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case of President Loubet, whose visit sovereign cannot have regulations imwas largely responsible for the breaking posed on him by anyone or he loses his off of relations between France and the sovereignty; and because the law, made Holy See - has been to Rome since by one Parliament, could be revoked at 1870.

any moment by another. It is ephemBut here, too, the words of concession eral. Even if it gave independence, it are followed up immediately by the could not guarantee it. But if you offer saving clause of principle: ‘But at the me independence, actual and apparent same time we formally declare that this to the world, and based on a guaranty concession, which seems counseled or, as effective as the Temporal Power of rather, demanded by the grave cir- the old days, I will consider the offer, cumstances in which to-day society is and, if satisfied, will ratify the new arplaced, must not be interpreted as a rangement in a bilateral contract as tacit renunciation of its sacrosanct between two sovereigns.' rights by the Apostolic See, as if it ac- Is it possible for Italy to make a quiesced in the unlawful situation in move? The government of the day which it is now placed. Rather do We could not make concrete proposals unseize this opportunity to renew for the less it had practical assurance that they same reasons the protests which Our would be acceptable in substance to Predecessors have several times made, both interested parties — the Holy See not in the least moved thereto by hu- on the one side, and Italian public man interests, but in fulfillment of the opinion, represented by Parliament, on sacred duty of their charge to defend the other. The government should find the rights and dignity of this Apostolic no difficulty in getting the information See; once again demanding, and with necessary. As regards the Holy See, even greater insistence now that peace it is notorious that there has always is made among the nations, that "for been an unofficial channel of communithe Head of the Church too an end may cation between Italy and the Vatican. be put to that abnormal condition which There are almost daily happenings, in so many ways does such serious harm some of little, some of great importance, to tranquillity among the peoples." on which mutual knowledge and under

We have, then, the attitude of the standing is necessary. The Italian railHoly See outlined with sufficient clear way authorities — to take a very small ness: in principle it is exactly where it matter make special arrangements was; in practice it has shown signs of for the journeys of cardinals to and real good-will. But, if anything is to be from Rome; when several Princes of done, it awaits a move from the other the Church are traveling at the same side. In that, it is logical. If the Holy moment, to a Conclave for instance, See were to speak out in the ordinary a special train is put at their disposal. language of the world one may imagine During a Conclave the most elaborate it expressing itself thus: “You took precautions are taken to prevent any away my independence when you took inconvenience to single cardinals while away the Temporal Power by which it they are in Rome, and to ensure the had been guaranteed for a thousand entire freedom of the Sacred College years. Sovereign freedom and inde- while it is in solemn session in the Vatpendence I must have. Your Law of ican, at the moment when the name of Guaranties does not give it to me: be- the new Pope is announced from the cause the text does not contain it; be balcony of St. Peter's, and during cause such law is unilateral, and a the ensuing functions. At great feasts in St. Peter's, the Cardinal Archpriest people. The patriotic note would drown has an escort of Italian carabinieri in what little sectarian clamor might arise. his own basilica, which technically does Recent Italian premiers have been not belong to the Holy See.

well disposed to the Holy See; one of When any excitement among the them, Signor Nitti, is notoriously depeople here is threatened, the govern- sirous of seeing his name go down in ment keeps the Vatican informed of the history as the statesman who settled the precautions taken against disturbance Roman Question; and as he is equally of public order in its neighborhood. notoriously anxious to return to the There are a hundred points on which ex- place now occupied by Signor Bonomi, change of information between the two it is quite possible that the latter might bodies is convenient. During the war have no objection to doing the thing communications of a practically official himself, while he has the opportunity. nature passed; as, for instance, during the negotiations for exchange of Italian

III and Austrian prisoners, a benevolent initiative, in great measure due to and As to the lines on which agreement organized by the Holy See, but cut short could be reached, presuming, as is probat the last moment by the prejudice able, that preliminary soundings show of one Italian minister. In that case, the possibility of approach, we have, communication between the Foreign speaking generally, a new willingness Office and the Secretariat of State was, to consider the question on the part of if not official, actually direct.

Italy, and undoubted signs of good-will The Italian government should find on the part of the Holy See. From that no difficulty in learning, privately but it is not a difficult advance to reach, on authoritatively, the views of the Holy the part of Italy, the recognition that See, if it has concrete proposals to sug- the existing Law of Guaranties does not gest. On the other side, the Chamber of give and guarantee fully and patently Deputies is divided up into clearly de- the necessary liberty and independence fined parties, and a prime minister can of the Pope; and, on the part of the estimate to a nicety, after private con- Holy See, an attitude of relaxation of versation with the party leaders, wheth- severity, in consideration of the changed er or no he can count on their support spirit of the times, to which the Pope on any given question. Every prime himself has so often alluded, and which, minister, too, has his own ways of bar- while it may go some way to meet gaining for such support if he wants it. Italian susceptibilities, may be suffiPublic opinion is largely influenced by ciently explicit and far-reaching to satthe press. In the present case the bulk isfy such claims of the Holy See as are of it would surely be favorable; and if fundamentally and absolutely vital bethe question were put before the Italian cause founded on the divinely given people in the obvious way that presents constitution of the Church. itself, after the very explicit example

Would it be possible to draw up an set by France of renewing relations agreement, presumably in the form of a with Rome solely in the country's Concordat,

Concordat, – a bilateral understandpolitical interest, the proposal might ing, that is, between two sovereign go through — all other circumstances powers, — by which Italy would get being favorable – on a wave of patriot- the political advantage of direct diploic enthusiasm, in addition to religious matic representation and communicasatisfaction of the great mass of the tion, which is so evidently desired and

is now gained by France and other na- relations have established them. Govtions; and to embody also in that agree- ernments which had broken off relament clauses which should subjectively tions have restored them. Governrecognize the full sovereignty of the ments which had second-class relations Pope and objectively provide a guaran- have raised them to first class. ty of it which he could accept as satis- In the first category the British Emfactory? Sovereignty, it is recognized, pire is noticeable. It sent a minister on must rest on territory: whether as much special mission at Christmas, 1914, for as would go in a teacup, — theoretically the announced purpose that its policy, sufficient, practically absurd, - or the reasons, aims, intentions, and conduct old States of the Church, or the City of in the war might be rightly understood Rome - practically out of date. at the Holy See. Now that war is over,

Largely theory must govern consid- it has converted its special mission into eration; to any and every solution prac- a permanent legation, by reason of the tical objections can be found. Granting proved value of representation there. that consideration of political interest Holland, in the spring of 1915, carried impels Italy to move; and granting, through Parliament the proposal to as is practically assured, benevolent send a representative to the Holy See, consideration by the Holy See, what on the ground that it was the country's guaranty of his sovereign liberty and special and vital interest that peace independence will the Pope consider should be brought about as soon as possatisfactory? That is the point on sible, and that it was to Holland's inwhich no one can prophesy. What is terest to coöperate with the Vatican. quite certain is, that there is no moral Now that peace has come, Holland has obligation on him to claim the old made its relations permanent, receiving guaranty, the old Temporal Power as a separate internuncio instead of a subit used to exist; but he must claim ordinate share in the Nuncio at Brussomething, and something satisfactory, sels. In this category, too, come all the in its place.

states - Poland, Czechoslovakia, YugoBefore leaving the subject a passing slavia, and the rest — that have risen note must be made of that very remark- from the war. In the second category, able phenomenon of the times, the rush France is the outstanding figure. The of civil governments to Rome. Before third is very numerous: the German the war the Holy See had diplomatic Embassy replacing the Prussian Legarelations with a dozen states; now it has tion; Belgium, Chile, Brazil, Peru raissuch relations, either sending a repre- ing their legations to the full rank of sentative or receiving one, or, in the embassies. large majority of cases, both sending and And it is remarkable how this phereceiving, with twenty-five. Quality, nomenon has come about without objectoo, has increased, as well as quantity. tive effort on the part of the Holy See: Before the war Rome sent to foreign the civil governments have approached powers only five nuncios, including Rome, not Rome the civil governments, those of the second class, and two in- though, of course, she has extended to ternuncios; it received only two ambas- them the most cordial welcome. If, sadors and twelve ministers, of foreign indeed, one regards the simple objecstates. Now it sends out nineteen nun- tive historical facts, appearing on the cios and five internuncios, receiving surface, affecting the Holy See in relaeight ambassadors and seventeen min- tion to the war, the phenomenon seems isters. Governments which had no more remarkable still. The Papacy proclaimed its neutrality and impar- the results of the great war. But to tiality; the Pope announced his policy prophesy as to future historico-political of doing everything possible: first, to possibilities arising from it would be relieve suffering; second, to bring about premature, particularly in view of the peace. On the first count his success very sudden way in which it has come was amazing, showing to the world in a about. There is a point, however, really remarkable manner the unique which rivets the attention. No one, in character and power of the institution considering to-day's phenomenon, can of the Papacy. On the second count he help thinking of old times, when the seems, to all outward appearances, to Pope had relations and agreements with have failed completely. A clause in the all the powers of the world the secret agreement of April, 1915, by which historico-political world that counted Italy entered the war, a clause then: Europe. Such relations were bewhich was, under the resulting cir- tween temporal sovereigns of states cumstances, valueless,-prohibited him and the Pope — who also was temfrom having anything to do with the poral sovereign of a state, but at the Peace Conference whenever and how- same time supreme spiritual sovereign ever that might come about. It was of the Catholic princes with whom he valueless because the Holy See always had relations. envisaged peace by agreement, and There is a varied history of the vicissiwould never have taken part in a peace tudes of those relations. But, as the imposed by conquerors on conquered; Pope has said more than once lately, whereas the Allies always held that there times have changed. If we run down could be no just and lasting peace – the list to-day we find His Most Cathosuch as the Holy See itself desired lic Majesty of Spain the only remain- unless founded on the defeat of the ing sovereign of the class of the olden party responsible for the war and the days; we find states which may be callconsequent recognition by Germany ed, in regard to their peoples, Catholic: that war does not pay.

Poland, Belgium, Bavaria, even France, That was always the fundamental and others; but Rome's diplomatic redifference between the Pope and the lations with the world to-day are not Allies in their outlook on peace. Presi- with Catholic princes, but with 'demodent Wilson's reply to the Papal Peace cratic' states, represented by parliaNote of August, 1917, with which the ments and prime ministers. It has been Allies associated themselves, brought said in disparagement of limited comthat point out clearly. Strive as he panies that they have ‘no souls to be would for peace, the Pope seemed to saved or bodies to be kicked.' In the old have no success at all. Yet we now days of Catholic princes and of the have the striking procession of the na- Temporal Power, both these conditions tions of the world toward the Vatican, stood. Such entities to-day have the which, on the face of things, seems to first half of the phrase only in the meashave failed utterly to do what it set it- ure of righteousness of feeling expressed self to do. There is the contradiction; in the policy of the nation influencing but there is the actual, evident fact, the Government; and the second half from which there is no getting away, of stands only in the lessened and entirely the position of increased prestige and changed measure of adjustment of dippower occupied by the Holy See to-day. lomatic differences. In truth, to-day,

It is certainly one of the great his- Rome's aspect in its relations with the torical phenomena to be noted among world flocking to it must be very differ


ent from that of olden days. How it Vatican are still turned, the more so in will align itself will be matter for in- view of its evidently increased prestige teresting study by future students of and objective and subjective importhistory.

and that is the one country And it is for the future students of which is not joining in the rush to Rome. history, not for a passing note-maker The United States receives a purely of the time, to comment on another religious representative of the Pope in striking phenomenon. There is one the person of an Apostolic Delegate, great country to which the Pope's eyes but it has no diplomatic relations with turned specially in every crisis of the the Holy See. That, too, is a policy war; which, up to the very last minute, as to which future students of history, he believed never would come in; to at the Vatican and in America, will have which his eyes turned all the same after opportunity for noting results and it had done so; to which the eyes of the forming judgment.




The editor of the Atlantic has re- the Duke of Northumberland to John quested me to explain the labor sit- Maclean, and with no interest to serve uation in Great Britain to American but the truth. If I am wrong, it is due readers, and has propounded several to lack of judgment, not to bias, or to questions, which I will try to answer in want of study. the course of this essay. He asks for an

I interpretation, rather than a résumé, of the facts, and I will therefore assume Let me begin with the summary that the reader has a certain knowledge statement that so far we have passed of outstanding events. My task is, as through inevitable troubles and trials I understand it, to explain the broad better than we had any sound reason to meaning of what is going on in Eng- expect. We are by no means through land without entering into too much with them yet; but as each successive detail. This, of course, involves mat- corner is turned, the prospect improves. ters of opinion, and a preliminary word This view may cause some surprise on my own standpoint is due. I write and be set down as “optimistic’; but opas a detached observer, who has for timism has nothing to do with it, as I many years studied social conditions shall show. It is based on a reasoned and industrial movements from the life anticipation, formed during the war in many countries, without any parti- from past and current conditions, of the san predilections of any kind, political, industrial situation likely to arise after financial, or theoretical; with friends it, and on a broad survey of the actual and acquaintances in every camp, from course of events since the Armistice.

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