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self in sackcloth, he departed, and came unto that
them, had elapsed. Wherefore we may say with the Evangelist, Our Lord hath done all things well. Nor hath he suffered the suppliant, who seeks him in penitence, to perish; for he saith, I came not to call the righteous, but sinners to repentance. Let us, therefore, continue to intreat him, that we may be protected by his Almighty hand, and may be delivered from all the devices of the Devil, and that, being aided by the prayers of the Saints, we may be worthy to attain the kingdom of Heaven. To the Lord our God belong all honour and glory and adoration, now and always, for ever and ever. Amen.” The Greeks appear to have delighted in fictions of this peculiar kind. The most extravagant of such legends is that of St Justina and St Cyprian, which Martene and Durand present as a veritable history, censuring Bishop Fell for treating it as fabulous! It is much too long for insertion in this place, but it would be injured by abridging it. The reader may find it in the Thesaurus Novus Anecdotorum, t. iii, pp. 1618–1650.
Note 1, page 730, col. 2. There on the everlasting ice His dolorous throne was placed. It was the north of Heaven that Lucifer, according to grave authors, attempted to take by storm. - En aver criado Dios con tanta hermosura el cielo y la tierra, quedo ordenada su celestial Corte de divinas Hierarchias; mas reyno tanto la ingratituden uno de los Cortesanos, viendose tan lindo y bello, y en mas eminentelugar que los demas (segun Theodoreto) que quiso emparejar conel Altissimo, y subir al Aquilon, formando para esto una quadrilla de sus confidentes y parciales. • With this sentence Fr. Marco de Guadalajara y Xavierr begins his account of the Memorable Expulsion, y justissimo destierro de los Moriscos de Espana.
Note 2, page 734, col. 1. The marriage. The description of the marriage service is taken from Dr King's work upon - the Rites and Ceremonies of the Greek Church in Russia. * * In all the offices of the Greek Church,” he says, “there is not perhaps a more curious service than this of matrimony, nor any which carries more genuine marks of antiquity; as from the bare perusal of it may be seen, at one view, most of the ceremonies which antiquarians have taken breat pains to ascertain.” It agrees very closely with the ritual given by Martene, De Antiquis Ecclesiae Ritibus, t is, pp. 390–8. In these ceremonies,
• The which do endless matrimony make,
the parties are betrothed to each other - for their salvation,”-- now and for ever, even unto ages of ages."
Note 3, page 734, col. 1.
Note 4, page 734, col. 2.
The coronals Composed of all sweet flowers. | • Formerly these crowns were garlands made of flowers or shrubs; but now there are generally in all churches crowns of silver, or other metals, kept for that purpose.”—Dr King's Rites, etc. p. 232. | • A certain crown of flowers used in marriages," says
the excellent Bishop Heber (writing from the Carnatic), a has been denounced to me as a device of Satan! And a gentleman has just written to complain that the Danish Government of Tranquebar will not allow him to excommunicate some young persons for wearing masks, and acting, as it appears, in a Christmas mummery, or at least in some private rustic theatricals. If this be beathenish, Heaven help the wicked | But I hope you will not suspect that I shall lend any countenance to this
kind of ecclesiastical tyranny, or consent to men's con
sciences being burdened with restrictions so foreign to the cheerful spirit of the Gospel.”—vol. iii. pp. 446.
Note 5, page 738, col 1.
The most remarkable instance of St Basil's power in prayer is to be found, not in either of his lives, the veracious or the apocryphal one, but in a very curious account of the opinions held by the Armenian Christians, as drawn up for the information of Pope Benedict XII, and inserted by Dominico Bernino in his Historia di tutte r Heresie (Secolo xiv, cap. iv, t. iii, pp. 508—536). It is there related that on the sixth day of the Creation, when the rebellious angels fell from heaven through that opening in the firmament which the Armenians call Arocea, and we the Galaxy, one unlucky angel, who had no participation in their sin, but seems to have been caught in the crowd, fell with them; and many others would in like manner have fallen by no fault of their own, if the Lord had not said unto them Pax vobis. But this unfortunate angel was not restored till he obtained, it is not said how, the prayers of St Basil; his condition meantime, from the sixth day of the Creation to the fourth century of the Christian era, must have been even more uncomfortable than that of Klopstock's repentant Devil.—p. 512, sec. 16.
Note 6, page 738, col. 1.
In the legend the penitent is left forty days and nights to contend with the Powers of Darkness in the Relic Chamber.
Captain Hall relates an amusing example of the manner in which penance may be managed at this time in Mexico.
• I went,” he says, a to the Convent of la Cruz to visit a friend who was doing penance, not for a sin he had committed, but for one he was preparing to commit. The case was this:—Don N. had recently lost his wife, and, not chusing to live in solitude, looked about for another helpmate; and being of a disposition to take little trouble in such a research, or, probably thinking that no labour could procure for him any one so suitable as what his own house afforded, he proposed the matter to his lately lamented wife's sister, who had lived in his house several years; and who, as he told me himself, was not only a very good sort of person, but one well acquainted with all the details of his household, known and esteemed by his children, and accustomed to his society.
• The church, however, looked exceedingly grave upon the occasion; not, however, as I at first supposed, from the nearness of the connection, or the shortness of the interval since the first wife's death, but because the intended lady had stood godmother to four of Don N.'s
children. This, the church said, was a serious bar to the new alliance, which nothing could surmount but protracted penances and extensive charity. Don N. was urgent; and a council was assembled to deliberate on the matter. The learned body declared, after some discussion, the case to be a very knotty one; and that, as the lady had been four times godmother to Don N.'s children, it was impossible she could marry him. Nevertheless, the Fathers (compassionate persons): wished to give the unhappy couple another chance; and agreed to refer the question to a learned doctor in the neighbourhood, skilled in all difficult questions of casuistry. This sage person decided that, according to the canons of the church, the marriage might take place, on payment of a fine of four hundred dollars: two for the poor in pocket, and two for the poor in spirit; namely, the priests. But, to expiate the crime of marrying a quadruple godmother, a slight penance must also be submitted to in the following manner. Don N. was to place himself on his knees before the altar, with a long wax candle burning in his hand, while his intended lady stood by his side, holding another: this was to be repeated in the face of the congregation, for one hour, during every Sunday and fast-day throughout a whole year; after which purifying exposure, the parties were to be held eligible to proceed with the marriage. Don N., who chose rather to put his conscience than his knees to such discipline, took his own measures on the occasion. What these were, the idle public took the liberty of guessing broadly enough, but no one could say positively. At the end of a week, however, it was announced, that the case had undergone a careful re-examination, and that it had been deemed proper to commute the penance into one week's retirement from the world; that is to say, Don N. was to shut himself up in the Convent of La Cruz, there to fast and pray in solitude and silence for seven days. The manner in which this penance was performed is an appropriate commentary on the whole transaction. The penitent, aided and assisted by two or three of the jovial friars of the convent, passed the evening in discussing some capital wine, sent out for the occasion by Don N. himself, after eating a dinner, prepared by the cook of the convent, the best in New Galicia. As for silence and solitude, his romping boys and girls were with him during all the morning; besides a score of visitors, who strolled daily out of town as far as the convent, to keep up the poor man's spirits, by relating all the gossip which was afloat about his marriage, his penitence, and the wonderful kindness of the church.”—Capt. Hall's Journal, vol. ii, pp. 21 o-214. * I have read of a gentleman,” says Bishop Taylor, a who, being on his death-bed, and his confessor searching and dressing of his wounded soul, was found to be obliged to make restitution of a considerable sum of monev, with the diminution of his estate. His confessor found him desirous to be saved, a lover of his religion, and yet to have a kindness for his estate, which he desired might be entirely transmitted to his beloved heir : he would serve God with all his heart, and repented him of his sin, of his rapine and injustice; he begged for pardon passionately, he humbly hoped for mercy, he resolved, in case he did recover, to live strictly, to love God, to reverence his priests, to be charitable to the poor; but to make restitution he found impossible to him, and he hoped the commandment
would not require it of him, and desired to be relieved by an easy and a favourable interpretation; for it is ten thousand pities so many good actions and good purposes should be in vain, but it is worse, infinitely worse, if the man should perish. What should the confessor do in this case?—shall not the man be relieved, and his piety be accepted; or shall the rigour and severity of his confessor, and his scrupulous fears and impertinent niceness, cast away a soul either into future misery, or present discomfort? neither one nor other was to be done; and the good man was only to consider what God had made necessary, not what the vices of his penitent and his present follies should make so. Well the priest insists upon his first resolution, “Non dimittitur peccatum, nisi restituatur ablatum: the sick man could have no ease by the loss of a duty. The poor clinic desires the confessor to deal with his son, and try if he could be made willing that his father might go to heaven at the charge of his son, which when he had attempted, he was answered with extreme rudeness and injurious language; which caused great trouble to the priest and to the dying father. At last the religious man found out this device, telling his penitent, that unless by corporal penances there could be made satisfaction in exchange of restitution, he knew no hopes; but because the profit of the estate, which was obliged to restitution, was to descend upon the son, he thought something might be hoped, if, by way of commutation, the son would hold his finger in a burning candle for a quarter of an hour. The glad father being overjoyed at this loop-hole of eternity, this glimpse of heaven, and the certain retaining of the whole estate, called to his son, told him the condition and the advantages to them both, making no question but he would gladly undertake the penance. But the son with indignation replied, “he would not endure so much torture to save the whole estate." To which the priest, espying his advantage, made this quick return to the old man : “Sir, if your son will not, for a quarter of an hour, endure the pains of a burning finger to save your soul, will you, to save a portion of the estate for him, endure the flames of hell to eternal ages?' The unreasonableness of the odds, and the ungratefulness of the son, and the importunity of the priest, and the fear of hell, and the indispensable necessity of restitution, awakened the old man from his lethargy, and he bowed himself to the rule, made restitution, and had hopes of pardon and present comfort. • — Works of JeaeMY TAylon, vol. xiii, p. 38. The penances which Indian fanatics voluntarily undertake and perform would be deemed impossible in Europe, if they had not been witnessed by so many persons of unquestionable authority. The penances which the Bramins enjoin are probably more severe than they would otherwise be, on this account, lest they should seem trilling in the eyes of a people accustomed to such exhibitions. • If a Shoodru go to a Bramhunee of bad character, he must renounce life by casting himself into a large fire. If a Shoodru go to a Bramhunce of unsullied character, he must tie straw round the different parts of his body, and cast himself into the fire. The woman must be placed on an ass and led round the city, and then go the Great Way : the meaning of this is, she must wander to those sacred places of the Hindoos where the climate is exceedingly cold, and proceed till she actually perish with cold. This is a meritorious way of terminating
life, and is mentioned as such in the Hindoo writings.—WARD, vol. i., p. 427. Sometimes the law is frustrated by its own severity. • It is a dogma of general notoriety, that if a Jungun has the mischance to lose his Lingum, he ought not to survive the misfortune. Poornia, the present minister of Mysoor, relates an incident of a Ling-ayet friend of his, who had unhappily lost his portable god, and came to take a last farewell. The Indians, like more enlightened nations, readily laugh at the absurdities of every sect but their own, and Poornia gave him better counsel. It is a part of the ceremonial, preceding the sacrifice of the individual, that the principal persons of the sect should assemble on the banks of some holy stream, and, placing in a basket the lingum images of the whole assembly, purify them in the sacred waters. The destined victim, in conformity to the advice of his friend, suddenly seized the basket, and overturned its contents into the rapid Cavery. “Now, my friends, said he, “we are on equal terms : let us prepare to die together.’ The discussion terminated according to expectation. The whole party took an oath of inviolable secresy, and each privately provided himself with a new image of the lingum." —Wilks, vol. i. p. 506. In 1700, when the Mahrattas were to have co-operated with Lord Cornwallis at Seringapatam, their general, Parasu Ram Bhao, became unclean from eating with a Bramin who had—kissed a cobler's wife. There was no stream near holy enough to wash away the impurity, so he marched his whole immense army to the junction of the Tungha and the Badra. Major Moor, who was with him, says, a during this march,
uncalled for in a military point of view, the army laid
waste scores of towns and thousands of acres,—indeed, whole districts; we fought battles, stormed forts, destroyed a large army, and ran every military risk. Having reached the sacred place of junction, he washed, and having been made clean, was weighed against gold and silver; his weight was 16,ooo pagodas, about rocel, which was given to the Bramins. They who had eaten with the Bramin at the same time, in like manner washed away the defilement; but the weighing is a ceremony peculiar to the great.--Moon's Hindu Infanticide, p. 234. • The present king of Travancore has conquered, or carried war into all the countries which lay round his dominions, and lives in the continual exercise of his arms. To atone for the blood which he has spilt, the Brachmans persuaded him that it was necessary he should be born anew: this ceremony consisted in putting the prince into the body of a golden cow of immense value, where, after he had lain the time prescribed, he came out regenerated, and freed from all the crimes of his former life. The cow was afterwards cut up, and divided amongst the seers who had invented this extraordinary method for the remission of his sins. --Omme's Fragments. A far less expensive form was observed among the ancient Grecks, in cases wherein a second birth was deemed indispensable, - for in Greece they thought not those pure and clean who had been carried forth for dead to be interred, or whose sepulchre and funerals had been solemnized or prepared; neither were such allowed to frequent the company of others, nor suffered to come n near unto their sacrifices. And there goeth a report of a certain man named Aristinus, one of those who had
SOUTHEY'S POETICAL WORKS.
been possessed with this superstition; how he sent unto the oracle of Apollo at Delphos, for to make supplication and prayer unto the god, for to be delivered out of this perplexed anxiety that troubled him by occasion of the said custom, or law, then in force, and that the prophetess Pythia returned this answer:
* Look whatsoever women do, in childbed newly laid, Unto their babes which they brought forth, the very same, I say, See that le done to thee again; and after that, be sure, Unto the lessed Gods with hands to sacrifice, most pure.
• Which oracle thus delivered, Aristinus, having well pondered and considered, committed himself as an infant new born unto women, for to be washed, to be wrapped in swaddling-clothes, and to be suckled with the breasthead : after which all such others, whom we call Hysteropotmous, that is to say, those whose graves were made as if they were dead, did the semblable. Howbeit some do say that, before Aristinus was born, these ceremonies were observed about those Hysteropotmoi, and that this was a right ancient custom kept in the semblable case." —Pluranch's Morals, tr. by Phile Mon Holland, p. 852.
Note 7, page 739, col. 1. The lamps went out.
often told them so, and they have believed and acted accordingly. Note 9, page 742, col. 2. The impious scroll was dropt, a blank, At Eleemon's feet.
This is not the only miracle of this kind recorded of St Basil.
* There was a certain woman of noble family, and born of rich parents, who was wholly made up of the vanities of this world, and beyond measure arrogant in all things; she, becoming a widow, wasted her substance shamelessly, living a loose and profligate life, doing none of those things which are enjoined by the Lord, but wallowing like a swine in the mire and filth of her indquities. But being at length by the will of God brought to a consideration of her own estate, and her mind filled with consciousness of the immeasurable offences which she had committed, she called to remembrance the multitude of her sins, and bewailed them penitently, saying, ‘Woe to me a sinner, how shall I render an account of the multitude of my sins! I have profaned a spiritual temple; I have defiled the soul which inhabiteth this body! Woe is me, woe is me! what have I done! what hath befallen me! Shall I say, like the Harlot or the Publican, that I have sinned: But no one has sinned like me! How, then, shall I be assured that God will
There is the authority of a Holy Man in the Romance of Merlin, which is as good authority for such a fact as anything in the Acta Sanctorum,_that the Devil, like other wild beasts who prowl about seeking what they may devour, is afraid of a light. The Holy Man's advice to a pious damsel is never to lie down in the dark; “garde que la oil tu coucheras il yait tousjours | clarté, car le Diable hait toutes cleres choses; nine vient pas woulentiers ou il y a clarté. --vol. i., ff. 4.
Note 8, page 742, col. 1. And white is black, and black is white.
Satan might have been reconciled to St Basil's profession if he had understood, by his faculty of second- | sight, that this, which it is sometimes the business of a lawyer to prove, would one day be the duty of the Roman Catholics to believe, if their church were to tell them so. No less a personage than St Ignatius Loyola has asserted this. In his Exercitia Spiritualia, the 13th of the Rules which are laid down ad sentiendum cum Ecclesia, is in these words :
• Denique, ut insi Ecclesiae Catholicæ omnino unanimes, conformesque simus, si quid, quod oculis nostris apparet album, nigrum illa esse definierit, debemus it dem, quod nigrum sit, pronuntiare. Indubitate namque credendum est, eundem esse Domini nostri Jesu Christi, et Ecclesiae orthodoxae, sponse ejus, spiritum, per quem gubernamur ac diriginur ad salutem; neque alium esse Deum, qui olim tradidit Decalogi pracepta, et qui nunc temporis Ecclesian hierarchicam instruit atgue regit. -- p. 141, Antwerpiae, 1633.
Such is the implicit obedience enjoined in those Spiritual Exercises, of which Pope Paul III said in his brief, sub annulo Piscatoris, - omnia et singula in eis contenta, ex certà scientiá nostrá, approbamus, collaudamus, ac praesentis scripti patrocinio communimus. - The Roman Catholics are to believe that black is white if the Roman Church tells them so : morally and politically it has
receive my repentancer While she meditated in herself upon these things, He, who would that all should be saved and brought back into the way of truth, and would have no one perish, was pleased to bring unto her remembrance all the sins which she had committed from her youth up. And she set down in writing all these offences, even all that she had committed from her youth to this her elder age; and, last of all, she set down onc great and heinous sin, the worst of all; and having done this, she folded up the writing, and fastened it with lead. After this, having waited till a convenient season, when holy Basil was accustomed to go to the church that he might pray there, she ran before to meet him, and threw the writing at his feet, and prostrated herself before him, saying, '0, holy man of God, have compassion upon me a sinner, yea, the vilest of sinners!" The most blessed man stopt thereat, and asked of her ‘wherefore she thus groaned and lamented :' and she said unto him. “Saint of God, see I have set down all my sins and iniquities in this writing, and I have folded it, and fastened it with lead; do not thou, I charge thee, open it, but by thy powerful prayers blot out all that is written therein.' Then the great and holy Basil held up the writing, and, looking toward Heaven, said, “O Lord, to Thee alone all the deeds of this woman are manifest! Thou hast taken away the sins of the world, and more easily mayest thou blot out those of this single soul. Before thee, indeed, all our offences are numbered; but thy mercy is infinite.' Saying thus, he went into the church, holding the aforesaid writing in his hand; and prostrating himself before the altar, there he remained through the night, and on the morrow, during the performance of all the masses which were celebrated there, intreating
God for this woman's sake. And when she came to him, he gave her the writing, and said to her, ‘Woman, hast
thou heard that the remission of sins can coine from God alone " She answered, ‘Yea, father; and there| fore have I supplicated thee that thou shouldst intercede
with that most merciful God in my behalf.’ And then she opened the writing, and found that it was all blotted out, save only that the one great, and most heinous sin, still remained written there. But she, seeing that this }reat sin was still legible as before, beat her breast, and began to bewail herself, and falling at his feet again, with many tears she said, “have compassion upon me, O Servant of the Most High, and as thou hast once exerted thyself in prayer for all my sins, and hast prevailed, so now intercede, as thou canst, that this offence also may be blotted out.' Thereat holy Basil wept for pity; and he said unto her, ‘Woman arise! I also am a sinner, and have myself need of forgiveness. He who hath blotted out thus much, hath granted thee remission of thy sins as far as hath to Him seemed good; and God, who hath taken away the sins of the world, is able to take from thee this remaining sin also; and if thou wilt keep his commandments, and walk in his ways, thou shalt not only have forgiveness, but wilt also become worthy of glory. But go thou into the desert, and there thou wilt find a holy man, who is well known to all the holy fathers, and who is called Ephraem. Give thou this writing to him, and he will intercede for thee, and will prevail with the Lord.' • The woman then commended herself to the holy Bishop's prayers, and hastened away into the desert, and performed a long journey therein. She came to the great and wonderful Hermit, who was called Ephraem by name, and knocking at his door, she cried aloud, saying, “ have compassion on me, saint of God, have compassion on me!' But he having been forewarned in spirit concerning the errand on which she came, replied unto her, saying, ‘Woman depart, for I also am a man and a sinner, standing myself in need of an intercessor." But she held out the writing, and said, ‘the holy Archbishop Basil sent me to thee, that thou mightest intercede for me, and that therethrough the sin which is written herein might be blotted out. The other many sins holy Basil hath blotted out by his prayers: Saint of God, do not thou think it much to intercede with the Lord for me for this one sin, seeing that I am sent unto thee to that end.' But that confessor made answer, ‘No, daughter! Could he obtain from the Lord the remission of so many other sins, and cannot he intercede and prevail for this single one Go thy way back, therefore, and tarry not, that thou mayest find him before his soul be departed from his body. Then the woman commended herself to the holy Confessor Ephraem, and returned to Caesarea. • But, when she entered that city, she met the persons who were bearing the body of St Basil to burial; seeing which, she threw herself upon the ground, and began to cry aloud against the holy man, saying, ‘Woe is me a sinner, woe is me a lost wretch, woe is me! O man of God, thou hast sent me into the desert, that thou mightest be rid of me, and not wearied more; and behold I am returned from my bootless journey, having gone over so great a way in vain The Lord God see to this thing, and judge between me and thee, inasmuch as thou couldest have interceded with Him for me, and have prevailed, if thou hadst not sent me away to another.” Saying this, she threw the writing upon the bier whereon the body of holy Basil was borne, and related before the people all that past between them. One of the clergy then desiring to know what this one sin was, took up the writing, and opened it, and found that it was
dared confess to his own Priest and Bishop a certain enormous crime which he had formerly committed. His Bishop having heard the confession, and being struck
with astonishment and horror at so great an offence, dared not appoint what penance he should perform. Nevertheless, being moved with compassion, he sent the sinner with a schedule, in which the offence was written. to the Church of Santiago at Compostella, enjoining him that he should, with his whole heart, implore the aid of the blessed Apostle, and submit himself to the sentence of the Bishop of that Apostolical Church. He therefore without delay went to Santiago in Galicia, and there placed the schedule, which contained the statement of his crime, upon the venerable altar, repenting that he had committed so great a sin, and intreating forgiveness, with tears and sobs, from God and the Apostle. This
was on Santiago's Day, being the eighth of the Kalends
of August, and at the first hour. • When the blessed Theodemir, Bishop of the See of Compostella, came attired in his pontificals to sing mass
at the altar that day at the third hour, he found the
schedule under the covering of the altar, and demanded
forthwith, wherefore, and by whom it had been placed
there. The Penitent upon this came forward, and on
his knees declared, with many tears, before as the
people, the crime which he had committed, and the injunctions which had been laid on him by his own Bishop. The holy Bishop then opened the schedule,
and found nothing written therein; it appeared as if no letters had ever been inscribed there. A marvellous