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Thus then is this great miracle Continued to this day; And to their Church all Pilgrims go, When they are on the way; And some of the feathers are given them; For which they always pay.
No price is set upon them, And this leaves all persons at ease; The Poor give as much as they can, The Rich as much as they please.
But that the more they give the better
To make the miracle the more, Of these feathers there is always store, And all are genuine too; All of the original Cock and Hen, Which the Priests will swear is true.
Thousands a thousand times told have bought them,
And if any of you, my small friends, Should visit those parts, I dare say You will bring away some of the feathers, And think of Old Itobin Gray.
NOTES AND ILLUSTRATIONS.
Note 1, page 752, col. 1. A ship of marble made.
The marble ship I have not found any where except in Geddes: who must have found it in some version of the legend which has not fallen into my hands. But that the ship was made of marble I believe to be quite as true as any other part of the legend of Santiago.— Whether of marble or not, it was a miraculous ship which, without oars or sails, performed the voyage from Joppa to Iria Flava, now El Padron, in Galicia, in seven days.
Classical fables were still so passable when the Historia Compostelana was written, that the safe passage of this ship over the Syrtes, and between Scylla and Charybdis, is ascribed to the presiding hand of Providence.—España Sagrada, t. xx, p. 6.
Note 2, page 752, col. 1.
—his beadless corpse.
How the body came to leave its head behind is a circumstance which has not been accounted for; and yet it requires explanation, because we are assured that
Santiago took particular care not to part with his head, when it was cut off. • At the moment,” says the Annalist of Galicia, w when the cruel executioner severed from its neck the precious head of the sacred Apostle, the body miraculously raised its hands and caught it, and in that posture it continued till night. The astonished Jews attempted to separate it, but in vain; for upon touching the venerable corpse their arms became cold, as if frozen, and they remained without the use of them.”—Añales de Galicia, por El Doctor D. Francisco Xavier Manuel de la Huerta y Pega.-Santiago, 1733. Cortada la cabeza no dić en tierra, Que por virtud de Dios, 41 con las manos, Antes que cayga al suelo a si la afierra, Que no pueden quitarsela tyranos. stoval or Mrs.A : El Patron de España, fl. 61.
Perhaps his companions drop: it on their way to the coast, for the poet tells us they travelled in the dark, and in a hurry: Cubiertos de la noche con el manto Sin que nintun contrario los impida, Mas presto que si fueran a falope, Llevan el cuerpo a la ciudad de Jope. If... f. 63. But according to the Historia Compostelana España Sagrada, t. xx, p. 6), there is the testimony of Pope St Leo, that the original head came with the body.
Note 3, page 752, col. 2. And how, though then he had no head, He atterwards had two. This is a small allowance, and must be understood with reference to the two most authentic ones in that part of the world,—that at Braga, and one of the two at Compostella. It is a common thing for Saints to be polycephalous; and Santiago is almost as great a pluralist in leads as St John the Baptist has been made by the dealers in relics. There are some half dozen heads, and almost as many whole bodies ascribed to him, all in good odotr, all having worked miracles, and all, beyond a doubt, equally authentic. Note 4, page 752, col. 2. And how he used to fight the Moors.
pagating these fables; their Privilegio de los votos being one of the most gainful, as well as most impudent forgeries, that ever was committed. . The two sons of Zebedee manifested," says Morales, • their courage and great heart, and the faith which was strengthening in them, by their eagerness to revenge the injury done to their kinsman and master when the Samaritans would not receive him into their city. Then Santiago and St John distinguished themselves from the other Apostles, by coming forward, and saying to our Saviour, “Lord, wilt thou that we command fire to come down from Heaven and consume them?' It seems as if (according to the Castilian proverb concerning kinsmen) their blood boiled in them to kill and to destroy, because of the part which they had in his. But be not in such haste, 0 glorious Apostle Santiago, to shed the blood of others for Christ your cousin-german . It will not be long before you will give it to him, and for him will give all your own. Let him first shed his for you, that, when yours shall be mingled with it by another new tie of spiritual relationship, and by a new friendship in martyrdom, it shall be more esteemed by him, and held in great account. Let the debt be well made out, that the payment may be the more due. Let the benefit be completed, that you may make the recompense under greater obligation, and with more will. Then will it be worth more, and manifest more gratitude. Learn meantime from your Master, that love is not shown in killing and destroying the souls of others, for the beloved, but in mortifying and offering your own to death. This, which is the height and perfection of love, your Master will teach you, and thenceforth you will not content yourself with anything less. And if you are desirous, for Christ's sake, to smite and slay his enemies, have patience awhile, fierce Saint' (Santo feroz.) There will come a time when you shall wage war for your Master, sword in hand, and in your person shall slaughter myriads and myriads of Moors, his wicked enemies!"— Coronica General de España, I. ix, c. vii, sec. 8. An old hymn, which was formerly used in the service of his day, likens this Apostle to—a Lion's whelp! Electus hic Apostolus, Decorus et a mabilis, Velut Leonis catulus Wicit bella certaminis. Divi Tutelares, 229. « Thirty-eight visible appearances," says the Padre Maestro Fray Felipe de la Gandara, Chronicler General of the Kingdom of Galicia, – a thirty-eight visible appearances, in as many different battles, aiding and favouring the Spaniards, are recounted by the very learned Don Miguel Erce Gimenez in his most erudite and laborious work upon the Preaching of Santiago in Spain; from which work the illustrissimous Doctor Don Antonio Calderon has collected them in his book upon the Excellencies of this Apostle. And I hold it for certain that his appearances have been many more; and that in every victory, which the Spaniards have achieved over their enemies, this their Great Captain has been present with his favour and intercession.”—Armasi Triunfos del Reino de Galicia, p. 648. The Chronista General proceeds to say that Galicia may be especially proud of its part in all these victories, the Saint having publicly prided himself upon his connection with that kingdom; for being asked in battle once, who and what he was, (being a stranger), he
replied, . I am a Soldier, a Kinsman of the Eternal King, a Citizen and Inhabitant of Compostella, and my name is James.” For this fact the Chronicler assures us that a book of manuscript serinons, preached in Paris three centuries before his time by a Franciscan Friar, is sufficient authority: es valiente autoridad!"—Armas i Triunfos del Reino de Galicia, p. 649.
Note 5, page 752, col. 2.
—Still they worship him in Spain,
• – calamo describi vix potest, aut verbis exprimi, quanto in Jacobum Apostolum Ilispani amore ferantur, quaintenero pietatis sensu festos illius dies, et memoriam celebrent; quam se, suaque omnia, illius fideiet clientelae devoveant; ipsius auspiciis bellicas expeditiones suscipere, et conficere soliti, et Jacobi nomine quasi tesseråse milites illius esse profiteri. Cum pugnam incunt, ut sibi animos faciant et hostibus terrorem incutiant, in primă, quae vehementior esse solet, impressione, illam vocem intonant, Sante Jacobe, urge Hispania, hoc est, Santiago, cierra Hespanha; militarise illi sacramento addicunt; et illustrissimo Equitum Ordine Jacobi nomine instituto, eiusque numini sacro, cujus Rex ipse Catholicus Magnus Magister et Rector est: ejus se obsequis dedicant et legibus adstring unt, ut nullius crga quenquam alium Sanctum Patronum gentis clariora extent, quam Hispanica erga Jacobum amoris et religionis indicia. Quam vero bene respondeat huic amori et pietati Apostolus curá, et solicitudine Pati is et Patroni, ex rebus a suis clientibus, ejus auxilio, præclare gestis, satis constat, tum in ipsa Hispania, turn in utrāque, ad Orientem et Occidentem Solem India, Hispanorum et Lusitanorum armis subactâ, et illorum opera et industria ubique locorum propagatá Christianá religione. --P. ANT. MIAcedo. Divi Tutelares Orbis Christiani, p. 228.
Note 6, page 752, col. 2. Santiago there they call him. • The true name of this Saint," says Ambrosio de Morales, - was Jacobo (that is, according to the Spanish form), taken with little difference from that of the Patriarch Jacob. A greater is that which we Spaniards have made, corrupting the word little by little, till it has become the very different one which we now use. From Santo Jacobo we shortened it, as we commonly do with proper names, and said Santo Jaco. We clipt it again after this abbreviation, and by taking away one letter, and changing another, made it into Santiago. The alteration did not stop here; but because Yago or Tingo by itself did not sound distinctly and well, we began to call it Diago, as may be seen in Spanish writings of two or three hundred years old. At last, having past through all these mutations, we rested with Diego for the ordinary name, reserving that of Santiago when we speak of the Saint.--Coronica General de España, I. ix, c. vii, Sec. 2. Florez pursues the corruption further: . nombrandole par la voz latina Jacobus Apostolus, con abreviacion y vulgaridad Jacobo Apostolo, ö Giacomo Postolo, o Jiac Apostol.--España Sagrada, t. xix, p. 71. It has not been explained how Jack in this country was transferred from James to John. The Prior Cayrasco de Figueroa assures us that St | James was a gentleman, his father Zebedee being
Waron de ilustre sangrey Galileo, Puesto que usaba clarie piscatoria,
Morales also takes some pains to establish this point. Zebedee, he assures us, era hombre principal, señor de un navio, con que seguia la pesca: and it is clear, he says, como padre y hijos seguian este trato de la pesqueria honradamente, mas como señores que como oficiales!»—Coronica Gen. de España, l. ix, c. vii, sec. 3.
Under the dominion of that atrocious Tribunal Am
brosio de Morales might truly say, «no one will dare deny that the body of the glorious Apostle is in the city
which is named after him, and that it was brought thither, and afterwards discovercd there by the great miracles, —of which he proceeds to give an account.
• People have been burnt for less, »—as a fellow at Leeds
Agradecelo a Dios de cuya mano
Este gran Rey decora tu terreno
De la Imperial Toledo es la primera;
Tambien Valladolid aventajada:
Que entonces no era ilicito, ni feo, Tambien Sicilia en esta viva peña
Y el gran Rey no que fue de Atabalips,
Sobre estas fortalezas de importancia
Estos pues son los célebres Castilos.
The Poet proceeds to eulogize Santiago as having been the founder in Spain of that faith for the defence and promotion of which these two-and-twenty Castles were erected.
Pues si en el mundo es digno de memoria
Ranon será, que su memoria sea
Que puedes en la Fé mas que en la espads.
Oygan me los magnánimos guerreros
P. iii, P. s.
At Compostella in his Church
a visitar el cuerpo santo
varia gente fiel, pueblo devoto,
El coxo del lugar propio sealera
El que ya tuvo vista, y no tiene oios,
El que bablar no puede, aunque con lengua
Sinqueste viene de sus micmbros manco,
A quien de prision saca, 6 cautiverio,
Da toda alma fiel gracias al cielo, Que perdonado al pecador que yerra, Para remedio suyo, y su consuelo, Tal bien el Reyno de Galizia encierra : Para que vença desde todo el suelo A las postreras partes de la tierra, Todo fiel Católico Cristiano, A imploror el auxilio soberano. Coustoval or Mrs A, El Patron de España, ff. lxxii. p. 3.
- The high altar at Compostella is, as all the altars formerly were in Galicia and Asturias, not close to the wall, but a little detached from it. It is ten feet in length, and very wide, with a splendid frontispiece of silver. The altar itself is hollow, and at the Gospel end there is a small door, never opened except to royal visitors, and when a new Archbishop sirst comes to take possession. It was opened for Ambrosio de Morales, because he was commissioned to inspect the churches: nothing, however, was to be seen within, except two large flat stones, which formed the floor, and at the end of them a hole about the size of an orange, but filled with mortar. Below is the vault in which the body of Santiago is said to be deposited in the marble o wherein it was found. The vault extends under the altar and its steps, and some way back under the Capella Miayor: it is in fact a part of the Crypt walled off with a thick wall, para dexar cerrado del todo el santo crierpo. The Saint, whose real presence is thus carefully concealed, receives his pilgrims in effigy. The image is a half figure of stone, a little less than life, gilt and painted, holding in one hand a book, and as if giving
a blessing with the other. Esta en cabello, without either crown or glory on the head, but a large silver crown is suspended immediately above, almost so as to touch the head; and the last ceremony which a pilgrim performs is to ascend to the image, which is over the altar, by a stair-case from the Epistle side, kiss it reverently on the head, embrace it, and place this crown upon it, and then go down on the Gospel side.—Piage de Morales, t. xx, p. 154. .
Ingens sub templo fornix, et claustra per umbras
The sepulchre was thus closed by the first Archbishop D. Diego Gelmirez, a que ya de minguna manora se puede ver, ni entenderse como está. Yesto hizo con prudentísimo consejo aquel gran Principe y valeroso Prelado, y con reverencia devota, porque cada uno no quisiese very tratar aquel precioso relicario comunmente, y sin el debido respeto; que se pierde sin duda quando los cuerpos santos y sus sepulturas pueden ser vistas vulgarmente de todos.--Morales, l. ix, c. vii, sec 67.
A print of the sepulchre, from an illuminated drawing in the manuscript of the Historia Compostelana, is given in the 20th volume of the España Sagrada. And in that history (pp. 50, 51) is the following characteristic account of the enlargement of the altar by D. Diego Gelmirez.
• Among the other worthinesses, with the which the aforesaid Bishop in no inactive solicitude hastened to decorate his Church, we have been careful to defend from the death of oblivion whatsoever his restauratory hand did to the altar of the said Church. But, lest in bringing forward all singular circumstances we should wander into devious ways, we will direct our intention to the straight path, and commit to succeeding remembrance so far as our possibility may reveal those things which we beheld with our own eyes. For of how small dimensions the altar of Santiago formerly was, lest we should be supposed to diminish it in our relation, may better be collected from the measure of the altarlet itself. But as religion increased in the knowledge of the Christian faith, that another altarlet, a little larger than the other, was placed over it by those who were zealous for their holy faith, our ancient fathers have declared unto us as well by faithful words, as by the assured testimony of writings. But the aforesaid Bishop being vehemently desirous of increasing the beauty of his Church, and seeing that this little altar, though thus enlarged, was altogether unworthy of so great an Apostle, thought it worthy of pious consideration to aggrandize the Apostolical altar. Wherefore, being confirmed thereunto by the prudent counsel of religious men, although the Canons stoutly resisted him in this matter, he declared his determination to demolish the habitacle which was made in the likeness of the sepulchre below, in which sepulchre we learn, without all doubt, that the remains of the most holy Apostle are inclosed. They indeed repeatedly asserted that a work which, rude and deformed as it was, was nevertheless edified in honour to the remains of such holy personages, ought by no means to be destroyed, lest they themselves or their lord should be stricken with lightning from heaven, and suffer the immediate punishment of such audacity. But he, like a strenuous soldier, protected with the impenetrable shield of a good resolution, forasmuch as,with the eye of his penetration, he perceived that they regarded external things more than inner ones, trampled upon their fears with the foot of his right intention, and levelled to the ground their habitacle, and enlarged the altar, which had originally been so small a one, now for the third time, with marble placed over and about it on all sides, making it as it ought to be. Without delay also he marvellously began a silver frontispiece for this egregious and excellent work, and more marvellously completed it." • There used to be interpreters at Compostella for all languages; lenguageros they were called. They had a silver wand, with a hand and finger pointed at the top, to show the relics with. Among those relics is the head of St James the Less; a grinder, in a splendid gold reli- | quary, of one St James, it has not been determined which ; one of St Christopher's arms, of modest dimensions; and seven heads of the Eleven Thousand Virgins. These are from the list which Morales gives: but that good and learned man, who often swallowed the bull and stuck at the tail, omits some more curious ones, which are noticed in an authentic inventory. (España Sagrada, t. xix, p. 344.) Among these are part of our Lord's raiment, of the earth on which he stood, of the bread which he brake, of his blood, and of the Virgin's milk. A late editor of Old Fortunatus is reminded in one of his notes of Martinus Scriblerus, by a passage in the play, which, as he should have seen, is evidently allusive to such relics as those at Compostella. —— there can I show thee The ball of gold that set all Troy on fire: There shalt thou see the scarf of Cupid's mother, Snatch'd from the soft moist ivory of her arm To wrap about Adonis' wounded thigh: There shalt thou see a wheel of Titan's car, which dropp'd from Heaven when Phaeton fired the world. I'll give thee—the fan of Proserpine, Which, in reward for a sweet Thracian song, The black-brow'd Empress threw to Orpheus, Being come to fetch Eurydice from hell.
Note 9, page 752, col. 2. —All who in their mortal stage Did not perform this pilgrimage, Must make it when they were dead.
1Inc Lysia properant urbes, huc gentes Iberie
Fray Luys de Escobar has this among the five hundred proverbs of his Litany,
—el camino a la muerte es como el de Santiago. Las quatrocienta", etc. f. 140.
It seems to allude to this superstition, meaning, that it is a journey which all must take. The particular part
of the pilgrimage, which must be performed either in ghost or in person, is that of crawling through a hole in the rock at El Padron, which the Apostle is said to have made with his staff. In allusion to this part of the pil
grimage, which is not deemed so indispensable at Com
postella as at Padron, they have this proverb, Quier. va a Santiago, y non va a Padron, 6 faz Routeria & nor. The pilgrim, indeed, must be incurious who would not extend his journey thither; a copious fountain, of the coldest and finest water which Morales tasted in Galicia, rises under the high altar, but on the outside of the church; the pilgrims drink of it, and wash in its waters, as the Apostle is said to have done : they ascend the step in the rock upon their knees, and finally perform the passage which must be made by all : ... y cierto, considerado cl sitio, y la hermosa vista que de alli hay & la ciudad, que estaba abaxo en lollano, y á toda la ancha hova Ilena degrandes arboledas y frescuras demas de dos leguas en largo, lugar es aparejado para mucha contemplacion.”—Piage de Morales, p. 174.
One of Pantagruel's Questions Encyclopédiques is, • Utrum le noir Scorpion pourroit souffrir solution de continuité en sa substance, et par I effusion de son sang obscurcir et embrunir la voye lactee, au grand interes: et dommage des Lifrelofres Jacobipetes. --Rabatais, t ii, p. 417.
Note to, page 752, col. 2.
their aims gules, three scallop-shells argent, he says, - which scallop-shells (I mean the nethermost of them. because most concave and capacious), smooth within, and artificially plated without, was oft times cup and dish to the pilgrims in Palestine, and thereupon their arms often charged therewith.” That the scallop belonged exclusively to the Compotella pilgrim is certain, as the following miracle may show. | • The ship, in which the body of the Apostle was | embarked, passed swiftly by a village in Portugal ealed Bouzas, wherein there dwelt a noble and powerful lord. who on that day married one of his daughters to the son of another person as considerable as himself, lord of the land of Amaya. The nuptials were celebrated in the village of Bouzas, and many noble knights of that province came to the solemnity. One of their sports was that of throwing the cane, and in this the bridegroom chose to bear a part, commanding a troop, that he might display his dexterity. The place for the sport was on the coast of the ocean, and the bridegroom's horse, becoming ungovernable, plunged into the sea, and sank under the immensity of its waters, and, at the moment when the ship was passing by, rose again close beside it. There were several miracles in this case. The first was, that the sea bore upon its waves the horse and horsman, as if it had been firm land, after not having . drowned them when they were so long a time under water. The second was, that the wind, which was driving the ship full speed to its port, suddenly fell, and left it motionless; the third, and most remarkable,
Dacres family (Church list. cent. xii, p. 42), who gave