of Imumortality. Mr Wilkins has given the genuine history of this liquor, which was produced by churning the sea with a mountain. • There is a fair and stately mountain, and its name is Meroo, a most exalted mass of glory, reflecting the sunny rays from the splendid surface of its gilded horns. It is clothed in gold, and is the respected haunt of Dews and Gandarvas. It is inconceivable, and not to be encompassed by sinful man; and it is guarded by dreadful serpents. Many celestial medicinal plants adorn its sides; and it stands, piercing the heaven with its aspiring summit, a mighty hill, inaccessible even by the human mind. It is adorned with trees and pleasant streams, and resoundeth with the delightful songs of various birds. • The Soors, and all the glorious hosts of heaven, having ascended to the summit of this lofty mountain, sparkling with precious gems, and for eternal ages raised, were sitting in solemn synod, meditating the discovery of the Amreeta, the Water of Immortality. The Dew Narayan being also there, spoke unto Brahma, whilst the Soors were thus consulting together, and said, ‘Let the Ocean, as a pot of milk, be churned by the united labour of the Soors and Asoors; and when the mighty waters have been stirred up, the Amreeta shall be found. Let them collect together every medicinal herb, and every precious thing, and let them stir the Ocean, and they shall discover the Amreeta, * There is also another mighty mountain, whose name is Mandar, and its rocky summits are like towerint; clouds. It is clothed in a net of the entangled tendrils of the twining creeper, and resoundeth with the harmony of various birds. Innumerable savage beasts infest its borders; and it is the respected haunt of Kennars, Dews, and Apsars. It standeth eleven thousand Yojan above the carth, and eleven thousand more below its surface. « As the united bands of Deus were unable to remove this mountain, they went before Peeshmoo, who was sitting with Brahma, and addressed them in these words; Exert, O masters! your most superior wisdom to remove the mountain Mandar, and employ your ulmost power for our good.' * Peeshmoo and Brahma having said, “it shall be according to your wish, he with the lotus eye directed the King of Serpents to appear; and Ananta arose, and was instructed in that work by Brahma, and commanded by Narayan to perform it. Then Ananta, by his power, took up that king of mountains, together with all its forests and every inhabitant thereof; and the Soors accompanied him into the presence of the Ocean, whom they addressed, saying, ‘We will stir up thy waters to obtain the Amreeta. Aud the Lord of the Waters replied, ‘Let me also have a share, seeing I am to bear the violent agitation that will be caused by the whirling of the mountain' Then the Soors and Asoors spoke unto Koorma-raj, the King of the Tortoises, upon the strand of the Ocean, and said, ‘My lord is able to

be the supporter of this mountain.' The Tortoise replied, “Be it so; and it was placed upon his back. * So the mountain being set upon the back of the Tortoise, Eendra began to whirl it about as it were a machine. The mountain Mandar served as a churn, and the serpent Pasoakee for the rope; and thus in former days did the Dews, and Asoors, and the Dandos, begiu to stir up the waters of the ocean for the discovery of the Amreeta. “The mighty Asoors were employed on the side of the serpent's head, whilst all the Soors assembled about his tail. Ananta, that sovereign Dew, stood near Narayan. • They now pull forth the serpent's head repeatedly, and as often let it go; whilst there issued from his mouth, thus violently drawing to and fro by the Soor and Asoors, a continual stream of fire and smoke and wind, which ascending in thick clouds, replete will lightning, it began to rain down upon the heavenly bands, who were already fatigued with their labour; whilst a shower of flowers was shaken from the top of the mountain, covering the heads of all, both Soors and Asoors. In the mean time the roaring of the ocean, whilst violently agitated with the whirling of the mountain Mandar by the soors and Asoors, was like the bellowing of a mighty cloud. Thousands of the various productions of the waters were torn to pieces by the mountain, and confounded with the briny flood; and every specific being of the deep, and all the inhabitants of the great abyss which is below the earth, were annhilated ; whilst, from the violent agitation of the Inountain, the forest trees were dashed against each other, and precipitated from its utmost height, with all the birds thereon; from whose violent confication a raging fire was produced, involving the whole mountain with smoke and flame, as with a dark blue cloud, and the lightning'svivid slash. The lion and the retreating elephant are overtaken by the devouring flames, and every vital being and every specific thing, are consumed in the goneral conflagration. « The rating flames, thus spreading destruction on all sides, were at length quenched by a shower of cloud. borne water, poured down by the immortal Eendra. And now a heterogeneous stream of the concocted juices of various trees and plants ran down into the briny flood « It was from this milk-like stream of juices, produced from those trees and plants and a mixture of melted gold, that the soors obtained their immortality « The waters of the Ocean now being assimilated with those juices, were converted into milk, and from that milk a kind of butter was presently produced; when the heavenly bands went again into the presence of Brahma, the granter of boons, and addressed him. | saying, ‘Except Narayan, every other Soor and door is fatigued with his labour, and still the Anreeta dot" not appear; wherefore the churning of the Oceau is a " . stand. Then Brahma said unto Narayan, ‘End" them with recruited strength, for thou art their support. And Narayan answered and said, ‘I will give fresh vigour to such as co-operate in the work. Let Mandar le whirled about, and the bed of the ocean be kept steady. « When they heard the words of Narayan, they al returned again to the work, and began to stir about with great force that butter of the ocean, when there present: ly arose from out the troubled deep, first the Midog, with a pleasing countenance, shining with ten thous" beams of gentle light; next followed Sree, the goddess

of fortune, whose seat is the white lily of the waters; then Soora-Devee, the goddess of wine, and the white horse called Oohisnava. And after these there was produced from the unctuous mass the jewell Kowstoobh, that glorious sparkling gem worn by Narayan on his breast; also Parejat, the tree of plenty, and Soorabhee, the cow that granted every heart's desire. * The moon, Soora-Devee, the goddess of Sree, and the Horse, as swift as thought, instantly marched away towards the Dews, keeping in the path of the Sun. a Then the Dew Dhanwantaree, in human shape, came forth, holding in his hand a white vessel filled with the immortal juice Aureeta. When the Asoors beheld these wondrous things appear, they raised their tumultuous voices for the Amreeta, and each of them clamorously exclaimed, ‘This of right is mine.' • In the mean time Travat, a mighty elephant, arose, now kept by the god of thunder; and as they continued to churn the ocean more than enough, that deadly poison issued from its bed, burning like a raging fire, whose dreadful fumes in a moment spread throughout the world, confounding the three regions of the universe with the mortal stench, until Seev, at the word of | Brahma, swallowed the fatal drug, to save mankind; which, remaining in the throat of that Sovereign Dew of magic form, from that time he hath been called Neel-Kant, because his throat was stained blue. * When the Asoors beheld this miraculous deed, they became desperate, and the Amreeta and the goddess Sree became the source of endless hatred. • Then Narayan assumed the character and person of Moheenee Maya, the power of enchantment, in a female form of wonderful beauty, and stood before the Asoors, whose minds being fascinated by her presence, and deprived of reason, they scized the 4mreeta, and gave it unto her. • The Asoors now clothe themselves in costly armour, and, seizing their various weapons, rush on together to attack the Soors. In the mean time Narayan, in the female form, having obtained the Amreeta from the hands of their leader, the hosts of Soors, during the tumult and confusion of the Asoors, drank of the living water. | And it so fell out, that whilst the Soors were quenching their thirst for immortality, Rahoo, an Asoor, assumed the form of a Soor, and began to drink also: And the water had but reached his throat, when the Sun and Moon, in friendship to the Soors, discovered the deceit; and instantly Narayan cut off his head as he was drinking, with his splendid weapon Chakra. | And the gigantic head of the Asoor, emblem of a mountain's summit, being thus separated from his body by the Chakra's edge, bounded into the heavens' with a dreadful cry, whilst his ponderous trunk fell, cleaving the ground asunder, and shaking the whole earth unto its foundation, with all its islands, rocks, and forests: And from that time the head of Rahoo resolved an eternal enmity, and continueth, even unto this day, at times to seize upon the Sun and Moon. “Now Narayan, having quitted the female figure he had assumed, began to disturb the Asoors with sundry celestial weapons; and from that instant a dreadful battle was commenced, on the ocean's briny strand, between the Asoors and the Soors. Innumerable sharp and missile weapons were hurled, and thousands of Piercing darts and battle-axes fell on all sides. The

Asoors vomit blood from the wounds of the Chakra, and fall upon the ground pierced by the sword, the spear, and spiked club. Heads, glittering with polished gold, divided by the Pattees' blade, drop incessantly; and mangled bodies, wallowing in their gore, lay like fragments of mighty rocks, sparkling with gems and precious ores. Millions of sighs and groans arise on every side; and the sun is overcast with blood, as they clash their arms, and wound each other with their dreadful instruments of destruction. • Now the battle is fought with the iron-spike club, and, as they close, with clenched fist; and the din of war ascendeth to the heavens. They cry ‘Pursue ! strike! fell to the ground !' so that a horrid and tumultuous noise is heard on all sides. * In the midst of this dreadful hurry and confusion of the fight, Nar and Narayan entered the field together. Narayan, beholding a celestial bow in the hand of Nar, it reminded him of his Chakra, the destroyer of the Asoors. The faithful weapon, by name Soodarsan, ready at the mind's call, slew down from heaven with direct and refulgent speed, beautiful, yet terrible to behold: And being arrived, glowing like the sacrificial flame, and spreading terror around, Narayan, with his right arm formed like the elephantine trunk, hurled forth the ponderous orb, the speedy messenger and glorious ruin of hostile towns; who, raging like the final all-destroying fire, shot bounding with desolating force, killing thousands of the Asoors in his rapid flight, burning and involving, like the lambent flame, and cutting down all that would oppose him. Anon he climbeth the heavens, and now again darteth into the field like a Peesach, to feast in blood. . Now the dauntless Asoors strive, with repeated strength, to crush the Soors with rocks and mountains, which, hurled in vast numbers into the heavens, appeared like scattered clouds, and fell, with all the trees thereon, in millions of fear-exciting torrents, striking violently against each other with a mighty noise; and in their fall the earth, with all its fields and forests, is driven from its foundation: they thunder furiously at each other as they roll along the field, and spend their strength in mutual conflict. * Now Nar, seeing the Soors overwhelmed with fear, filled up the path to Heaven with showers of goldenheaded arrows, and split the mountain summits with his unerring shafts; and the Asoors finding themselves again sore pressed by the Soors, precipitately flee; some rush headlong into the briny waters of the ocean, and others laide themselves within the bowels of the earth. «The rage of the glorious Chakra, Soodarsan, which for a while burnt like the oil-fed fire, now grew cool, and he retired into the heavens from whence he came. And the Soors having obtained the victory, the mountain Mandar was carried back to its former station with great respect, whilst the waters also retired, filling the firmament and the heavens with their dreadful roarings. «The Soors guarded the Amreeta with treat care, and rejoiced exceedingly because of their success. And Bendra, with all his immortal bands, gave the water of life unto Narayan, to keep it for their use.”—MAn Abhanat. Amrita, or Immortal, is, according to Sir William Jones, the name which the mythologists of Tibet apply to a celestial tree, bearing ambrosial fruit, and adjoining to four vast rocks, from which as many sacred rivers derive their several streams.

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The history of the Wisi-Goths for some years before their overthrow is very imperfectly known. It is however apparent, that the enmity between the royal families of Chindasuintho and Wamba was one main cause of the destruction of the kingdom, the latter party having assisted in betraying their country to the Moors for the gratification of their own revenge. Theodofred and Favila were younger sons of King Chindasuintho; King Witiza, who was of Wamba's family, put out the eyes of Theodofred, and murdered Favila, at the instigation of that Clueftain's wife, with whom he lived in adultery. Pelayo, the son of Favila, and afterwards the founder of the Spanish monarchy, was driven into exile. Roderick, the son of Theodofred, recovered the throne, and put out Witiza's eyes in vengeance for his father; but he spared Orpas, the brother of the tyrant, as being a Priest, and Ebba and Sisibert, the two sous of Witiza, by Pelayo's mother. It may be convenient thus briefly to premise these circumstances of an obscure portion of history, with which few readers can be supposed to be familiar; and a list of the principal persons who are introduced, or spoken of, may as properly be prefixed to a Poem as to a Play.

WORDSW unth.

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Theodofred. Pelayo, . . . . . . . the founder of the Spanish Monarchy: son of Favila Gaudios A,...... his wife. : Guisla,. . . . . . . . his sister. FAvila, . . . . . . . . his son. HERMEstND, .... his daughter. Rusilla,. . . . . ... widow of Theodofred, and mother of Roderick. Count Pedro,... ) Count Eoo. . . powerful Lords of Cantabria. Alphonso, . . . . . Count Pedro's son, afterwards King. URBAN,. . . . . . ...Archbishop of Toledo. Romano,....... a Monk of the Cauliau Schools, near Merida.

Abd AlAziz,. . . . . the Moorish Governor of Spain.

Egilona,... . . . . . formerly the wife of Roderick, now of Abdalaziz.

AbulcaceM, ....

AlcAHMAN, . . . . .

Ayub, . . . . . . . . . Moorish Chiefs.

Ibn Ahim,... . . . .

MAGUED,... . . . . .

Oapas,... . . . . . . . brother to Witiza, and formerly Archbishop of Seville, now a renegade.

Sisi beat,... . . . . . sons of Witiza and of Pelayo's mo

Ebba, . . . . . . . ther.

NUMAC1AN, . . . . . a renegade, governor of Gegio.

Count Julian, ... a powerful Lord among the Wisi-Goths, now a renegade.

Flohinda,. . . . . . his daughter, violated by King Roderick. - - - - A posiNDA,. . . . . . daughter of the Governor of Auria. Odoah, . . . . . . . . Abbot of St Felix. Siv Eki AN, . . . . . . Roderick's foster-father. Favinia,., . . . . . Count Pedro's wife.

The four latter persons are imaginary. All the others are mentioned in history. I ought, however, to observe, that Romano is a creature of monkish legends; that the name of Pelayo's sister has not been preserved; and that that of Roderick's mother, Ruscilo, has been altered to Rusilla, for the sake of euphony.


Long had the crimes of Spain cried out to Heaven;
At length the measure of offence was full.
Count Julian called the invaders : " not because
Inhuman priests with unoffending blood
Had stained their country; * not because a yoke
Of iron servitude oppressed and galled
The children of the soil; * a private wrong
Roused the remorseless Baron. Mad to wreak
His vengeance for his violated child
On Roderick's head, in evil hour for Spain,
For that unhappy daughter and himself,
Desperate apostate, on the Moors he called;
And like a cloud of locusts, whom the South
Wafts from the plains of wasted Africa,
The Mussulmen upon Iberia's shore
Descend. A countless multitude they came;
Syrian, Moor, Saracen, Greek renegade,
Persian and Copt and Tatar, in one bond
Of erring faith conjoin'd, strong in the youth
And heat of zeal,—a dreadful brotherhood,
In whom all turbulent vices were let loose;
While Conscience, with their impious creed accurst,
Drunk, as with wine, had sanctified to them
All bloody, all abominable things.

Thou, Calpé, sawest their coming: ancient Rock
Renowned, no longer now shalt thou be called
From Gods and Heroes of the years of yore,
Kronos, or hundred-handed Briareus,
Bacchus or Hercules; but doomed to bear
The name of thy new conqueror, 4 and thenceforth


To stand his everlasting monument.
Thou sawest the dark-blue waters flash before
Their ominous way, and whiten round their keels;
Their swarthy myriads darkening o'er thy sands.
There on the beach the misbelievers spread
Their banners, flaunting to the sun and breeze:
Fair shone the sun upon their proud array,
White turbans, glittering armour, shields engrailed
With gold, and scymitars of Syrian steel;
And gently did the breezes, as in sport,
Curl their long flags outrolling, and display
The blazoned scrolls of blasphemy. Too soon
The gales of Spain from that unhappy land
Wafted, as from an open charnel-house,
The taint of death; and that bright Sun, from fields
Of slaughter, with the morning dew drew up
Corruption through the infected atmosphere.

Then fell the kingdom of the Goths; their hour
Was come, and Wengeance, long withheld, went loose.
Famine and Pestilence had wasted them, *
And Treason, like an old and eating sore,
Consumed the bones and sinews of their strength;
And, worst of enemies, their sins were armed
Against them." Yet the sceptre from their hands
Past not away inglorious; nor was shame
Left for their children's lasting heritage.
Eight summer days, from morn till latest eve,
The fatal fight endured, till perfidy
Prevailing to their overthrow, they sunk
Defeated, not dishonoured. On the banks
Of Chrysus, Roderick's royal car 7 was found;
His battle-horse Orelio, and that helm
Whose horns, amid the thickest of the fray
Eminent, had marked his presence. * Did the stream
Receive him with the undistinguished dead,
Christian and Moor, who clogged its course that day?
So thought the Conqueror, and from that day forth,
Memorial of his perfect victory,
He bade the river bear the name of joy.9
So thought the Goths; they said no prayer for him,
For him no service sung, normourning made,
But charged their crimes upon his head, and curst
His memory. -
Bravely in that eight-days' fight
The King had striven, for victory first, while hope
Remained, then desperately in search of death.
The arrows past him by to right and left,
The spear-point pierced him not, the scymitar
Glanced from his helmet. Is the shield of Heaven,
Wretch that I am, extended over me?
Cried Roderick; and he dropt Orelio's reins,
And threw his hands aloft in frantic pray r,
Death is the only mercy that I crave,
Death soon and short, death and forgetfulness!
Aloud he cried ; but in his in most heart
There answered him a secret voice, that spake
Of righteousness and judgment after death,
And God's redeeming love, which fain would save
The guilty soul alive. T was agony,
And yet 't was hope;—a momentary light,
That flashed through utter darkness on the Cross
To point salvation, then left all within
Dark as before. Fear, never felt till then,
Sudden and irresistible as stroke
Of lightning, smote him. From his horse he dropt,

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