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eo loco insignem habent ædem, de beroe quodam Che- not meeting with any stone just of the same weiąht derle summâ corporis atque animi fortitudine, quem with the other, he put one into the balance which he cundem fuisse cum nostro D. Georgio fabulantur ; thought came very near it, and finding but very little cademque illi ascribunt que huic nostri ; nimirum vasti difference, he added thereto a little earth, which made et horrendi draconis cæde servasse expositam virginem. the scales even; it being God's intention to shew AlerAd hæc alia adjiciunt multa, et que libitum est, com- ander thereby, that he was not to expect immortality miniscuntur; illum per longinquas oras peregrinari till be himself were put into the earth. At last Alex. solitum, ad fluvium postremo pervenisse; cujus aque ander having one day a fall off his horse in the barren bibentibus præstarent immortalitatem. Qui quidem ground of Ghur, they laid him upon the coat he wore fluvius, in quà parte terrarum sit, non dicunt ; nisi for- over his armour, and covered him with his buckler to tassis in Utopià collocari debet : tantum affirmanı illum keep off the heat of the sun. Then he began to commagnis tenebris, multâque caligine obductum latere ; prehend the prophesy of the angel, and was satisfied peque cuiquam mortalium post Chederlem, uti illum the hour of his death was at hand; accordingly he videret, contigisse. Chederlem vero ipsum mortis legi- died. bus solutum, huc illuc in cquo præstantissimo, qui «They add to this fable, that the two brothers Chidder similiter ejusdem aquæ haustu mortalitatem exuerit, and Elias drunk of the water of immortality, and that divagari, gaudentem præliis, adesse in bello melioribus, they are still living but iovisible, Elias upon the earth, aat iis qui cjus opem imploraverint, cujuscunque tan- and Chidder in the water; wherein the latter hath so dem sint religionis.»--Busbequius.

great power, that those who are in danger of being de« The Persians say, that Alexander coming to under-stroyed by water, if they earnestly pray, vowing, so stand, that in the mountain of Kaf there was a great offering to him, and firmly believing that he can relieve cave, very black and dark, wherein ran the water of them, shall escape the danger.»--- Amh. Trav. immortality, would needs take a journey thither. But « Khidir and Elias occupy a distinguished place in being afraid to lose his way in the cave, and consider the legion of prophets. The pame of the first signifies ing with himself that he had committed a great over- verdani, alluding to the power which he possessed of sight in leaving the more aged in cities and fortified producing, wherever lie trod, the most beautiful and places, and keeping about his person only young people, enchanting verdure. These two are regarded as the such as were not able to advise him, he ordered to be protectors and tutelary gods of travellers; the former brought to him some old man, whose counsell he might upon the sea, the latter upon the land; and they are follow in the adventure he was then upon. There were thought to be incessantly employed in promoting these in the whole army but two brothers named Chidder and salutary objects. In their rapid and uniform courses, Elias who had brought their father along with them, they are believed to meet once a year at Mina, in the and this good old man bade his sons go and tell Alex- environs of Mecca, the day on which the pilgrims are ander, that to go through with the design he had under- assembled.»-D'Ohsson's Hist of the Othoman Empire. taken, bis only way were to take a mare that had a

Note 106, page 26, col. 1. colt at her heels, and to ride upon her into the cave,

The swords that late flash'd to tbe evening san. and leave the colt at the entrance of it, and the mare

Now does the day grow blacker than before, would infallibly bring him back again to the same place

The swords that clister'd late, in purple gore without any trouble. Alexander thought the advice so Now all distain 'd, their former brightnesse lose. good, that he would not take

person
with him

May's Edward III. in that journey but those two brothers, leaving the rest Aud again, Book 7 : of his retinue at the entrance of the cave. He advanced

The glittering swords ibat shone so bright of late so far that he came to a gate, so well polished, that nol

Are quickly all distain' with purple gore. withstanding the great darkness, it gave light enough to let him see there was a bird fastened therelo.

The

Note 107, page 26, col. 1. bird asked Alexander what he would have ? He made

Of blessed Mary vow'd tbe vow of peace. answer that he looked for the water of immortality. « Il advint a luy et a toute sa gent, estant devant The bird asked him, what was done in the world ? | Chartres, qui moult humilia et brise son courage; car Mischief enough, replies Alexander, since there is no entendis que ces traicteurs Francois alloient el presvice or sin but reigos there. Whereupon the bird choient ledit roy et son conseil, et encores mulle regetting loose and flying away, the gate opened and sponse agreable nen avoient eue. Une orage une teme ! Alexauder saw an angel sitting, with a trumpet in his peste et une fouldre si grande et si horrible descendit du hand, holding it as if he were going to put it to his ciel en lost du roy Dangleterre qui sembloit proprement mouth, Alexander asked him his name. The angel

que

Je siecle deust finer. Car il cheoit si grosses pierres made answer his name was Raphael, and that he only que elles tuoyent hoinmes et clicvaulx, et en furent les staid for a command from God to blow the trumpel, plus hardis tous esbahis. Adoncques regarda le

roy and to call the dead to judgement. Which having Dangleterre devers leglise de nostre dame de Chartres, said, he asks Alexander who he was ? I am Alexander, ct sc voua et rendit devotement a nostre dame, et proreplied he, and I seek the water of immortality. The mist, et confissa sicomme il dist depuis quil se accordeangel gave him a stone and said to bim, go thy wayes, roit a la paix »- Froissart. and look for another stone of the same weight with « But while he lodged there (before Chartres), his army this, and then thou shalt find immortality. Whereupon making a horrible spoile of the whole country, there Alexander asked how long he had to live? The angel chanced an occasion, as the work of Heaven, which said to him, till such time as the heaven and the earth suddenly quailed luis ambitious design to ruin France : which encompass thee bc turned to iron. Alexander for hehold a horrible and extraordinary tempest of haile, being come out of the cave, sought a long time, and thunder, and lightning, fals with such violence as many

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horses and men in the army perished, as if that God Ignovisse ferunt comiti, Dictæaque tela liad stretched forth his haud from heaven to stay lois

Ipsam, et Amyclæas humeris aptasse pharetras.

udet nemorum, titulumque nocentem. course.»-De Serres.

Sanguinis humani pudor est nescire sagittas.
Note 108, page 27, col. 1.

Statins, iv, 256.
Deep through the sky the hollow thunders rolld.

Note 113, page 28, col. 1. The circumstance of the Maid's entering Orleans at

Ilere Gladdisdale. inidnight in a storm of thunder and lightning is his Glæddisdale must be the Sir William Glansdale of torically true :

Shakspeare. llenry VI, Part I.–Stowe calls him Wil« The Englislimen perceiving that thei within could liam Gladesdale. not long continue for faute of vitaile and pouder, kepte It is proper to remark that Iiave introduced no ficnot their watche so diligently as thei wer accustomed, titious names among the killed. They may all be found nor scoured no: the countrey environed as thei before in the various histories. had ordained. Whiche negligence the citizens shut

Note 114, page 28, col. 1. in perceiving, sent worde thereof to the French capi

The balista. taines, which with Pucelle in the dedde tyme of the

Neque enim solis excussa lacertis nighte, and in a greate rayne and thundere, with all

Lancea, sed tenso balistæ turbine rapta, their vitaile and artillery entered into the citie.»Hall., Haud unum contenta latus transire, quiescit;

Sed pandens perque arma viam, perque ossa, relicta Shakspeare also notices this storm. Striking as the

Morte fagit: superest telo post vulnera cursas.

Lucan. iii. circumstance is, Chapelaia has omitted it.

Vegetius says, that the balista discharged darts with Note 10g, page 27, col. 1.

such rapidity and violence, that nothing could resist Strong were the English forts.

their force. This engine was used particularly to disThe patience and perseverance of a besieging army! charge darts of a surprising length and weight, and ia those ages appear almost incredible to us now. The

small ones together. Its form was not camp of Ferdinand before Granada swelled into a city. unlike that of a broken bow ; it had two arms, but Edward IU made a market-town before Calais. Upon straight and not curved like those of a cross-bow, of the captain's refusal to surrender, says Barnes, «he which the whole acting force consists in beading the began to entrench himself strongly about the city, bow. That of the balista as well as of the catapulta setting his own tent directly against the chief gates at lies in its cords.- Rollin. which he intended to enter; then he placed bastions between the town and the river, and set out regular

Note u15, page 28, col. 1. streets, and reared up decent buildings of strong timber

Where by the bayle's ombattled wall. I between the trenches, which he covered with thatch, The bayle or lists was a space on the outside of the

fred, broorn, and skins. Thus he encompassed the ditch, surrounded by strong pallisades, and sometimes whole town of Calais, from Risban on the northwest by a low embattled wall In the attack of fortresses, side to Courzaine on the porth-east, all along by San as the range of the machines then in use did not exceed fate, at Port and Fort de Nicolay, cominonly by the the distance of four stadia, the besiegers did not carry English called Newland-bridge, down by Hammes, Co on their approaches by means of trenches, but began logne, and Marke; so that his camp looked like a spa- their operations above ground, with the attack of the cious city, and was usually by strangers, that came thi bayle or lists, where many feats of chivalry were perther to market, called New Calais. For this prince's formed by the knights and men at arms, who consireputation for justice was so great, that to his markets dered the assault of that work as particularly belong

which he held in his camp twice every week, viz. on ing to them, the weight of their armour preventing
Tuesdays and Saturdays for flesh, fish, bread, wine, and them from scaling the walls. As this part was attack-
ale, with cloth and all other necessaries), there came ed by the kuights and men at arms, it was also de-
not only his friends and allies from England, Flanders, fended by those of the same rank in the place, whence
and Aquitain, but even many of king Philip's subjects many single combats were fought here. This was at
and confederates conveyed chillier their cattle and the first investing of the place. — Grose.
other commodities to be sold.»

Note 116, page 28, col. 1.
Note 110, page 27, col. 1.

A rude coat of mail.
Entering with bis eye.

In France only persons of a certain estate, called un
Nunc lentux, celsis adstans in collibus, intrat

fief de hauber, were permitted to wear a liauberk, which Urbem ocalis, discitque locos caussasque locorum.

was the armour of a knight. Esquires might only wear Solius Italicus, rii, 567.

a simple coat of mail without the hood and hose. Had Note 111, page 27, col. 2.

this aristocratic distinction consisted in the ornamental Uabarnish'd and defiled.

part of the arms alone, it would not have been objec. Abjecere madentes,

tionable. In the enlightened and free states of Greece,
Sicat eraut, clypeos; nec quisquam spicula terait, every soldier was well provided with defensive arms.
Nec laudavit equum, nitidæ pec cassidis altam
Compsit adornavitque jubam.

In Rome, a civic wreath was the reward of himn who

should save the life of a citizen. But, to use the words Note 112, page 28, col. 1.

of Dr Gillies, « the miserable peasants of modern EuWhen, the war of beasts.

rope are exposed without defence as without remorse, Ipsam, Mænalia puerum cum vidit in umbra,

by the ambition of men, wlicm the Greeks would liave Dianat, tenero signantem granina passu,

styled tyrants."

1

Statius.

On his crown-crested helm.

Note 117, page 28, col. 1.

l'un de ses bouts unc fortc courroie pour tenir l'arme The rade-featur'd helm.

et l'empêcher de glisser, et à l'autre trois chaînons de The burgonet, whch represented the shape of the fer, auxquels pend un boulet pesant huit livres. Il n'y head and features.

a pas d'homme aujourd'hui capable de manier une telle

arme. - Le Grand. Note 118, page 28, col, 2.

The arms of the Medici family « are romantically

referred to Averardo de Medici, a commander under Earls and dukes frequently wore their coronets on Charlemayne, who for bis valour in destroying the the crest of their helmets. At the battle of Agincourt gigantic plunderer Mugello, by whom the surrounding Henry wore « a bright helmet, whereupon was set a country was laid waste, was honoured with the privicrowne of gold, repleate with pearle and precious lege of bearing for his arms six palle or balls, as chastones, marvellous rich.»-Stowe.

racteristic of the iron balls that hung from the mace

of his fierce antagonist, the impression of which reNote 119, page 28, col. 2.

mained on his shield.»- Roscoe. And against the iron fence beneath.

Scudery enumerates the mace among ibe instruments A breast-plate was sometimes worn under the hau- of war, in a passage whose concluding line may

vie berk.

with
any

bathos of sir Richard Blackmore :
Note 120, page 28, col. 2.

Là confusement frappent de toutes parts
With an active bound.

Pierres, piques, espieux, mases, fliches et dards,
The nature of this barrier has been explained in a

Lanas et ja velots, sabres et marteans d'armes,

Dungereux instruments des guerrieres alarmes. previous note. The possibility of leaping upon it is

Alaric. exemplified in the following adventure, which is cha

Note 122, page 29, col. 1. racteristic of the period in which it happened (1370). « At that time there was done an extraordinary feat

Which opend on the wall. of arnis by a Scotch knight, named sir Joho Assueton,

Vitruvius observes, in treating upon fortificd walls, being one of those men of arms of Scotland, who had that near the towers the walls should be cut within-side now entered king Edward's pay. This man left bis the breadth of the tower, and that the ways broke in rank withi lois spear in his hand, his page riding behind this manner should only be joined and continued by him, and went towards the barriers of Noyon, where he beams laid upon the two extremitics, without being alighted, saying, “Here hold my horse, and stir pot made fast with iron ; that in case the enemy should from hence;' and so he came to the barriers. There make himself master of any part of the wall, tbe bewere there at that time sir John de Roye, and sir sieged might remove this wooden bridge, and thereby Lancelot de Lorris, with ten or twelve more, who all prevent liis passage to the other parts of the wall and wondered what this knight designed to do.

He for his into the lowers. - Rollin. part being close to the barriers said unto them, “Gen The precaution recommended by Vitruvius had not tlemen, I am come hither to visit you, and because I see been observed in the construction of the English walls. you will not come forth of your barriers to me, I will On each side of every tower, a small door opened upon come in to you, if I may, and prove my knighthood the wall; and the garrison of one tower are represented against you. Win me if you can.'

And with that in the poem as flying by this way from one to shelter he leaped over the bars, and began to lay about bim themselves in the other. With the enterprising spirit like a lion, he at them and they at him ; so that he and the defensive arms of chivalry, the subsequent alonc fouglit thus against them all for near the space of events will not be found to exceed probability. an hour, and hurt several of them. And all the while

Note 123, page 29, col. 2. those of the town beheld with much delight from the walls and their garret windows his great activity,

O'erbrow'd by no out-jutting parapet. strength; and courage; but they offered not to do him

The machicolation : a projection over the gate-way ang hurt, as they might very easily have done, if they of a lowa or castle, contrived for leuing fall great had been minded to cast stones or darts at him: but weights, scalding water, etc. on the heads of any assailthe French knights charged them to the contrary, say- ants who might have got close to the gate. « Macheing, ‘How they should let them alone to deal with him.' collare, or machecoulare,» says Coke, « is to make a When matters had continued thus about an hour, the warlike device over a gate or other passage like to a Scoich page came to the barriers with his master's grate, tirough which scalding water, or ponderous or horse in his hand, and said in his language, “Sir,

offensive things may be cast upon the assaylants.»

pray come away, it is high time for you to leave off now:

Note 124, page 29, col. 2. for the army is marched off out of sight.' The knight

And buri'd its severed point. heard bis man, and then gave two or three terrible strokes about him to clear the way, and so armed as

I have met with one instance in the English history, he was, be leaped back again over the barriers and and only one, of the ring the spear after the manner mounted-his horse, having not received any hurt; and of the ancients. It is in Stowe's chronicle: « 1462. turning to the Frenchmen, said, 'Adieu, sirs ! I thank The 30th of January, a challenge was done in Smithyou for my diversion: And with that he rode after his field within lists, before the king; the one sir Pbilip de man upon the spar towards the army.»- Joshua Barnes.

Beawse of Arragon, a knight, and the other an esquire

of the king's house called John Ausley or Astley. These Note 121, page 29, col. 1.

coming to the fielde, tooke their tents, and there was The iron weight swang high.

the knight's songe made knight by the king, and so La massue est un bâton gros comme le bras, ayant à brought again to his father's tent. Then the heralds of

armes called them by name to doe their battell, and so « The fair Agnes, perceiving that she was daily they came both, all armed, with their weapons; the growing weaker, said to the Lord de la Trimonille, the knighi came with his sword drawn, and the esquire with lady of the seneschal of Poitou, and one of the king's his speare. The esquire cast his speare against the equeries called Gouffier, in the presence of all her kuighi, but the knight avoiding it with his sword, cast damsels, that our fragile life was but a stinking ordure. it to the ground. Then the esquire took his axe and « She then required that her confessor would give her went against the knight suddenly, on whom he stroke absolution from all her sins and wickedness, conformmany strokes, hard and sore upon bis basenet, and on able to an absolution, which was, as she said, at Loches, kis band, and made him loose and let fall his axe to which the confessor on her assurance complied with.

the ground, and brast up luis limbes three times, and After this she ultered a loud shriek, and called on the | caught his dagger and would have smitten him in the mercy of God and the support of the blessed virgin face, for to have slaine him in the field; and then the Mary, and gave up the ghost on Monday the oth day king cried hoo, and so they were departed and went to of February, in the year 1449, about six o'clock in the their tenis, and the king dubbed Jolin Astey kuight for afternoon. fier body was opened, and her heart interred his valiant torney, and the knight of Arragon offered in the church of the said abbey, to which she had been bis armes at Windsor.»

a most liberal benefactress; and hier body was conveyed

with many honours to Loches, where it was interred Note 125, page 29, col. 2.

in the collegiate church of our Lady, to which also she Full on the corselet.

liad made many handsome donations and several The corselet was chiefly worn by pikemen.

foundations. May God have mercy on her soul, and

adınit it into Paradise!»--Monstrelet, vol. ix, p. 97. Note 126, page 3o, col. 2.

On the 13th day of June, the seneschal of Normandy, A harlot ! ... an adulteress!

count of Maulevrier, and son to the late sir Pierre de This woman, who is always respectably named in Breze kiiled at the battle of Montlehery, went to the French history, bad ber punishment both in herself village of Romiers, near Dourdan, which belonged to and in her child.

him, for the sake of hunting. He took with him bis 1

« This fair Agoes had been five years in the service lady, the princess Charlotte of France, natural daughter of the queen, during which she had enjoyed all the of the late king Charles the VII by Agnes Sorel. After pleasures of life, in wearing rich clothes, furred robes, the chance, when they were returned to Romicrs to sup golden chains, and precious stones; and it was com- and lodge, the seneschal retired to a single-bedded room mouly reported that the king oftea visited her, and for the nighe; his lady retired also to another chamber, maintained her in a state of concubinage, for the people when moved by her disorderly passions (as the husband are more inclined to speak ill than well of their superiors. said) she called to her a gentleman from Poitou, named

a The affection the king showed her was as much for Pierre de la Vergne, who was head huntsman to the i ber gaiety of lemper, ple:sing mavners, and agreeable seneschal, and made him lie with her. This was told conversation, as for her beauty. She was so beautiful to the seneschal by the master of his household, called that she was called the Fairest of the Fair, and the Lady Pierre 1'.Apothecaire; when he instantly arose, anel of Beaute, as well on aecount of her personal charms, taking his sword, broke open the door of the chamber as because the king had given her for life the castle of where his lady and the huntsman were in bed. The biezute near Paris. She was very charitable, and most huntsman started up in his shirt, and the seneschal liberal in her alms, which she distributed among such gave hin first a severe blow with his sword on the bead, churches as were out of repair, and to beggars. It is and then thrust it through his body, and killed him on true that Agnes bad a daughter who lived but a short the spot. This done, he went into an adjoining room ime, which she said was the king's, and gave it to him where his children Jay, and finding his wife lid under the as the

proper father; Lui the king always excused him-coverlid of their bed, dragged her thence by the arm self as not haviog any claim to it. She may indeed along the ground, and struck her between the shoulders have called io belp, for the matter was variously talk with his sword. On her raising herself on her knees he ed of.

ran his sword through her breast, and she fell down « At leogth she was seized with a bowel complaint, dead. He sent her body for interment to the abbey of and was a long time ill, during which she was very Couens, where her obsequies were performed, and he rouirite, and sincerely repented of her sins. She often

caused the huntsman to be buried in the garden of the remembered Mary Magdalin, who had been a great house wherein he had been killed.—Monstrelet, vol. ii, singer, and devoutly invoked God and the virgin Mary to her aid like a true catholic: after she had received the sacraments, she called for her book of prayers, in

Note 127, page 31, col. 1. alich she had written with her own hand the verses of St Bernard to repeat them. She then made many

Μηχετ' επειτ' ωφειλον εγω πεμπτοισι μετειναι gifts, (which were put down in writing, that her executors Ανδρασιν, αλλ' η προσθε θανείν η επειτα γενεσθαι. might fulll them, with the other articles of hier will,) Νυν γαρ δη γενος εστι σιδηρεoν ουδεποτ' ημαρ which including alms and the payment of her servants Παυσονται καματου και οιζος, ουδε τι νυκτωρ, might amount to nearly sixty thousand crowos. Φθειρομενοι. .

ΗΣΙΟΔΟΣ. . «Her executors were Jacques Coeur, councellor and master of the wardrobe to the king, master Robert

Note 128, page 31, col. 1. Poictevin physician, and master Stephen Chevalier

Then was that poble heart of Douglas pierced. treasurer to the king, who was to take the lead in the The heart of Bruce was, by his own dying will, infulfilment of her will should it be bis gracious pleasure. trusted to Douglas to bear it to Jerusalem. This is

p. 233,

And would that I had lived:

Daniel.

one of the finest stories in the whole period of chivalrous

Note 134, page 33, col. 2. history. Douglas inshrined the heart in a golden case,

Behind the guardian parais fenced. and wore it round his neck; he landed in Spain on his

The pavais, or pavache, was a large shield, or rather way, and stopt to assist the Castilians against the

a portable mantlet, capable of covering a man from Moors,-probably during the siege of Algeziras. There head to foot, and probably of sufficient thickness to in the heat of action he took the heart from his neck

resist the missive weapons then in use.

These were in and cast it into the thick of the enemy, exclaiming, as

sieges carried by servants, whose business it was to Barbour has it,

cover their masters with them, whilst they, with their Now pass thou forth before

hows and arrows, shot at the enemy on the ramparts. As tbou wast wont in fight to be,

As this must have been a service of danger, it was that And I sball follow or else die.

perhaps which made the office of scutifer honourable. In this action he perished, and from that time the The pavais was rectangular at the bottom, but rounded bloody heart has been borne by the family.

off above : it was sometimes supported by props. Note 129, page 32, col. 2.

Grose.
Pillow'd the helmed head.

Note 135, page 33, col. 2.
Il n'est rien de si dous, pour des cours pleins de gloiro,

With all their mangonels. Que la paisible nuit qui suit une victoire ;

Mangonels is a term comprehending all the smaller Dormir sur un trophée est un charmant repos,

engines. Et le champ de bataille est le lit d'un héros. Scudéry. Alaric.

Note 136, page 33, col. 2.

Or tortoises. The night after a battle is certainly more agrecable than the night before one. A soldier may use his shield The tortoise was a machine composed of very strong for a pillow, but he must be very ingenious to sleep and solid timber work. The height of it to its highest upon a trophy

beam, which sustained the roof, was twelve feet. The Note 130, page 32, col. 2.

base was square, and each of its fronts (wenty-five feel.

It was covered with a kind of quilted mattress made of Gazing with such a look.

raw hides, and prepared with different drugs to prevent With a dumb silence sceming that it fears

its being set on fire by combustibles. Tl:is heavy The thing it went about to effectuate.

machine was supported upon four wheels, or perlaps Note 131, page 33, col. 1.

upon eight. It was called tortoise from its serving as a

very strong covering and defence against the enormous Play'd o'er his cheeks black paleness.

weights thrown down on it; those under it being safe Noire pasleur.

in the same manner as a tortoise under his shell. It Le Moyne. St Louis, liv. xvi.

was used both to fill up the fosse, and for sapping. It Note 132, page 33, col. 2.

may not be improper to add, that it is believed, so From the barbican.

enormous a weight could not be moved from place to Next the bayle was the ditch, foss, grass, or mote : place on wheels, and that it was pushed forward on generally where it could be a wet one, and pretty deep. rollers. Under these wheels or rollers, the way was The passage over it was by a draw-bridge, covered by laid with strong plaoks to facilitatc its motion, and an advance work called a barbican. The barbican was prevent its sinking into the ground, from whence it sometimes beyond the ditch that covered the draw would have been very difficult to have removed it. bridge, and in towns and large fortresses had frequently The ancients have observed that the roof had a thicker a ditch and draw-bridge of its own.-Grose.

covering, of hides, hurdles, sea-weed, etc. than the Note 133, page 33, col. 2.

sides, as it was exposed to much greater shocks from

the weights thrown upon it by the besieged. It had a Or from the embattled wall.

door in front, which was drawn up by a chain as far as The outermost walls enclosing towns or fortresses was necessary, and covered the soldiers at work in were commonly perpendicular, or had a very small filling up the fosse with fascives. - Rollin. external talus. They were flanked by semi-circular,

This is the fortoise of the ancients, but that of the polygonal, or square towers, commonly about forty or

middle ages differed from it in nothing material. fifty yards distant from each other.

Within were steps to mount the terre-pleine of the walls or rampari,

Note 137, page 33, col. 2.

A dreadful train. which were always defended by an embattled or crenellated parapet.-Grose.

The besiegers having carried the bayle, brought The fortifications of the middle ages differed in this up their machines and established themselves in the respect from those of the ancients. When the besiegers counterscarp, began under cover of their cals, sows, or had gained the summit of the wall, the descent ou the tortoises, to drain the diich, if a wet oue, and also 10 other side was safe and easy But «the ancients did fill it up with hurdles and fascines, and level it for the not generally support their walls on the inside with passage of their moveable towers. Whilst this was earth, in the manner of the talus or slope, which made doing, the archiers, attended by young men carrying the attacks more dangerous. For though the enemy shields (pavoises), attempted with their arrows to drive had gained some footing upon them, he could not the besieged from the lowers and ramparts, being there assure himself of taking the city. It was necessary to selves covered by these portable mantlets. The garrison Get down, and to make use of somc of the ladders by on their part essayed by the discharge of machines, which lie had mounted ; and that descent exposed the cross and long bows, to keep the enemy at a distance. soldier to very great danger.»- Rollin.

-Grose.

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