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eo loco insignem habent aedem, de heroe quodam Chederle summâ corporis atque animi fortitudine, quem cundem fuisse cum mostro D. Georgio fabulantur; cademgue illi ascribunt quae huic nostri; nimirum vasti et horrendi draconis caede servasse expositam virginem. Ad haec alia adjiciunt multa, et qual libitum est, comminiscuntur; illum per longinquas oras peregrinari solitum, ad fluvium postremo pervenisse; cujus aquae bibentibus præstarent immortalitatem. Qui quidem fluvius, in quâ parte terrarum sit, non dicunt; nisi fortassis in Utopia collocari debet: tantum affirmant illum magnis tenebris, multaque caligine obductum latere; neque cuiquam mortalium post Chederlem, uti illum videret, contigisse. Chederlem vero ipsum mortis legibus solutum, huc illuc in cquo praestantissimo, qui similiter ejusden aquae haustu mortalitatem exuerit, divagari, gaudentem preliis, adesse in bello melioribus, antiis qui ejus opem imploraverint, cujuscumque tandem sint religionis.”—Busbequius. « The Persians say, that Alexander coming to understand, that in the mountain of Kaf there was a great cave, very black and dark, wherein ran the water of immortality, would needs take a journey thither. But being afraid to lose his way in the cave, and considerint; with himself that he had committed a great oversight in leaving the more aged in cities and fortified places, and keeping about his person only young people, such as were not able to advise him, he ordered to be brought to him some old mau, whose counsell he might follow in the adventure he was then upon. There were in the whole army but two brothers named Chidder and Elias who had brought their father along with them, and this good old man bade his sons go and tell Alexander, that to go through with the design he had undertaken, his only way were to take a mare that had a colt at her heels, and to ride upon her into the cave, and leave the colt at the entrance, of it, and the mare would infallibly bring him back again to the same place without any trouble. Alexander thought the advice so good, that he would not take any other person with him in that journey but those two brothers, leaving the rest of his retinue at the eutrance of the cave. He advanced so far that he came to a gate, so well polished, that notwithstanding the great darkness, it gave light enough to let him see there was a bird fastened thereto. The bird asked Alexander what he would have He made answer that he looked for the water of immortality. The bird asked him, what was done in the world? Mischief enough, replies Alexander, since there is no vice or sin but reigns there. Whereupon the bird getting loose and flying away, the gate opened and Alexander saw an angel sitting, with a trumpet in his hand, holding it as if he were going to put it to his mouth. Alexander asked him his name. The angel made answer his name was Raphael, and that he only staid for a command from God to blow the trumpet, and to call the dead to judgement. Which having said. he asks Alexander who he was . I am Alexander, replied he, and I seek the water of immortality. The angel gave him a stone and said to him, go thy wayes, and look for another stone of the same weight with this, and then thou shalt find immortality. Whereupon Alexander asked how long he had to live 2 The angel said to him, till such time as the heaven and the earth which encompass thee be turned to iron. Alexander being come out of the cave, sought a long time, and

not meeting with any stone just of the same weight with the other, he put one into the balance which he thought came very near it, and finding but very little difference, he added thereto a little earth, which made the scales even; it being God's intention to shew Alexander thereby, that he was not to expect immortality till he himself were put into the earth. At last Alex. ander having one day a fall off his horse in the barren ground of Ghur, they laid him upon the coat he wore over his armour, and covered him with his buckler to keep off the heat of the sun. Then he began to conprehend the prophesy of the angel, and was satisfied the hour of his death was at hand; accordingly he died. «They add to this fable, that the two brothers Chidder and Elias drunk of the water of immortality, and that they are still living but invisible, Elias upon the earth, and Chidder in the water; wherein the latter hath so

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Note 107, page 26, col. 1.
of blessed Mary vow'd the vow of peace.

« Il advint a luy et a toute sa gent, estant devant Chartres, qui moult humilia et brise son courage; car entendis que ces traicteurs Francois alloient et preschoient ledit roy et son conseil, et encores mulle response agreable men avoient euc. Une orage une tempeste et une fould resi grande et si horrible descendit du ciclen lost du roy Dangieterre qui sembloit proprement que le siecle deust finer. Car il cheoit si grosses pierres que elles tuoyent honmes et clievaulx, et en furent les plus hardis tous esbahis. Adonclues regarda le roy Dangleterre devers leglise de nostre dame de Chartres, ct se voua et rendit devotement a nostre dame, et promist, et confissa sicomme il dist depuis quil se accorderoit a la paix "--Froissart.

“But while he lodged there (before Chartres), his army making a horrible spoile of the whole country, there chanced an occasion, as the work of Heaven, which suddenly quailed his ambitious design to ruin France: for behold a horrible and extraordinary tempest of hair. thunder, and lightning, fals with such violence as many

horses and men in the army perished, as if that God had stretched forth his hand from heaven to stay his course.”—De Serres.

Note los, page 27, col. 1. Deep through the sky the hollow thunders roll’d.

The circumstance of the Maid's entering Orleans at inidnight in a storm of thunder and lightning is his– torically true :—

• The Euglishmen perceiving that thei within could not long continue for faute of vitaile and pouder, kepte not their watche so diligently as thei wer accustomed, nor scoured no: the countrey environed as thei before had ordained. Whiche negligence the citizens shut in Perceiving, sent worde thereof to the French capitaines, which with Pucelle in the dedde tyme of the nighte, and in a greate rayne and thundere, with all their vitalie and artillery entered into the citie.”—Hall, fel. , 27.

Shakspeare also notices this storm. Striking as the fircumstance is, Chapelain has omitted it.

Note io9, page 27, col. 1. Strong were the English forts. The patience and perseverance of a besieging army in those ages appear almost incredible to us now. camp of Ferdinand before Granada swelled into a city. Edward III made a market-town before Calais. Upon the captain's refusal to surrender, says Barnes, a he legan to entrench himself strongly about the city, setting his own tent directly against the chief gates at which he intended to enter; then he placed bastions between the town and the river, and set out regular streets, and reared up decent buildings of strong timber i-tween the trenches, which he covered with thatch, reed, broom, and skins. Thus he encompassed the whole town of Calais, from Risban on the northwest “ie to Courgaine on the north-east, all along by Sanrate, at Port and Fort de Nicolay, commonly by the toolish called Newland-bridge, down by Hammes, Coone, and Marke; so that his camp looked like a spatious city, and was usually by strangers, that came thither to market, called New Calais. For this prince's outation for justice was so great, that to his markets which he held in his camp twice every week, viz. on Tuesdays and Saturdays for slesh, fish, bread, wine, and ałe, with cloth and all other necessaries), there came not only his friends and allies from England, Flanders, and Aquitain, but even many of king Philip's subjects sed confederates conveyed thither their cattle and other commodities to be sold.”

Note lo, page 27, col. 1. Entering with his eye. Nunc leatus, celsis adstans in collibus, intrat Crtem oculis, discitolue locos caussasque locorum. silius Italicus, xii, 567. Note i 11, page 27, col. 2. Unburnish'd and defiled. Abjecere madentes, Skat eraut, clypeos, nec quisquam spicula tensit. See laudavit equum, nitidae nec cassidis altam Compsit adornavitolue jubam. Statius. Note i 12, page 28, col. 1. When, the war of beasts.

lpsan, Mirnalia puerum cum widit in umbra, Pauan, tenero signantein granina passu,


Ignovisse ferunt comiti, Dicta-aque tela
Ipsam, et Amyclacas humeris uptasse pharetras.
—— taedet memorum, tituluinque nocentem.
Sanguinis humani pudor est nescire sagittas.
Statius, iv, 256.

Note 1 13, page 28, col. 1. -
* IIere Gladdisdale.

Gladdisdale must be the Sir William Glansdale of Shakspeare. Ilenry VI, Part I.--Stowe calls him William Gladesdale.

It is proper to remark that I have introduced no fictitious names among the killed. They may all be found in the various histories.

Note 1 14, page 28, col. 1. The balista. Neque enim solis excussa lacertis Lancea, sed tenso balista turbine rapta, Haud unum contenta latus transire, quiescit; Sed pandens perque arma viam, perque ossa, relicta Morte fugit: superest telo post vulnera cursus. Lucan. iii. Vegetius says, that the balista discharged darts with such rapidity and violence, that nothing could resist their force. This engine was used particularly to discharge darts of a surprising length and weight, and often many small ones together. Its form was not unlike that of a broken bow ; it had two arms, but straight and not curved like those of a cross-bow, of which the whole acting force consists in bending the bow. That of the balista as well as of the catapulta lies in its cords.-Rollin.

Note i 15, page 28, col. 1.
Where by the bayle's embattled wall.

The bayle or lists was a space on the outside of the ditch, surrounded by strong pallisades, and sometimes by a low embattled wall In the attack of fortresses, as the range of the machines then in use did not exceed the distance of four stadia, the besiegers did not carry on their approaches by means of trenches, but begau their operations above ground, with the attack of the bayle or lists, where many feats of chivalry were performed by the knights and men at arms, who considered the assault of that work as particularly belonging to them, the weight of their armour preventing them from scaling the walls. As this part was attacked by the knights and men at arms, it was also defended by those of the same rank in the place, whence many single combats were fought here. This was at

the first investing of the place.—Grose.

Note 16, page 28, col. 1.
A rude coat of mail.

In France only persons of a certain estate, called un fiefde hauber, were permitted to wear a hauberk, which was the armour of a knight. Esquires might only wear a simple coat of mail without the hood and hose. Had this aristocratic distinction consisted in the ornamental part of the arms alone, it would not have been objectionable. In the enlightened and free states of Greece, every soldier was well provided with defensive arms. In Rome, a civic wreath was the reward of him who should save the life of a citizen. But, to use the words of Dr Gillies, « the miserable peasants of modern Europe are exposed without defence as without remorse, by the ambition of men, whom the Greeks would have styled tyrants."

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Note I 19, page 28, col. 2.
And against the iron fence beneath.

A breast-plate was sometimes worn under the hau

Note 120, page 28, col. 2.
With an active bound.

The nature of this barrier has been explained in a previous note. The possibility of leaping upon it is exemplified in the following adventure, which is characteristic of the period in which it happened (1370.

• At that time there was done an extraordinary feat of arms by a Scotch knight, named sir John Assueton, being one of those men of arms of Scotland, who had now entered king Edward's pay. This man left his rank with his spear in his hand, his page riding behind him, and went towards the barriers of Noyon, where he alighted, saying, ‘Here hold iny horse, and stir not from hence; and so he came to the barriers. There were there at that time sir John de Roye, and sir Lancelot de Lorris, with ten or twelve more, who all wondered what this knight designed to do. He for his part being close to the barriers said unto them, ‘Gentlemen, I am come hither to visit you, and because I see you will not come forth of your barriers to me, I will come in to you, if I may, and prove my knighthood against you. Win me if you can.' And with that he leaped over the bars, and began to lay about him like a lion, he at them and they at him; so that he alone fought thus against them all for near the space of an hour, and hurt several of them. And all the while those of the town beheld with much delight from the walls and their garret windows his great activity, strength; and courage; but they offered not to do him any hurt, as they might very easily have done, if they had been minded to cast stones or darts at him : but the French knights charged them to the contrary, saying, “How they should let them alone to deal with him.' When matters had continued thus about an hour, the Scotch page came to the barriers with his master's horse in his hand, and said in his language, ‘Sir, pray come away, it is high time for you to leave off now: for the army is marched off out of sight.' The knight heard his man, and then gave two or three terrible strokes about him to clear the way, and so armed as he was, he leaped back again over the barriers and mounted his horse, having not received any hurt; and turning to the Frenchmen, said, 'Adieu, sirs I thank you for my diversion.' And with that he rode after his man upon the spur towards the army.w-Joshua Barnes.

Note 121, page 29, col. 1. - The iron weight swung high.

La massue est un baton gros comme le bras, ayant à

Tun de ses bouts unc forte courroie pour tenir Parme et l'empêcher de glisser, et à l'autre trois chainons de fer, auxquels pend un boulet pesant huit livres. Il n'y a pas d'homme aujourd'hui capable de manier une telle arme.—Le Grand. The arms of the Medici family a are romantically referred to Averardo de Medici, a commander under Charlemagne, who for his valour in destroying the gigantic plunderer Mugello, by whom the surrounding country was laid waste, was honoured with the privilege of bearint; for his arms six palle or balls, as characteristic of the iron balls that hung from the mace of his fierce antagonist, the impression of which remained on his shield.”—Roscoe. Scudery enumerates the mace among the instruments of war, in a passage whose concluding line may vie with any bathos of sir Richard Blackmore: LA confusément frappent de toutes parts Pierres, piques, espieux, masses, fleches et dards, Lances et javelots, sabres et marteaux d'armes, Dungereur instruments des guerrieres alarmes. Alaric. Note 122, page 29, col. 1.

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Note 126, page 30, col. 2.
A harlot . . . . an adulteress!

This woman, who is always respectably named in French history, had her punishment both in herself aud in her child.

- This fair Agnes had been five years in the service of the queen, during which she had enjoyed all the Pleasures of life, in wearing rich clothes, furred robes, golden chains, and precious stones; and it was commonly reported that the king often visited her, and traintained her in a state of concubinage, for the people are more inclined to speak ill than well of their superiors.

- The affection the king showed her was as much for her gaiety of temper, pleasing manners, and agreeable conversation, as for her beauty. She was so beautiful that she was called the Fairest of the Fair, and the Lady of Beaute, as well on aecount of her personal charms, as because the king had given her for life the castle of teaute near Paris. She was very charitable, and most aberal in her alms, which she distributed among such thurches as were out of repair, and to bettsars. It is true that Agnes had a daughter who lived but a short

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• At length she was seized with a bowel complaint, and was a long time ill, during which she was very routrite, and sincerely repented of her sins. She often remembered Mary Magdalin, who had been a great sinner, and devoutly invoked God and the virgin Mary to her aid like a true catholic: after she had received the sacraments, she called for her book of prayers, in **.ich she had written with her own hand the verses of St Bernard to repeat them. She then made many gifts, (which were put down in writing, that her executors alight fulfil them, with the other articles of her will.)

wisch including alms and the payment of her servants

night amount to nearly sixty thousand crowns. * Her executors were Jacques Coeur, councellor and m**ter of the wardrobe to the king, master Robert Poirievin physician, and master Stephen Chevalier treasurer to the king, who was to take the lead in the fulfilment of her will should it be his gracious pleasure.

* The fair Agnes, perceiving that she was daily growing weaker, said to the Lord de la Trimouille, the lady of the seneschal of Poitou, and one of the king's equeries called Gouffier, in the presence of all her damsels, that our fragile life was but a stinking ordure. “She then required that her confessor would give her absolution from all her sins and wickedness, conformable to an absolution, which was, as she said, at Loches, which the confessor on her assurance complied with. After this she uttered a loud shriek, and called on the mercy of God and the support of the blessed virgin Mary, and gave up the ghost on Monday the 9th day of February, in the year 1449, about six o'clock in the afternoon. Her body was opened, and her heart interred in the church of the said abbey, to which she had been a most liberal benefactress; and her body was conveyed with many honours to Loches, where it was interred in the collegiate church of our Lady, to which also she had made many handsome donations and several foundations. May God have mercy on her soul, and admit it into Paradise!”—Monstrelet, vol. ix, p. 97. On the 13th day of June, the seneschal of Normandy, count of Maulevrier, and son to the late sir Pierre de Breze killed at the battle of Montlehery, went to the village of Iłomiers, near Dourdan, which belonged to him, for the sake of hunting. He took with him his lady, the princess Charlotte of France, natural daughter of the late king Charles the VII by Agnes Sorel. After the clace, when they were returned to Romiers to sup and lodge, the seneschal retired to a single-bedded room for the night; his lady retired also to another chamber, when moved by her disorderly passions (as the husband said) she called to her a gentleman from Poitou, named Pierre de la Vergne, who was he id huntsman to the seneschal, and made him lie with her. This was told to the semeschal by the master of his household, called Pierre l'Apothecaire; when he instantly arose, and taking his sword, broke open the door of the chamber where his lady and the huntsman were in bed. The huntsman started up in his shirt, and the seneschal gave him first a severe blow with his sword on the head, and then thrust it through his body, and killed him on the spot. This doue, he went into an adjoining room where his children lay, and finding his wife hid under the coverlid of their bed, dragged her thence by the arm along the ground, and struck her between the shoulders with his sword. On her raising herself on her knees he ran his sword through her breast, and she fell down dead. He sent her body for interment to the abbey of Coulens, where her obsequies were performed, and he caused the huntsman to be buried in the garden of the house wherein he had been killed.—Monstrelet, vol. ii, p. 233. Note 127, page 31, col. 1. And would that I had lived: Mozsr’smstr 'o'; staow s/o. It sparrotat peretvat Avozzato, axx' n Toozós Szwst, n =retrzysvs2021. Nvvyzp on ysvos eart atónosovo ovositor' muzp IIzvazvrat zzparov xzt otguos, ouds to vuzzoo, 40s toogevot. IIxioaox.

Note 128, page 31, col. 1. then was that noble heart of Douglas pierced. The heart of Bruce was, by his own dying will, intrusted to Douglas to bear it to Jerusalem. This is one of the finest stories in the whole period of chivalrous history. Douglas inshrined the heart in a golden case, and wore it round his neck; he landed in Spain on his way, and stopt to assist the Castilians against the Moors, probably during the siege of Algeziras. There in the heat of action he took the heart from his neck and cast it into the thick of the enemy, exclaiming, as Barbour has it,

Now pass thou forth before

As thou wast wont in fight to be,

And I shall follow or else die. In this action he perished, and from that time the bloody heart has been borne by the family.

Note 129, page 32, col. 2. Pillow'd the helmed head.

II n'est rien de si doux, pour des cours pleins de gloire, Que la paisible nuit qui suit une victoire; Dormir sur un trophoe est un charmant repos, Et le champ debataille cat le lit d'un héros. Scudéry. Alaric. The night after a battle is certainly more agreeable than the night before one. A soldier may use his shield for a pillow, but he must be very ingenious to sleep

upon a trophy.

Note 130, page 32, col. 2. Gazing with such a look. With a dumb silence seeming that it fears

The thing it went about to cffectuate. Daniel.

Note 131, page 33, col. 1. Play'd o'er his cheeks black paleness. Noire pasleur.

Le Moyne. St Louis, liv. xvi.

Note 132, page 33, col. 2.
From the barbican.

Next the bayle was the ditch, foss, grass, or mote : generally where it could be a wet one, and pretty deep. The passage over it was by a draw-bridge, covered by an advance work called a barbican. The barbican was sometimes beyond the ditch that covered the drawbridge, and in towns and large fortresses had frequently a ditch and draw-bridge of its own.—Grose.

Note 133, page 33, col. 2.
Or from the embattled wall.

The outermost walls enclosing towns or fortresses were commonly perpendicular, or had a very small external talus. They were flanked by semi-circular, polygonal, or square towers, commonly about forty or fifty yards distant from each other. Within were steps to mount the terre-pleine of the walls or rampart, which were always defended by an embattled or crenellated parapet.—Grose.

The fortifications of the middle ages differed in this respect from those of the ancients. When the besiegers had gained the summit of the wall, the descent on the other side was safe and easy. But a the ancients did not generally support their walls on the inside with earth, in the manner of the talus or slope, which made the attacks more dangerous. For though the enemy had gained some footing upon them, he could not assure himself of taking the city. It was necessary to get down, and to make use of some of the ladders by which he had mounted; and that descent exposed the soldier to very great danger.”—Rollin.

Note 134, page 33, col. 2.
Behind the guardian pavais fenced.

The pavais, or pavache, was a large shield, or rather a portable mantlet, capable of covering a man from head to foot, and probably of sufficient thickness to resist the missive weapons then in use. These were in sieges carried by servants, whose business it was to cover their masters with them, whilst they, with their hows and arrows, shot at the enemy on the ramparts. As this must have been a service of danger, it was that perhaps which made the office of scutifer honourable. The pavais was rectangular at the bottom, but rounded off above : it was sometimes supported by props.Grose.

Note 135, page 33, col. 2.
With all their mangonels.

Mangonels is a term comprehending all the smaller

Note 136, page 33, col. 2.
Or tortoises.

The tortoise was a machine composed of very strong and solid timber work. The height of it to its highest beam, which sustained the roof, was twelve feet. The base was square, and each of its fronts twenty-five feet. It was covered with a kind of quited mattress made of raw hides, and prepared with different drugs to prevent its being set on fire by combustibles. This heavy machine was supported upon four wheels, or perhaps upon eight. It was called tortoise from its serving as a very strong covering and defence against the enormous weights thrown down on it; those under it being safe in the same manner as a tortoise under his shell. It was used both to fill up the fosse, and for sapping. It may not be improper to add, that it is believed, so enormous a weight could not be moved from place to place on wheels, and that it was pushed forward on rollers. Under these wheels or rollers, the way was laid with strong planks to facilitate its motion, and prevent its sinking into the ground, from whence it would have been very difficult to have removed it. The ancients have observed that the roof had a thicker covering, of hides, hurdles, sea-weed, etc. than the sides, as it was exposed to much greater shocks from the weights thrown upon it by the besieged. It had a door in front, which was drawn up by a chain as far as was necessary, and covered the soldiers at work in filling up the fosse with fascines.—Rollin.

This is the tortoise of the ancients, but that of the middle ages differed from it in nothing material.

Note 37, page 33, col. 2.
A dreadful train.

The besiegers having carried the bayle, brought up their machines and established themselves in the counterscarp, began under cover of their cats, sows, or tortoises, to drain the ditch, if a wet oue, and also to fill it up with hurdles and fascines, and level it for the passage of their moveable towers. Whilst this was doing, the archers, attended by young men carrying shields (pavoises), attempted with their arrows to drive the besieged from the towers and ramparts, being thenselves covered by these portable mantlets. The garrison on their part essayed by the discharge of machines, cross and lout; bows, to keep the enemy at a distance. — Grose.

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