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number of the living.
before they got to Tonga. Having remained at Hamoa two or three days, they sailed for Tonga, where they arrived with great speed; but in the course of a few days they all died, not as a punishment for having been at Bolotoo, but as a natural consequence, the air of Bolotoo, as it were, infecting mortal bodies with speedy death.” In Yucatan their notion of the happy after death was, that they rested in a delightful land, under the shade of a great tree, where there was plenty of food and drink.-Herrera, iv, Io, n. The Austral tribes believe that the dead live in some region under the earth, where they have their tents, and hunt the souls of ostriches.—Dobrizh. ii, 2.95. The Persians have a great reverence for large old trees, thinking that the souls of the happy delight to dwell in them; and for this reason they call them pir,which signifies an old man, by which name they also designate the supposed inhabitant. Pietro Della Valle describes a prodigious tree of this character, in the hollow of which tapers were always kept burning to the honour of the Pir. He pitched his tent under its boughs twice; once with his wife when on his way to embark for Europe, and again when returning with her corpse. The passage wherein he speaks of this last night's lodging is very affecting. We soon forgive this excellent traveller for his coxeombry, take an interest in his domestic affairs, and part with him at last as with an old friend.
Note 17, page 560, col. 1.
who thought From death, as from living foe, to fly.
An opinion of this kind has extended to people in a much higher grade of society than the American Indians. “After this DEAtil appeared in Dwaraka in a human shape, the colour of his skin being black and yellow, his head close shorn, and all his limbs distorted. He placed himself at men's doors, so that all those who saw him shuddered with apprehension, and became even as dead men from mere affright. Every person to whose door lue came shot an arrow at him, and the montent the arrow quitted the bow-string they saw the spectre no more, nor knew which way he was gone.”—Life of Creeshna. This is a poetical invention; but such an invention as formed a popular belief in Greece, if M. Pouqueville may be trusted. “The Evil Eye, the Cacoda-mon, has been seen wandering over the roofs of the houses. Who can dare to doubt this? It was in the form of a withered old wo– man, covered with funeral rags: she was heard to call by their names those who are to be cut off from the Nocturnal concerts, voices murmuring amid the silence of the darkest nights, have been heard in the air; phantoms have been seen wandering about in solitary places, in the streets, in the markets; dogs have howled with the most dismal and melancholy tone, and their cries have been repeated by the echoes along the desert streets. It is when such things happen, as I was told very seriously by an inhabitant of Nauplia di Romania, that great care must be taken not to answer if you should be called during the night, if you hear symphonies bury yourself in the bed clothes, and do not listen to them; it is the old woman,
it is the plague itself that knocks at your door.”— Pouqueville, 189.
The Patagones and other Austral tribes attribute all diseases to an evil spirit. Their conjurors therefore beat drums by the patient, which have hideous figures painted upon them, thinking thus to frighten away the cause. If he dies, his relations endeavour to take vengeance upon those who pretended to cure him; but if one of the chiefs dies, all the conjurors are slain, unless they can save themselves by flight.—Dobrizhoffer, t. ii. 286.
Note 18, page 560, col. 2. They dragged the dying out. The Austral tribes sometimes bury the dying, thinking it an act of mercy thus to shorten their sufferings. (Dobrizh. t. ii, 2.86.) But in general this practice, which extends widely among savages, arises from the selfish feeling assigned in the text. Superstition, without this selfishness, produces a practice of the same kind, though not absolutely as brutal, in the East. «The moorda or chultries are small huts in which a Hindoo, when given over by his physicians, is deposited, and left alone to expire, and be carried off by the sacred flood.”—Cruso, in Forbes, iv, 99. • When there is no hope of recovery, the patient is generally removed from the bed, and laid on a platform of fresh earth, either out of doors, or prepared purposely in some adjoining room or viranda, that he may there breathe his last. In a physical sense, this removal at so critical a period must be often attended with fatal consequences; though perhaps not quite so decisive as that of exposing an aged parent or a dying friend on the banks of the Ganges. I now only mention the circumstances as forming part of the Ilindoo religious system. After having expired upon the earth, the body is carried to the water-side, and washed with many ceremonies. It is then laid upon the funeral pile, that the fire may have a share of the victim: the ashes are finally scattered in the air, and fall upon the water. “During the funeral ceremony, which is solemn and affecting, the Brahmins address the respective elements in words to the following purport; although there may be a different mode of performing these religious rites in other parts of Hindostan. « O Earth ! to thee we commend our brother; of thee he was formed; by thee he was sustained; and unto thee he now returns! « O Fire! thou hadst a claim in our brother; during his life he subsisted by thy influence in nature; to thee we commit his body; thou emblem of purity, may his spirit be purified on entering a new state of existence. “O Air! while the breath of life continued our brother respired by thee; his last breath is now departed; to thee we yield him. « O Water: thou didst contribute to the life of our brother; thou wert one of his sustaining elements. His remains are now dispersed; receive thy share of him, who has now taken an everlasting flight!»-Foabes's Oriental Memoirs, iii, 12. Note 19, page 561, col. 1. Her feet upon the crescent moon were set. This is a common representation of the Virgin, from the Revelation.
Virgem de Sol vestida, e dos sens raios Claros envolta toda, e das Estrellas Coroada, e debaixo os pés a Lua. Francisco de Sa de Miranda. These lines are highly esteemed by the Portuguese critics.
Note 20, page 561, col. 1.
* How hath the conceit of Christ's humiliation here on earth, of his dependance on his mother during the time of his formation and birth, and of his subjection to her in his infancy, brought forth preposterous and more than heathenish transformations of his glory in the superstitious daughters of the idolatrous church! They cannot conceive Christ as king, unless they acknowledge her as queen dowager of heaven: her title of Lady is aequiparant to his title of Lord ; her authority for some purposes held as great, her bowels of compunction (towards the weaker sex especially) more tender. And as the heathens frame gods suitable to their own desire, soliciting them most (though otherwise less potent) whom they conceive to be most favourable to their present suits: so hath the blessed Virgin throughout the Romish Church obtained (what she never sought) the entire monopoly of women's prayers in their travails; as if her presence at other's distressful labours (for she herself, by their doctrine, brought forth her first born and only son without pain,) had wrought in her a truer feeling or tenderer touch, than the high priest of their souls can have of their infirmities; or as if she would use more faithful and effectual intercession with her son, than he can or will do with his Father. Some in our times, out of the weakness of their sex, matching with the impetuousness of their adulterous and disloyal zeal, have in this kind been so impotently outrageous as to intercept others' supplications directed to Christ, and superscribe them in this form unto his mother; Blessed Lady, command thy son to hear this woman's prayers, and send her deliverance! These, and the like speeches, have moved some good women, in other points tainted rather with superstition than preciseness, to dispense with the law of secrecy, seldom violated in their parliaments; and T know not whether I should attribute it to their courage or stupidity, not to be more affrighted at such blasphemies, than at some monstrous and prodigious birth. This and the like inbred inclinations unto superstition, in the rude and uninstructed people, are more artificially set forward by the fabulous Roman Legendary and his Limner, than the like were in the heathen, by heathen poets and painters.”—Dr Thomas Jackson's Works, vol. i., looz.
Note 21, page 562, col. 1. -
The consumption of the Indians in the Paraguay teatrade, and the means taken by the Jesuits for cultivating the Caa tree, are described by Dobrizhoffer.
The Encomenderos compelled the unhappy people whom they found living where they liked, to settle in such places as were most convenient for the work in which they were now to be compulsorily employed. All their work was task-work, imposed with little moderation, and exacted without mercy. This tyranny extended to the women and children, and as all the Spa
niards, the officer of justice as well as the Encomenderos were implicated in it, the Indians had none to whom they could look for protection. Even the Institutions of Christianity, by which the Spanish government hoped to better the temporal condition of its new subjects, were made the occasion of new grievances and more intolerable oppression. For as the Indians were legally free,_free, therefore, to marry where they pleased, and the wife was to follow the husband, every means was taken to prevent a marriage between two Indians who belonged to different Repartimientos, and the interest of the master counteracted all the efforts of the pries. The Spanish women are said to have exceeded their hus: bands in cruelty on such occasions, and to have instigated them to the most violent and iniquitous measures, that they might not lose their female attendants. The consequence was, that protligacy of manners among the Indians was rather encouraged than restrained, as it is now in the English sugar islands, where the Planter is not a religious man.-Lozano, l. 1, sect. 3, 6, 7.
Note 22, page 564, col. 2. And she in many an emulous essay, At length into a descant of her own Had blended all their notes. An extract from a journal written in Switzerland will be the best comment upon the description in these stanzas, which indeed were probably suggested by my recollections of the Staubach. “While we were at the waterfall, some half score peasants, chiefly women and girls, assembled just out of reach of the spray, and set up—surely the wildest chorus that ever was heard by human ears, a song not of articulate sounds, but in which the voice was used as a mere instrument of music, more flexible than any which art could produce,—sweet, powerful, and thrilling beyond description.” It will be seen by the subjoined sonnet of Mr words
thus:– “Aunque hombre no sabe lo de adelante como ha de venir, el espiritu lo siente, y ante que venga se duele dello: y de aqui se levantaron los grandes sospiros que hombres dan à sobrevienta no pensando en ningun cosa, como à muchos acaesce, que aquel que el sospiro echa desi, el espíritu es que siente el mal que ha de ser.”—Chronica del Rey D. Rodrigo, p. ii c. 17 i.
Note 24, page 566, col. 2.
Pinkerton, in his Geography (vol. ii. p. 535. n. 3d edit.) says, that nets are sometimes worn among the Guaranis instead of clothes, and refers to this very story in proof of his assertion. I believe he had no other ground for it. He adds that a perhaps they were worn only to keep off the flies;" as if those blood-suckers were to be kept off by open net-work!
We owe something, however, to the person who introduces us to a good and valuable book, and I am indebted originally to Mr Pinkerton for my knowledge of Dobrizhoffer. He says of him, when referring to the Historia de Abiponibus, « the lively singularity of the old man's Latin is itself an amusement; and though sometimes garrulous, he is redundant in authentic and curious information. His work, though bearing a restricted title, is the best account yet published of the whole viceroyalty of La Plata.”
Note 25, page 567, col. i.
The legend of his visit to Limbo is given here in a translated extract from that very curious work, the Life of the Virgin Mary, as related by herself to Sister Maria de Jesus, Abbess of the Franciscan Convent de la Inmaculada Conception at Agreda, and published with the sanction of all the ecclesiastical authorities in Spain.
After some conversation between the Almighty and the Virgin, at that time three years and a half old, the Franciscan confessor, who was the accomplice of the abbess in this blasphemous imposture, proceeds thus:–
* The Most High received this morning sacrifice from I, is tender spouse, Mary the most holy, and with a pleased countenance said to her, “Thou art beautiful in thy thoughts, O Prince's daughter, my dove, and my beloved I admit thy desires, which are agreeable to my eyes; and it is my will, in fulfilment of them, that thou shouldest understand the time draws nigh, when Ly in y divine appointment, thy father Joachin must pass from this mortal life to the life immortal and eternal. His death shall be short, and he will soon rest in peace, and be placed with the Saints in Limbo, a waiting the redemption of the whole human race.' This information from the Lord neither disturbed nor troubled the regal breast of Mary, the Princess of Heaven : yet as the love of children to their parents is a debt due by nature, and that love in all its perfection existed in this most holy child, a natural grief at losing iner most holy father, Joachin, whom as a daughter she devoutly loved, could not fail to be resented. The tender and sweet child, Mary, felt a movement of grief compatible with the serenity of her magnanimous heart: and acting with greatness in every thing, followint; both grace and nature, she made a fervent prayer for her father Joachin ; she besought the Lord, that, as the mighty and true God, he would look upon him in the
hour of his happy death, and defend him from the Devil, especially in that hour, and preserve him, and appoint him in the number of his elect, as one who in his life had confessed and magnified his holy and adorable name. And the more to oblige his Majesty, the most faithful daughter offered to endure for her father, the most holy Joachin, all that the Lord might ordain. • His Majesty accepted this petition, and consoled the divine child, assuring her that he would be with her father as a merciful and compassionate remunerator of those who love and serve him, and that he would place him with the Patriarchs, Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob ; and he prepared her again to receive and suffer other troubles. Eight days before the death of the holy Patriarch Joachin, Mary the most holy had other advices from the Lord, declaring the day and hour in which he was to die, as in fact it occurred, only six months after our Queen went to reside in the temple. When her Highness had received this information from the Lord, she besought the twelve angels, (who, I have before said, were those whom St John names in the Revelation,) that they would be with her father Joachin in his sickness, and comfort him, and console him in it; and thus they did. And for the last hour of his transit she sent all those of her guard, and besought the Lord that he would make them manifest to her father for his ;reater consolation. The Most High granted this, and in every thing fulfilled the desire of his elect, unique, and perfect one : and the great Patriarch and happy Joachin saw the thousand holy angels who guarded his daughter Maria, at whose petition and desire the grace of the Almighty superabounded, and by his command the Angels said to Joachin these things:– • ‘Man of God, the Most High and Mighty is thy eternal salvation, and he sends thee from his holy place the necessary and timely assistance for thy soul! Mary, thy daughter, sends us to be with thee at this hour, in which thou hast to pay to thy Creator the debt of natural death. She is thy most faithful and powerful intercessor with the Most High, in whose name and peace depart thou from this world with consolation and joy, that he hath made thee parent of so blessed a daughter. And although his incomprehensible Majesty in his serene wisdom hath not till now manifested to thee the sacrament and dignity in which he will constitute thy daughter, it is his pleasure that thou shouldest know it now, to the intent that thou mayest magnify him and praise him, and that at such news the jubilee of thy spirit may be joined with the grief and natural sadness of death. Mary thy daughter and our Queen, is the one chosen by the arm of the Omnipotent, that the Divine Word may in her clothe himself with flesh and with the human form. She is to be the happy mother of the Messiah, blessed among women, superior to all creatures, and inferior only to God himself. Thy most happy daughter is to be the repairer of what the human race lost by the first fall; and the high mountain whereon the new law of grace is to be formed and established. Therefore, as thou leavest now in the world its restauratrix and daughter, by whom God prepares for it the fitting remedy, depart thou in joy, and the Lord will bless thee from Zion, and will give thee a place among the Saints, that thou mayest attain to the sight and possession of the happy Jerusalem.' « While the holy Angels spake these words to Joachin, St Anna his wife was present, standing by the pillow of his bed; and she heard, and by divine permission understood them. At the same time the holy Patriarch Joachin lost his speech, and entering upon the common way of all flesh, began to die, with a marvellous struggle between the delight of such joyful tidings and the pain of death. During this conflict with his interior powers, many and fervent acts of divine love, of faith, and adoration, and praise, and thanksgiving, and humiliation, and other virtues, did he heroically perform ; and thus absorbed in the new knowledge of so divine a mystery, he came to the end of his natural life, dying the precious death of the Saints. His most holy spirit was carried by the Angels to the Limbo of the Holy Fathers and of the Just ; and for a new consolation and light in the long night wherein they dwelt, the Most High ordered that the soul of the holy Patriarch Joachiu should be the new Paranymph and Ambassador of his Great Majesty, for announcing to all that congregation of the Just, how the day of eternal light had now dawned, and the day-break was born, Mary, the most holy daughter of Joachin and of Anna, from whom should be born the Sun of Divinity, Christ, Restorer of the whole human race. The Holy Fathers and the Just in Limbo heard these tidings, and in their jubilee composed new hymns of thanksgiving to the Most High. • This happy death of the Patriarch St Joachin occurred (as I have before said), half a year after his daughter Mary the most holy entered the Temple; and when she was at the tender age of three and a half, she was thus left in the world without a natural father. The age of the patriarch was sixty and nine years, distributed and divided thus: at the age of forty-six years he took St Anna to wife; twenty years after this marriage Mary the most holy was born; and the three years and a half of her Highness's age make sixty-nine and a half, a few days more or less. “The holy Patriarch and father of our Queen being dead, the holy Angels of her guard returned incontinently to her presence, and gave her notice of all that had occurred in her father's transit. Forthwith the
most prudent child solicited with prayers for the eonsolation of her mother St Anna, intreating that the Lord would, as a father, direct and govern her in the solitude wherein, by the loss of her husband Joachin, she was left. St Anna herself sent also news of his deatlı, which was first communicated to the Mistress of our divine Princess, that in imparting it she might console her. The Mistress did this, and the most wise child heard her, with all composure and dissimulation, but with the patience and the modesty of a Queen; but she was not ignorant of the event which her Mistress related to her as news.”—Mistica Ciudad de Dios, par. 1, l. 2, c. 16, § 664–669. Madrid, 1744. It was in the middle of the seventeenth century that the work from which this extract is translated was palmed upon the Spaniards as a new revelation. Gross and blasphemous as the imposture is, the work was still current when I procured my copy, about twenty years ago; and it is not included in the Spanish Index Expurgatorius of 1790, the last, (I believe), which was published, and which is now before me.
Note 26, page 571, col. 2. He could not tarry here.
A case precisely of the same kind is mentioned by Mr Mariner. “A young Chief at Tonga, a very handsome
man, was inspired by the ghost of a woman in Bolotoo,
who had fallen in love with him. On a sudden he felt himself low-spirited, and shortly afterwards fainted away. When he came to himself he was very iii, and was taken accordingly to the house of a priest. As yet he did not know who it was that inspired him, but the priest informed him that it was a woman of Bolotoo,
mentioning her name, who had died some years before.
and who wished him now to die, that he might be near her. He accordingly died in two days. The Chief said he suspected this from the dreams he had had at different times, when the figure of a woman came to him in the night. Mr Mariner was with the sick Chief three or four times during his illness, and heard the priest foretell his death, and the occasion of it.”—Mariner.
3 &ligion of judgment.
TO THE KiNC.
Only to Your Majesty can the present publication with propriety be addressed. As a tribute to the sacred memory of our late revered Sovereign, it is my duty to present it to Your Majesty's notice; and to whom could an experiment, which, perhaps, may be considered hereafter as of some importance in English Poetry, be so fitly inscribed, as to the Royal and munificent Patron of science, art, and literature?
We owe much to the House of Brunswick; but to none of that illustrious House more than to Your Majesty, under whose government the military renown of Great Britain has been carried to the highest point of glory. From that pure glory there has been nothing
to detract; the success was not more splendid than the cause was good; and the event was deserved by the generosity, the justice, the wisdom, and the magnanimity of the counsels which prepared it. The same perfect integrity has been manifested in the whole administration of public affairs. More has been done than was ever before attempted, for mitigating the evils incident to our stage of society; for imbuing the rising race with those sound principles of religion on which the welfare of states has its only secure foundation; and for opening new regions to the redundant enterprise and industry of the people. Under Your Majesty's government, the Metropolis is rivalling in beauty those cities which it has long surpassed in greatness: sciences, arts, and letters are flourishing beyond all former example; and the last triumph of nautical discovery and of the British flag, which had so often been essayed in
Having long been of opinion that an English metre might be constructed in imitation of the ancient hexameter, which would be perfectly consistent with the character of our language, and capable of great richness, variety, and strength, I have now made the experiment. It will have some disadvantages to contend with, both among learned and unlearned readers; among the former especially, because, though they may divest themselves of all prejudice against an innovation, which has generally been thought impracticable, and may even be disposed to regard the attempt favourably, nevertheless they will, from inveterate association, be continually reminded of rules which are inapplicable to our tongue; and looking for quantity where emphasis only ought to be expected, will perhaps less easily be reconciled to the measure, than those persons who consider it simply as it is. To the one class it is necessary that I should explain the nature of the verse; to the other, the principle of adaption which has been followed.
First, then, to the former, who, in glancing over these long lines, will perceive that they have none of the customary characteristics of English versification, being neither marked by rhyme, nor by any certain number of syllables, nor by any regular recurrence of emphasis throughout the verse. Upon closer observation, they will find that (with a very few exceptions), there is a regular recurrence of emphasis in the last five syllables of every line, the first and the fourth of those syllables being accented, the others not. These five syllables form two of the feet by which the verse is measured, and which are called dactyls and trochees, the dactyl consisting of one long syllable and two short ones, as czemplified in the name of Wellington; the trochee, of one long and one short, as exemplified in the name of Nelson. Of such feet, there are six in every verse. The four first are disposed according to the judgment and convenience of the writer; that is, they may be all dactyls or all trochees, or any mixture of both in any arrangement: but the fifth is always a dactyl, and the sixth always a trochee, except in some rare instances, when, for the sake of variety, or of some particular effect, a trochee is admitted in the fifth
nary explanation. These feet are not constituted each by a separate word, but are made up of one or more, or of parts of words, the end of one and the beginning of another, as may happen. A verse of the Psalms, originally pointed out by Harris of Salisbury, as a natural and perfect hexameter, will exemplify what has been said:
Why do the I heathen I rage, and the people i-I-magine a vain thing?
This, I think, will make the general construction of the metre perfectly intelligible to those persons who may be unacquainted with the rules of Latin versification; those especially who are still to be called gentle readers, in this ungentle age. But it is not necessary to understand the principle upon which the verse is constructed, in order to feel the harmony and power of a metrical composition;–if it were, how few would be capable of enjoying poetry! In the present case, any one who reads a page of these hexameters aloud, with just that natural regard to emphasis which the sense of the passage indicates, and the usual pronunciation of the words requires, will perceive the rhythm, and find no more difficulty in giving it its proper effect, than in reading blank verse. This has often been tried, and with invariable success. If, indeed, it were not so, the fault would be in the composition, not in the measure.
The learned reader will have perceived by what has already been said, that in forming this English measure in imitation, rather than upon the model of the ancient hexameter, the trochee has been substituted for the spondee, as by the Germans. This substitution is rendered necessary by the nature of our pronunciation, which is so rapid, that I believe the whole vocabulary of the language does not afford a single instance of a genuine native' spondee. The spondee, of course, is not excluded from the verse; and where it occurs, the effect, in general, is good. This alteration was necessary; but it is not the only one which, upon mature consideration and fair trial, it has been deemed expedient to make. If every line were to begin with a long syllable, the measure would presently appear exotic and forced, as being directly opposite to the general character of all our dignified metres, and indeed to the genius of the English language. Therefore the license has been taken of using any foot of two or three syllables at the beginning of a line; and sometimes, though less frequently, in the second, third, or fourth place. The metre, thus constructed, bears the same analogy to the ancient hexameter that our ten-syllable or heroic line does to iambic verse: iambic it is called, and it is so in its general movement; but it admits of many other feet, and would, in fact, soon become insupportably monotonous without their frequent intermixture.
ii. Twenty years ago, when the rhythmical romance of Thalaba was sent from l'ortugal to the press, I requested, in the preface to that poem, that the author
"And only one of foreign derivation, which is the word Egypt. Some readers, who have never practised metrical composition in their own language, may perhaps doubt this, and suppose that such words as twilight and evening, are spondaic; but they only appear so when they are pronounced singly, the last syllable then hanging
upon the tongue, and dwelling on the car, like the last stroke of the One more remark will suffice for this prelimi
clock. Used in combination, they become pure trochees.