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LXVI. With searching ken the Jesuit while he spake Perused him, if in countenance or tone Aught might be found appearing to partake Of madness. Mark of passion there was none; None of derangement : in his eye alone, As from a hidden fountain emanate, Something of an unusual brightness shone : But neither word nor look betrayed a state Of wandering, and his speech, though earnest, was se date. LXWii. Regular his pulse, from all disorder free; The vital powers perform'd their part assign'd; And to whate'er was ask'd, collectedly He answer'd. Nothing troubled him in mind; Why should it? Were not all around him kind? Did not all love him with a love sincere, And seem in serving him a joy to find? He had no want, no pain, uo grief, no fear : But he must be baptized; he could not tarry here. ”
LXVIII. Thy will be done, Father in heaven who art! The Pastor said, nor longer now denied; But with a weight of awe upon his heart Entered the Church, and there the font beside, With holy water, chrism and salt applied, Perform'd in all solemnity the rite. His feeling was that hour with fear allied; Yeruti's was a sense of pure delight, And while he kncit his eyes seem'd larger and more bright. Lxix. His wish hath been obtain'd, and this being done His soul was to its full desire content. The day in its accustomed course past on : The Indian mark d him ere to rest he went, How o'er his beads, as he was wont, he bent, And then, like one who casts all care aside, Lay down. The old man fear'd no ill event, When, a Ye are come for me!» Yeruti cried; “Yes, I am ready now!» and instantly he died.
Note 1, page 552, col. 2.
His leg had been set by the French after their conquest of Pamplona, and re-set after his removal to his father's house. The latter operation is described as having been most severe, but borne by him in his wonted manner without any manifestation of suffering. For some time his life was despaired of. “When the danger of death was past, and the bones were knit and becoming firm, two inconveniences remained: one occasioned by a portion of bone below the knee, which projected so as to occasion some deformity; the other was a contraction of the leg, which prevented him from walking erect or standing firmly on his feet. Now as
he was very solicitous about his appearance, and in
tended at that time to follow the course of a military life which he had begun, he enquired of his medical attendants in the first place whether the bone could be removed which stood out in so unsightly a manner. They answered that it was possible to remove it, but the operation would be exceedingly painful, much more so than any which he had before undergone. IIe nevertheless directed them to cut it out, that he might have his will, and (as he himself related in my hearing, says Ribadeneira), that he might wear fashionable and well-fitting boots. Nor could he be dissuaded from this determination. IIe would not consent to be bound during the operation, and went through it with the same firinness of mind which he had manifested in the former operations, Bythis means the deformity of the bone was removed. The contraction of the leg was in some degree relieved by other applications, and especially by certain machines, with which during many days, and will great and continual pain, it was stretchcd , nevertheless it could not beso extended, but that it always remained something shorter than the other...— Ribadeneira, Vita S. Ignatii Loyolae, Acta SS. Jul., t. 7, p. 659. A close-itting boot seems to have been as fashionable at one time as close fitting innominables of buckskin were about the year 179o: and perlaps it was as severe an operation to get into them for the first time. «The greasy shoemaker,» says Tom Nash, « with his squirrels skin, and a whole stall of ware upon his arm enters, and wrencheth his legs for an hour together, and after shows his tally, By St Loy that draws deep.»— Nash's Lenten Stuff Hart. Miscel. vol. ii, p. 289, 8vo edition. The operation offitting a Spanish dandy with short laced quarter boots is thus minutely described by Juan de Zavaleta, who was historiographer at the commencement of Carlos the Second's reign. «Entra el zapatero oliendo á cansado. Saca de las horinas los zapatos, con tanta dificultad como si desollara las hormas. Siéntase en runa silla el galan; híncase el zapatero de rodillas, apóderase de una pierna con tantos tirones y desagrados, como si le enviaran á que le diera tormento. Mete un calzador en el talon del zapato, encapíllale otro en la punta del pie, y luego empieza á guiar el zapato por encima del calzador. Apenas ha caminado poco mas que los dedos del pie, quando es menester arrastrarle con unas tenazas, y aun arrastrado se resiste. Pónese en pie el paciente fatigado, pero contento de que los zapatos le vengan angostos; y de órden del zapatero da tres ó quatro patadas en el suelo, con tanta fuerza, que pues no se quiebra, debe de ser de bronze. «Acozeados dan de sí el cordoban y la suela; pellejos en fin de animales, que obedecen á golpes, Vuélvese á sentar el tal señor, dobla ácia fuera el copete del zapato, cógele con la boca de las tenazas, hinca el oficial junto á él entrambas rodillas, afírmase en el suelo con la mano izquierda, y puesto de bruzas sobre el pie, hecho areo los dos dedos de la mano derecha que forman el jeme, va con ellos ayudando á llevar por el empeine arriba el cordoban, de quien tira con las tenazas su dueño. Vuelve á ponerse en una rodilla, como primero estaba; empuña con la una mano la punta del pie, y con la palma de la otra da sobre su mano tan grandes golpes como si los diera con una pala de jugar á la pelota; que es la necesidad tan discreta, que se hace el pobre
el mal á sí mismo, por no hacérsele á aquel de quien necesita. «Ajustada ya la punta del pie, acude al talon, hurnedece con la lengua los remates de las costuras, porque no falseen las costuras de secas por los remates. Tremenda vanidad, sufrir en sus pies un hombre la boca de otro hombre, solo por tener aliñados los pies! Dedobla el zapatero el talon, dase uno vuelta con el calzador á la mano, y empieza á encaxar en el pie la segunda porcion del zapato. Manda que se baxe la punta, y lmácese lo que manda. Llama ácia á sí el zapato con tal fuerza, que entre su cuerpo y el espaldar de la silla abrevia torpe y desaliñadamente al que calza. Díeele luego que haga talon, y el hombre obedece como un esclavo. Ordenale despues que dé en el suelo una Patada, y el da la patada, como se le ordena. Vuelve á sentarse; saca el cruel ministro el calzador del empeine. y por donde salió el calzador mete un palo, que llaman costa, y contra el vuelve y revuelve el sacabocados, que saca los bocados del cordoban, para que entren las ciotas; y dexa en el empeine del pie un dolor, y unas señales, como si hubiera sacado de alli los bocados. Agujerea las orejas, passa la cinta con una aguja, lleo a las orejas á que cierren el zapato, ajústalos, y da luego con tanta fuerza el nudo, que si pudieran ahogar á un hombre por la garganta del pie, le ahogara. Hace la rosa despues con mas cuydado que gracia. Vuelve á devanarse á la mano el calzador, que está colgando del talon; tira dél como quien retoca, da con la otra mano palmadas en la planta, como quien asienta, y saca el calzador, echándose todo ácia a tras. Pone el galan el pie en el suelo, y quédase mirándole. Levántase el zapatero, arrasa con el dedo el sudor de la frente, y queda respirando como si hubiera corrido. Todo esto se aluorrala con hacerse el zapato un poco mayor que el pie. Padecen luego entrambos otro tanto con el pie segundo. Llega el último y fiero trance de darle el dinero. Recoge el oficial sus baratijas. Recibe su estipendio, sale Por la puerta de la sala mirando si es buena la plata que le han dado, dexando á su dueño de movimientos tan torpes como si le hubiera echado unos grillos. «Si pensaran los que se calzan apretado que se achican el pie. Si lo piensan se engañan. Los huesos no se pueden meter unos en otros: con esto es fuerza que si le quitan de lo largo al zapato, se doble el pie por las coyunturas, y crezca ácia arriba lo que le menguan de adelante. Si le estrechan lo ancho, es preciso que se alargue aquella carne oprimida. Con la misma cantidad de pie que se tenian, se quedan los que calzan sisado. Lo que hacen es atormentarse, y dexar los pies de peor hechura. El animal á quien mas largos pies dio la naturaleza segun su cantidad, es el hombre; porque, como ha de andar todo el cuerpo sobre ellos, y no son mas de dos, quiso que anduviesse seguro. El que se los quiere abreviar, gana parece que tiene de caer, y de caer en los vicios, donde se hará mayor mal, que en las piedras. La parte que le puso Dios ad hombre en la fábrica de su cuerpo mas cerca de la tierra, son los pies: quiso sin duda que fuera la parte mas humilde de su fábrica, pero los galanes viciosos les quitan la humildad con los aliños, y los ensoberbecen con el cuydado. Enfada esto á Dios tanto, que abiendo de hacer al hombre animal que pisasse la tierra, lizo la tierra de tal calidad, que se pudiesse imprimir en ella la huella del hombre. Abierta dexa su sepultura el pie que se levanta, y parece que se levanta de la sepultura. Tre
menda crueldades enloquecer con el adorno al que se quiere tragar la tierra 4 cada passo.”—El dia de Fiesta. ouras de D. Juan de Zavaleta, p. 179–180. “In comes the shoemaker in the odour of haste and fatigue. He takes the shoes off the last with as much difficulty as if he were skinning the lasts. The gallant seats himself upon a chair; the shoemaker kneels down, and takes possession of one foot, which he handles as if he were sent there to administer the torture. He puts one shoeing skin in the heel of the shoe, sits the other upon the point of the foot, and thee begins to guide the shoe over the shoeing skin. Scarcely has it got farther than the toes when it is found necessary to draw it on with pincers, and even then it is hard work. The patient stands up, fatigued with the operation, but well pleased that the shoes are tight; and by the shoemaker's directions he stamps three or four times on the floor, with such force that it must be of iron if it does uot give way. “The cordovan and the soles being thus beaten, submit; they are the skins of animals who obey blows. Our gallant returns to his seat, he turns up the upperleather of the shoc, and lays hold on it with the pincers: the tradesman kneels close by him on both knees, rests on the ground with his left hand, and bending in this all-four's position over the foot, making an arch with those fingers of the right hand which form the span, assists in drawing on the upper part of the cordovan, the gallant pulling the while with the pincers. He then puts himself on one knce, lays hold of the end of the foot with one hand, and with the palm of the other strikes his own hand, as hard as if he were striking a ball with a racket. For necessity is so discreet that the poor man inflicts this pain upon himself that he may give none to the person of whose custom he stands in need. “The end of the foot being thus adjusted he repairs to the heel, and with his tongue moistens the end of the scans, that they may not give way for being dry. Tremendous vanity, that one man should allow the mouth of another to be applied to his feet that he may Isave them trimly set out! The shoemaker unfolds the heel, turns round with the shoeing skin in his hand, and begius to fit the second part of the shoe upon the foot. He desires the gallant to put the end of the foot down, and the gallant does as he is desired. He draws the shoe towards him with such force that the person who is thus Leing shoed is compressed in an unseemly manner between the shoemaker's body and the back of the chair. Presently he tells him to put his heel down, and the in an is as obedient as a slave. He orders him then to stamp upon the ground, and the man stamps as he is ordered. The gallant then seats himself again; the cruel operator draws the shoeing skin from the instep, and in its place drives in a stick which they call costa. 2 He then turns upon it the punch, which makes the holes in the leather, through which the ribbons are to pass; he again twists round his hand the strip of hareskin which hangs from the heel, and pulls it as if he were ringing a bell, and leaves upon the upper part of the top a pain and marks as if he had punched the holes in it. He bores the ears, passes the string through with
' A piece of hare-skin is used in Spain for this purpose, as it oppears by the former extract from Tom Nash that squirrel-skin was in England.
* which is used to drive in upon the last to raise a shoe higher in the instep.
a bodkin, brings the ears together that they may fasten the shoe, fits them to their intended place, and ties the knot with such force, that if it were possible to strangle a man by the neck of his foot, strangled the gallant would be. Then he makes the rose, with more care than
grace. He goes then to take out the shoeing skin which
is still hanging from the heel; he lays hold of this, strikes the sole of the foot with his other hand as if settling it, and draws out the skin, bringing out all with it. The gallant puts his foot to the ground, and remains looking at it. The shoemaker rises, wipes the sweat from his forehead with his fingers, and draws his breath like one who has been running. All this trouble might have been saved by making the shoe a little larger than the foot. Presently both have to go through the same pains with the other foot. Now comes the last and terrible act of payment. The tradesman collects his tools, receives his money, and goes out at the door, looking at the silver to see if it is good, and leaving the gallant walking as :much at his case as if he had been put in fetters. * If they who wear tight shoes think that thereby they can lessen the size of their feet, they are mistaken. The bones cannot be squeezed one into another; if therefore the shoe is made short, the foot must be crooked at the
joints, and grow upward if it is not allowed to grow for
ward. If it is pinched in the breadth, the flesh which is thus constrained must extend itself in length. They who are shod thus miserably remain with just the same quantity of foot. * Of all animals, man is the one to which, in proportion to its size, nature has given the largest feet; because as his whole body is to be supported upon them, and he has only two, she chose that he should walk in safety. He who wishes to abbreviate them acts as if he were inclined to fall, and to fall into vices which will do him more injury than if he fell upon stones. The feet are the part which in the fabric of the human body are placed nearest to the earth; they are meant therefore to be the humblest part of his frame, but gallants take away all humility by adorning and setting them forth in bravery. This so displeases the Creator, that having to make man an animal who should walk upon the earth, he made the earth of such properties, that the footsteps should sink into it. The foot which is lifted from the ground, leaves its own grave open, and seems as if it rose from the grave. What a tremendous thing is it then to set off with adornments that which the earth wishes to devour at every step.”
Note 2, page 552, col. 2.
« Vede quanto importa a ligao de bons livros! Seo livro fora de cavallerias, sahiria Ignacio hum grande cavalleyro; foy hum livro de vidas de Santos, sailio hun trande Santo. Selera cavallerias, saliria Ignacio hurn Cavelleyro da ardente espada; leo vidas de Santos s hio hum Santo da ardente tocha.”—Vieyra, Serman de St Ignacio, t. i., p. 368.
see, says Vieyra, the importance of reading good books. If it had been a book of knight errantry, Iguacio would have become a great knight errant; it was the Lives of the Saints, and Ignatius became a great saint. If he had read about knights, he might have proved a Knight of the Burning Sword : he read about saints, and proved a saint of the burning torch.
Nothing could seem more probable than that Cervantes had this part of Lovolas history in this mind when he described the rise of Don Quixote's madness, if Cervantes had not shown himself in one of his dramas to be thoroughly imbued with the pestilent superstition of his country. El dichoso Rufian is one of those mon
strous compositions which nothing but the anti-christian
fables of the Romish church could have produced. Landor, however, supposes that Cervantes intended to satirize a favourite dogma of the Spaniards. The passage occurs in his thirteenth conversation. «The most dexterous attack ever made against the worship among catholics, which opensso many side chapels to pilfering and imposture, is that of Cervantes. « Leopold. I do not remember in what part. « President. Throughout Don Quixote. Dulcinea was the peerless, the immaculate, and death was denounced against all who hesitated to admit the assertion of her perfections. Surely your highness never could have imagined that Cervantes was such a knight errant as to attack knight errantry, a folly that had ceased more than a century, if indeed it was any folly at all; and the idea that he ridiculed the poems and romances founded on it is not less improbable, for they contained all the literature of the nation, excepting the garniture of chapterhouses, theology, and pervaded, as with a thread of gold, the beautiful histories of this illustrious people. Ile delighted theidlers of romance by the jokes he scattered amongst them on the false taste of his predecessors and of his rivals; and he delighted his own heart by this solitary archery; well knowing what amusement those who came another day would find in picking up his arrows and discovering the bulls-eye hits. « Charles V was the knight of La Mancha, devoting his labours and vigils, his wars and treaties, to the chimerical idea of making all minds, like watches, turn their indexes, by a simultaneous movement to one point. Sancho Panza was the symbol of the people, possessing sound sense in all other matters, but ready to follow the most extravagant visionary in this, and combining implicit belief in it, with the grossest sensuality. For religion, when it is hot enough to produce enthusiasm, burns up and kills every seed entrusted to its bosom.»– Imaginary Conversations, vol. i, 187. Benedetto di Virgilio, the Italian ploughman, thus describes the course of Loyola's reading, in his heroic poem upon that Saint's life. Mentre le vote indebolite vene Stass' egli rinforzando a poco a poco Dentro i paterni tetti, e si trattiene or si la ricca zimbra, or presso al foco, Fuor del costume suo, pensier gli viene, Di legger libri più che d'altro gioco; Quanto era dianzi innamorato, e d'armi Tant'or, mutando stile, inchina ai carmi.
Quinci comanda, che i volumi ornati
I volumi vergati in dolci canti
Tomo divin, che le vite de Sauti Conserva, e de la etade prisraenova, onde per farla brama sua contenta Tal opra un fido servo a lui presenta.
Il volume, che spiega in ogni parte
Tutto giocondo a contemplar s'appi
Contempla dopo il serafico Magno
Quinci ritrova il Celestin, che spande Trionfante bandiera alla campagna, - e virtù sue memorande
Ornati i figli d'opre ammirande
Quivi s'avvisa, come il buon Norcino
Gl' Idoli fracasso, vinse l'Inferno,
Legge come Brunone al divin Regge
Chiara tra l'altre nota e Caterina, Che per esser di Dio fedele amante rù intrepida ai tormenti: e la Regina pi Siena, e seco le compagne tante: Orsola con la schiera per grina, Monache sacre, verginelle sante, che sprezzando del mondo il vano rito, Elessero Giesù lor gran marito.
E tra i Romiti mira Ilarione,
Mentre in questo penetra e meglio intende
Gia glisgombra gli errori e gia gli accendu
Qual duro ghiaccio sovra i monti alpini
Com' altri nel cristallo, o nel diamante
The Jesuits, however, assure us, that Loyola is not the author of their society, and that it is not allowable either to think or say so. “Societas Jesu ut a S. Ignatio de Loiola non ducit nomen, ita neque originem primam, et aliud sentire aut logui, nefas.” (Imago primi Saeculi Soc. Jesu, p. 64.) a Jesus primus ac precipuus auctor Societatis,” is the title of a chapter in this their secular volume, which is a curious and very beautiful book. Then follows a Beata Virgo nutrix, patrona, imo altera velut auctor Societatis.” Lastly, v Post Christum et Mariam Societatis Auctor et Parens sanctus Ignatius.”
« On the 26th August 1794, the French plundered the rich church of Loyola, at Azpeitia, and proceeding to Elgoibas, loaded five carts with the spoils of the church of that place. This party of marauders consisted of aoo. The peasants collected, fell upon them, and after an obstinate conflict of three hours, recovered the whole booty, which they conveyed to Vittoria in triumph. Among other things, a relic of Loyola was recovered, which was carried in procession to the church, the victorious peasants accompanying it.”—Marcillac, Hist. de la Guerre de l'Espagne, p. 86.
Note 3, page 552, col. 2.
It is odd that in Hindostan, where it might have been supposed superstition would have facilitated the introduction of this practice, a pious fraud was found necessary for removing the prejudice against it.
Mooperal Streenivaschary, a Brahmin, thus writes to Dr Anderson at Madras, on vaccine inoculation.
* It might be useful to remove a prejudice in the minds of the people, arising from the term cow-pock, being taken literally in our Tamul tongue; whereas there can be no doubt that it has been a drop of nectar from the exuberant udders of the cows in England, and no way similar to the humour discharged from the tongue and feet of diseased cattle in this country.”— Fo a bes's Oriental Memoirs, vol. iii, p. 423.
Note 4, page 553, col. 1. For tyrannous fear dissolved all natural bonds of man. Mackenzie gives a dreadful picture of the effect of small-pox among the North American Indians. “The small-pox spread its destructive and desolatins; power, as the fire consumes the dry grass of the field. The fatal infection spread around with a baneful rapi
dity, which no flight could escape, and with a fatal cffect that nothing could resist. It destroyed with its pestilential breath whole families and tribes; and the horrid scene presented to those who had the melancholy and afflicting opportunity of beholding it, a combination of the dead, the dying, and such as, to avoid the horrid fate of their friends around them, prepared to disappoint the plague of its prey, by terminating their ow in existence.
« The habits and lives of these devoted people, which provided not to-day for the wants of to-morrow, must have heightened the pains of such an affliction, by leaving them not only without remedy, but even without alleviation. Nought was left them but to submit in agony and despair.
• To aggravate the picture, if aggravation were possible, may be added the putrid carcasses which the wolves, with a furious voracity, dragged forth from the huts, or which were mangled within them by the dogs, whose hunger was satisfied with the disfigured remains of their masters. Nor was it uncommon for the father of a family, whom the infection had not reached, to call them around him, to represent the cruel sufferings and horrid fate of their relations, from the influence of some evil spirit, who was preparing to extirpate their race; and to incite them to baffle death, with all its horrors, by their own poniards. At the same time, if their hearts failed them in this necessary act, he was himself ready to perform the deed of mercy with his own hand, as the last act of his affection, and instantly to follow them to the common place of rest and refuge from human evil.”
Note 5, page 653, col. 2. And from the silent door the jaguar turns away.
I may be forgiven for not having strictly adhered to natural history in this instance. I he liberty which I have taken is mentioned, that it may not be supposed to have arisen from ignorance of this animal's habits.
The jaguar will not attack a living horse if a dead one be near, and when it kills its prey it drags it to its den, but is said not to eat the body till it becomes putrid. They are caught in large traps of the cage kind, baited with stunking meat, and then speared or shot through the bars. The Chalcaquines had a braver way of killing them: they provoked the animal, fronted it, received its attack upou a thick truncheon, which they held by the two ends, threw it down while its teeth were fixed in the wood, and ripped the creature up before it could recover. (Techo, p. 20.) A great profit is made by their skins. The jaguar which has once tasted human flesh becomes a most formidable animal; such a beast is called a tigre cevado, a fleshed tiger. There was one who infested the road between Santa Fé and Santiago, and killed ten men; after which a party of soldiers were sent to destroy it. The same thing is said of the lion and other beasts of prey, probably with truth ; not as is vulgarly supposed, because they have a particular appetite for this kind of food, but because having once fed upon man, they from that time regard him like any animal of inferior strength, as their natural prey. “It is a constant observation in Numidia, says Bruce, a that the lion avoids and flies from the face of men, till by some accident they have been brought to engage, and the beast has prevailed against him; then that feeling of superiority, imprinted by the