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such children than there are parents like Hannah, or priests like Eli, to tell them that it is the voice of God.
The crimson was fading into cold October gray as I came upon him twelve years old, and just an ordinary boy, his garden fork under the hill of potatoes he had started to dig, his face upturned, his eyes following far off the flight of a wild duck across the sky.
'He who from zone to zone,'
I began, more to myself than to him.
'Guides through the boundless sky thy certain flight,'
he went on, as much to himself as to me. 'Father,' he added reflectively, as the bird disappeared down the dusky slope of the sky, 'I'm glad I know that piece.' 'Why?' I asked.
after much reflection, La Farge asked whether there might not still be room for something simple in art, Adams shook his head. As he saw the world, it was no longer simple and could not express itself simply. It should express what it was, and this was something that neither Adams nor La Farge understood.'
But it was precisely this sophisticated world that Adams did understand, and not simple men and women. Adams was not born a babe into life, but an Adams into Boston, with (to quote him) 'the First Church, the Boston State House, Beacon Hill, John Hancock and John Adams, Mount Vernon Street, and Quincy all crowding on [his] ten pounds of babyhood.' And the trouble with Henry Adams was that he never
'I see so much more when the wild got from under. ducks fly over.'
'How much more do you see?'
'I see the wild ducks and God flying over together.'
And is he a poet who sees less? Beauty and truth that do not reach religion do not reach the human heart. An education that lacks religion must lack authority, because it cannot know who made the flat-headed adder, who flies with the wild duck, who works in the cod's egg, to will and to do. Religion is the consciousness of the universe-that it is infinite, eternal, and that it is all God's!
The realm of art, the Kingdom of Heaven, and the life of this dear earth admit only little children. Great utterance is universal utterance, simple and unique.
Henry Adams, in the course of his 'Education,' had come from the South Seas to Paris with John La Farge. 'At the galleries and exhibitions he was shocked,' so he says, 'by the effort of art to be original; and when, one day,
Jesus was more fortunate. He was born in a stable. Lincoln had the luck of a log cabin on the Big South Fork of Nolin Creek, as had Cyrus Dallin, the sculptor, only his cabin stood within a stockade in wild, unsettled Utah. Boston has found room for Dallin's Appeal to the Great Spirit, as the world has found ample room for the Gettysburg Address - simple, elemental things of art that shall never want for room.
The world is not simple; or the cell of the cod's egg, either. The forces of cleavage are in that cell, the whole fearful fish is there, and future oceans of fish besides, all in that pellucid drop of protoplasm. Society never was, never can be, simple. It cannot be educated for authority, but only to know and accept authority.
God speaks to the man, not to the multitude-to Moses on the Mount, not to the people huddled in the plain. Society commissions, but the individual finds the truth, reveals the beauty. 'Art,' says Whistler, 'is limited to the infinite, and beginning there, cannot progress. The painter has but the same
We forget that scribes get together in schools, but that creators work 'each in his separate star,' as lonely as God; and that the education of the creator is strictly in the hands of those responsible for him. The responsibility of professional teachers is for children. They must think children, in terms of men and women; and must educate them for society. We parents must think the child, must educate the child, not for society, but for himself for authority. The teachers, looking upon their pupils, see the people, equal before the law, sharing alike the privileges, shouldering alike the responsibilities —one another's keepers, upon whose intelligence and right spirit the nation rests. Thus, as teachers, they see their children and their educational duty.
As a parent, I must see my child as foreordained from the foundation of the world; and looking upon him, I must cry, 'Unto us a child is born, unto us a son is given, and the government shall be upon his shoulders; and his name shall be called Wonderful, Counsellor - or poet, or prophet, for he shall have authority.' So, as a parent, I must think of my child and of my educational duty.
God's work is not done; and mine may be the son called from the beginning, to complete in line, or color, or word, or deed, the divine thing God started but could not finish. For God is not complete until he is made flesh, and dwells among us.
There is no school that can provide for this Only Son. School education is social-it is for all; for life together; how to even and average life's extremes. The private school for the brilliant mind is pure sophistry, and Simon-pure snobbery. Averaging, of course, is a process down, as well as up, to a common level - a social level. Democracy
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is that common social level. Éducation in a democracy must average-teach the high to come down, the humble to rise, and all of us to walk together. Not trying to do more than this for any, or daring to do less than this for all, it must hinder no mind either by merging individuality, or by setting up a material well-being for the better values of the spirit.
The level of education has risen lately in the public schools; university standards meanwhile have distinctly deteriorated-have sought the average. 'College education is now aimed to qualify the student, not to give him quality.' The college has become a business institution; even the college of liberal arts is now a pre-pedagogical, pre-medical, pre-legal, or some other pre-practical vocational school.
Students still come to college to serve, come seeing visions too, being young — but visions of business. In the multitude of twenty college classes passing through my lecture-room I know of but one student to finish his course, bent as he was born, to poetry. He is now spinning a Ph.D. cocoon for himself, the poet about to emerge a college professor!
This is not the fault of youth. Trailing clouds of glory do they come from God who was their home. But they land in America for business. And in such numbers!
I believe in numbers, in business. I freely trust the work of the state with this safe, sane average - but it was none of them who wrote the Declaration of Independence, the Proclamation of Emancipation, or the Covenant of the League of Nations.
The poet cannot be the direct product of the schools. His education is more out of things than books, more out of solitude than society, more out of nature than schools. The author is single, original, free; he uses raw mate
rials, elements, earths that are without form and void. In him is the pattern of all new worlds. His life is to shape them, and give them suns and stars. But in place of raw materials, the unattempted yet in prose or rhyme, we give him only the graded systems of the schools, which make for many essential things, but which may be more deadly to his creative faculty than anything the headlong angels fell on in Hell. For they had, at least,
The dark, unfathomed, infinite abyss,
through whose obscure one of them must find his uncouth way; whereas our unfallen children are run into the school machine at five, and earlier, as oranges into a sorter, the little ones dropping out through their proper hole into shop or office, the bigger ones rolling on until they tumble into college.
Human nature is unique, and not to be handled by machine. It is active, a doing nature, fit for unfinished earth, not heaven, the earth-partner, and cocreator in God's slowly shaping world. Send human nature to school? But if school can make them, why are we without a great poet, a great philosopher, a great religious leader'? Why is it that 'the great voices of the spirit are stilled just now'? It is because education is too far removed from the simple, the original-from life and
A poet is still-born in Boston every day -killed by toys in place of the tools that make them; by books in place of the life they tell of; by schools, museums, theatres, and stores, where things are pieced and ordered, filmed, collected, canned, and labeled, in place of a whole world of whole things, until the little poet asks me, as one did the other day, 'What does cream come from?' a sterilized concoction in a bot
tle, brought by the grocer, his nearest approach to a cow and a milking-stool! Yet he was to have written of
Wrinkled skin on scalded milk!
The educating process is started wrong, and started too early. It should start with work. Watch a child at mud-pies or building a dam. Such intense application, such concentrated effort, such complete abandon! Play? The sweat on that little face, the tongue tight between the teeth, the utter unconsciousness of burning sun and cooling dinner, are the very signs of divine creative work.
Every son of God needs, if not a world to create, an earth to subdue. But instead of allowing him to work, we teach him to be amused, as if his proper frame were passive, his natural action irresponsible; as if he must be kept busy at winding things up and watching them run down.
We have not the courage of our convictions if indeed we have educational convictions! No father, asked for bread, would give a stone; but when asked for truth and beauty and reality, how few of us have the courage to give a son what Jesus had, or Lincoln had, or the two years before the mast that young Richard Henry Dana had!
Quitting his cultured home, his sophisticated college, his conventional city, Dana escaped by way of the old, uncultured sea, with men as uncultured. He had plum-duff on Sundays. Two Years Before the Mast tells the story of that escape from scribbling into living, from a state of mind like Boston, out and down around the Horn.
To save the poet and prophet now standardized to scribes, shall we do away with schools? I have known too many freak poets, too many fool prophets, to say that. Genius is unique; it is also erratic, and needs to toe the mark in school. The training for expression
is more than wandering lonely as a cloud. There is much for the poet in trigonometry, and in English grammar. He must go to school to meet his fellows, too, and his teachers - but not until he is able both to listen to the doctors and to ask them questions.
Education for authority must both precede and continue with conventional education; equal place made for chores, great books, simple people, and the out-of-doors; with that which is made for texts, and recitations, and schoolroom drill; parents sharing equally with professional teachers in the whole process, unless we utterly nationalize our children.
Two of my children are in a Boston high school, having five hours of Latin, five of German, five of French, three of English, three of mathematics, three of history, two of military drill - twentysix hours in all. And they call it educational! That is not education. That is getting ready for college—which is not to be confused with education. It fits for college, not for authority; it is almost certain death to originality and the creative faculty.
There must be a course of study in school and college, and it must be shaped to some end. Is it, however, the right end of four years in high school, to get to college? or the right end of four years in college, to get into a job? There is a certain Spartan virtue in this high-school study, something that makes for push and power, but nothing of preparation for great utterance in
sermon or song.
The children do not know that the poet in them is being killed. I know but I only half believe the poet to be in them!
The sin of the fathers- this fear of the divine fire! Mine are ordinary children. I should have adopted them, foundlings of unknown elfin parentage. Then I had believed, and had given
them to Merlin, as Arthur was given, or to the Lord, as Hannah gave little Samuel.
I did have them born and brought up in the hills of Hingham, forced out of the city when the second one came. I gave them the farm, the woods, the great books, the simple people, and religion, but timidly-allowing them at this day to take fifteen hours of study in foreign languages to three meagre hours in their glorious native tongue. And these are to be poets and prophets!
Then they must needs speak in German, French, and Latin. English is a foreign tongue in the Boston high schools. John Gower did his Confessio Amantis in three languages, but Geoffrey Chaucer found it a life's task to conquer his native English, sighing,
The lyf so short, the craft so long to lerne.
Poets have scarcely time to learn their own language. If any of them are going through American high schools, they will learn a few French irregular verbs, know that Weib is neuter, and how Amo is conjugated, but they will not know the parts of the verbs 'lay' and 'lie,' and their vocabulary of adjectives will be limited to 'some' and 'dandy' or to 'some-dandy.'
'We don't need to study English, we inherit it,' one of my college men said to me.
'How much did you inherit?' I asked; and as a test turned to Whittier's SnowBound, which lay on my lecture-room desk, and read to him,
Meanwhile we did our nightly chores
and the ten lines that follow, finding eight words 'littered,' 'mows,' 'walnut bows,' 'herds-grass,' 'stanchion,' 'chores, "querulous,' and 'birch'—that were foreign to the majority of the class without meaning, and so without image and poetry. It chanced that
I was wearing a brown Windsor tie, and I saw one student nudge another and whisper, 'The cows had "walnut bows" on like the professor's.'
Rubbing it in a little, I declared that I could open any English book, and on any page find a word that none of them had ever used, and that most of them would not even understand. On my desk lay a small wrapped book from some publisher. I cut the string; found it a supplementary reader for the eighth grade, and opening it in the middle, took the middle paragraph on the page, and began to read,
"The ragged copses on the horizon showed the effect of the severe shelling' -a war-story, reprinted from the Youth's Companion!
'Copses,' I said to the young man who had inherited the English language, "what does "ragged copses" mean?'
He took one profound look into his heritage, in the region of his diaphragm, then cast his eyes slowly around the horizon of the room, and answered, that he did n't know what the ragged policemen were doing there in No Man's Land!
I turned to a young woman student. "What does "ragged copses" mean?' I asked.
She raised her hands to her face, shivered cruelly, and replied that she just hated such horrid words - she just hated to think of that battlefield all strewn with ghastly tattered corpses!
And what shall be said of another college man, reporter on the Boston Globe, whose chief told me of sending him to get a story about a little bay colt that was prancing gayly up Newspaper Row. Turning at the office door, the reporter asked doubtfully, 'You said a bay colt - Is that some kind of sea-horse?'
'Who said sea-horse?' snorted the editor. 'I said a bay colt out on the street.'
'Is that a new breed of horse?' 'Breed?' roared the editor. 'Breed? I said a bay colt—a color, not a breed!'
'Oh, come now,' said the undone reporter, 'don't jolly me. There is n't any such color in the rainbow.'
'Nor among neckties either,' added the editor; 'but there is among horses, as any farm-boy knows.'
What any farm-boy knows is the beginning of the knowledge and the foundation of the vocabulary of authority. The farm-boy's elemental, but amazingly varied, word-horde is the very form of universal speech. Poets and prophets have always used his simple words; and poets and prophets must ever live as he lives, and learn what he has learned of language and things. And Nature, the old nurse, took
The child upon her knee,
Thy father has written for thee.' That was the first story-book. It still remains the greatest of sourcebooks. Here the human story begins; against this background the plot unfolds; and here ends. Here is written that older tale of Limulus polyphemus, the horse-shoe crab, and that ancienter story of the stars. Into the Book of Nature are bound all the 'Manuscripts of God' the originals of all authors, whether they create in words, or notes, or colors, or curves; the originals of the past, of the present, and that longer, richer future.
'Come wander with me,' she said,
'Into regions yet untrod; And read what is still unread
In the manuscripts of God!'
Mother of us all, Nature should be the teacher of all, lest she be denied that chosen one to whom she would give authority. It is she who shall show him how, 'in the citron wing of the pale butterfly with its dainty spots of orange,' he shall see 'the stately halls of fair gold, with their slender saffron pillars';