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unrest further emphasizes the difficul- dustry and autocracy are compatible; ties of adjustment on that side of the in the long run, so strong are the social equation. Since the colored races have pressures involved, a successful governnot yet been tried in the fiery crucible ment of an industrial state must grow of industry, no one can prophesy their out of the conscious will of its people, reaction to the impact of modern in- represent their ideals, and be amenable dustry.

to those ideals as they change from Consider from this angle some of generation to generation. Even in the vital demands that industry makes Japan the advent of industry brought upon government and upon society. constitutional forms, not yet nationally Industry requires a government at once digested. Those states in which represtrong and flexible. Government must sentative democracy had reached its preserve domestic order against class highest expression emerged from the jealousies that fatten upon the dispar- desperate test of war and the grind of ity of wealth inevitably arising from war-production with the least political industrialism under private ownership, and social damage. as King demonstrates in his comparison Industry prospers best under capiof incomes in Prussia and Wisconsin. talism and under representative democIt must uphold contracts under condi- racy; I cannot conceive industry functions in which contractual relations be- tioning well under other dispensations. come increasingly complex. It must German autocrats might introduce protect the people from their employers state socialism as they pleased; the fact and from themselves; it must maintain of autocracy remained a threat to Gersuch hours of labor and working con- man industry. And because no colored ditions as will save the workers from race equals the white in its power to being ground down in ruthless competi- create the social and political setting tion, or enfeebled by their own weak- in which machine industry thrives, I nesses. It must encourage the public, am unable to follow Lothrop Stoddard and find ways and means to compensate as far as he goes in forecasting the it for the social sacrifices involved in shrinking of the white man's markets, industrial production, which compen- in his book, The Rising Tide of Color. sations must be provided outside of Indeed, the impact of industry upon factory walls and enjoyed in leisure. colored races seems as likely to weaken To provide these sedatives requires them as the reverse. Modern industrialan imaginative, strongly functioning ism places both the individual and public spirit outside of the industrial society under severe and continued group, and the finding of funds to strains, physical, mental, moral. The make expensive dreams of social prog- more static the society, the more cusress come true, at least sufficiently to tom-tied the individual, the more severe allay discontent.

the strain. English people have been The dilemma presented by heavy evolving with and in industry under social needs and the very real danger of representative government for six cenovertaxing industry is not an easy one turies; for two centuries they have been to solve, even for states highly organ- applying power to machines and buildized; it may well prove insoluble for ing up a factory system. All this time states which, like China and Turkey, they have been building up definite reveal chronic inability to establish immunities against industrial ills and sound public finance. Finally, history definite predispositions to bargain themgives no ground for believing that in- selves out of industrial ills. Yet they are

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never out of hot water, politically and higher standard of living. Necessity industrially. I do not see how peoples may bring him to the factory, if we without that background, or something whites insist; but he will remain a rebel, like it, lacking alike political flexibility active or potential, against industrial and industrial experience, can stand the organization so imposed. shock of modern industrial life. Indus- The Mexican's instinctive reaction trialism in its functioning and growth against industrial organization differs - and it is still growing — requires in degree, but not in kind, from that of never-ending readjustments, compro- many of our own shop-workers. There mises, and concessions, which are born develops among the workers in highly of freedom and responsibility — the automatized plants a chronic dissatisright of individuals and groups to bar- faction, which cannot be explained away gain freely; and the duty, freely accept- without reference to nerves. It seems ed, of living up to the bargain after it is to be proof against high wages and made. Where these concepts have no good conditions. Welfare-work, bonuses, place in the popular mind, there indus- shop-councils, even profit-sharing, do try will have rough sledding, and can not drive it out. Clatter and haste are become efficient only through a system contributing factors; so also are indoor of force and repression which eventually confinement, monotony of task, disdefeats itself.

tance from the real boss, repression of It is easy, under the automatic ré- personality, strict regimentation of efgime, for a man to stand beside a ma- fort, and the scant opportunity afforded chine and produce goods, and difficult for the play of the craftsman instinct, for him to stay there and remain a the joy in production. reasonably satisfied, contributing mem- But the basic cause lies deeper. All ber of a political and social group, of us are descended from ancestors who, strong enough to maintain itself, yet a comparatively short time ago, were flexible enough to give him reason to farmers, hunters, and fishermen, with believe industrialism worth while. Mex- occasional experience as fighting men. ico's experience is a case in point. Diaz, Their work held considerable variety, proceeding toward the industrializa- called for great outbursts of physical tion of his country with the aid of for- energy interspersed with frequent leteign capital, enterprisers, and engineers, downs. They had their labor-thrills unmistakably bettered the economic along with their labor-pains. Even the condition of Mexican labor. Neverthe- simple annals of the medieval poor must less, the peons' ideal of life remained have been crowded with adventure, as agricultural; Madero won their back- compared with the systematic, coloring with his promise of forty acres and less, bare-of-drama tasks of the modern a mule. Carranza, inheriting from factory. Your worker is there in the Madero, frankly declared his country's factory, not because he wants to be, antipathy to industrialism; whatever but because he needs the money, and his faults, Carranza sized up his Indian can discover no other means of getting correctly. Though the Mexican peon it. Yet there is that stirring within him has certain innate capacities for factory which informs him, even before the work, notably high manual dexterity voice of the agitator reinforces the conand stolid patience, he prefers to half- viction, that this is no life for a real man. starve on the land rather than work He gets, literally, no fun out of his upon modern machines indoors at wages labors. His environment irks him, and that would enable him to maintain a out of that attrition is born an Arbeit

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schmerz as real as the Weltschmerz that mendous dilemma presents itself. On Goethe discovered. Our tenders of ma- the one hand, the economic forces that chines are being starved in their souls; spread industrialism outward from its and while there may be sedatives for English inception are still operative, that malady, there is no specific. and more vigorous than before. To the

That seems to me the root of social constant of self-interest is added a unrest in America, and it is probably heightened state-interest flowing from equally true in Europe. Under our po- huge debts. These converging interests litical and social controls, in a people now have tools at their disposal which naturally robust and hopeful in spirit, admit to efficient production breeds of the sickness may not run its course. cheap men not hitherto available as Though half our mechanics talk radi- industrial workers. These dynamic calism, they vote with the others for forces are not to be denied their trial of Harding, play baseball in our parks, strength. On the other hand, peoples and get some relief and encouragement about to be introduced to industrialism out of being literate citizens of a repub- must overcome grave social and politilic whose evolution tends, however slow- cal inhibitions before they cut down ly, toward the interests of the masses. materially the demand for the white

But what will this chronic work-pain man's goods, and so restrict his influence drive other breeds to do — breeds that in the world. These contrary forces — get no relief out of sport and voting? one set positive, the other negative; one Well, to cite the shining example, it the essence of progress, the other the esseems to have poisoned Russia's indus- sence of conservatism are bound to trial workers against the only system of do battle with one another on the world industry under which industry func- stage. Upon the outcome depends the tions profitably in our day; the Com- future of terrestrial society. munists of Russia come from her few Alarm as to the outcome has been industrial towns. Signs of similar explo- sounded vociferously enough; and while sions are not lacking in Japan. No mat- the warnings may be more strident than ter how shops are organized, no matter the dangers are imminent, still the outhow profits are divided, this fraying of look calls for the highest statesmanship. nerves in industry continues. Industry The trial period, while the old and new may stir temporarily the simple folk do battle in Asia, is sure to be an era of of Mandalay and Peshawur; but can extreme nervousness in international they stand the shock any better than relations. During this period the white the Amerind withstood the white man's nations must strive toward a genuine methods and the white man's whiskey? solidarity, at the very time when their Modern industry is strong drink; those traders and governments are forced by who have lived long with it, despite powerful economic motives to cut into partial immunity born of experience, each other's markets. At a time, too, are none too happy; and those less when rankling hate persists, and state

; experienced dally with it at the risk of craft is still under the shadow of chautheir health, customs, general effective vinism. Any statesman who does not ness, and political stability.

make an effort to overcome these difficulties deserves ill of posterity; because

the situation is one in which peace must III

be labored for, and of which war is the Viewing from these angles the possi- logical outcome. bility of spreading industrialism, a tre- There can be no durable peace, and no effective white solidarity, so long as Every alert man or woman recogthe coal-and-iron states continue tread- nizes that the masses are critical of ing the path of economic competition governments in this year of grace. The toward another Armageddon. A sword conviction is growing that the war was is suspended over civilization, and that of economic origin. Men are no longer sword can be sheathed only by such a willing to turn out war as a by-product reorientation of industrialism as will of goods

of goods — on machines. Since a prime permit the aggressive nationalism it source of belligerency is goods-competifosters to die of inanition. Much may tion, sovereignty has become a matter be done by international agreement, of control over machines as well as over with force back of the agreement; more men. That is the direction in which may be done by the forward spirits in competent governments must move; each industrial society forcing into and those which fail to keep step will public attention these internal adjust possess no valid reason for existence in ments necessary to bring socialand polit- the automatic-machine age. The peoical evolution into line with industrial ples of the earth look to governments evolution. The more energy goes into to set up a moral control over machine internal developments, the less will press use; and this instinctive turning to the outward to complicate international re- state for relief is sound to the core, since lations. There is plenty of work for all states are the only groupings of hugovernments to do at home, before their manity strong enough to harness the populations recover their pre-war trust Iron Man to the chariot of human wellin governments.

being.

THE GUILD OF STUDENTS

BY WILBUR C. ABBOTT

I

Of all concerns of our democracy, ma about his head and shouted to most men agree, the chief is education the appreciative crowd, ‘Educated, by in some form. From little red school- gosh!' And as he stood there, he raised house to Research Council, all of us at in more than one mind a question. What some time, some of us at all times, are was this college course and this debrought in touch with it; and all of us gree,' which set him off from those who at all times profess an interest in it. lacked his 'advantages'? what was this Our boys and girls go or are sent college, which had 'educated' him? to college or university. Thence they To uninitiated eyes the venerable inemerge like a recent 'graduate,' who, stitution, — they are always ‘old,' standing on the steps of the Commence- its buildings and its grounds, its library ment hall, waved his beribboned diplo- and laboratories, its lecture-rooms and

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halls, its faculty and president, had their own income, and evolved a system made him what he was. But he and his that challenges comparison with that fellows knew that being a 'college man' of their academic superiors. They have, was no mere membership in a fraternity in truth, “called a new world into existof scholars. They knew that when, in ence, to redress the balance of the old'; future years, he foregathered with his they have created a real imperium in kind in annual hilarity, he would not imperio, a student university — what come to hear the latest word in chemis- would have been called, in older times, try or history from peripatetic 'faculty a guild of students. representatives,' but for reasons only re- It is easy to say that this is the only motely related to a common interest in too familiar phenomenon of outside, the curriculum. Neither for president or extra-curriculum, activities, long one nor for faculty, nor for buildings, nor of the chief concerns of deans and faculfor courses, does our youth, of which he ties and even presidents. It is easier still is a type, flock to institutions of higher to say that calling this a student guild, education. Its education it accepts, much less a student university, is but eagerly or reluctantly, as the case may another way of saying what everybody be; but for the majority it is the ‘col- knows, another startling discovery of the lege life' which they — and their par- wholly obvious. For this is, in many reents crave. It is not easy to define a spects, the best-known feature of Ameruniversity; it seems to lie somewhere ican education, even in the non-acabetween an atmosphere and a factory. demic world. It has been the subject But for most of us it is a state of exist- of long and dull discussions in public, ence, peculiarly attractive to a certain and longer, though not so dull, discusclass and age; a state in which buildings sions in private. We heard" long ago and faculty and mental training have a from a distinguished college president place, but not the whole, nor, frankly, as he then was the danger of alto most men, the most important place. lowing the side-shows to swallow up the

Especially in the United States; for circus. Yet the very fact of considering here, within two generations, almost this phenomenon as a side-show indiwithin the memory of men now living, cates how little the problem is apprecithere has been evolved beside, or rather ated by minds which still consider the within, the framework of formal and advice to undergraduates, 'Don't let official college and university another your studies interfere with your educasystem of education, largely outside the tion,' as humorous. And no one familauthority of faculties, and largely inde iar with common conversation among pendent of their intellectual impulses undergraduates and alumni in their and disciplinary ordinances. While natural state will make that mistake. those in charge of the institutions of Let us consider the matter from another higher learning have elaborated curric- point of view than that involved in callula and extended the scope

ing this an outside interest. tent of their own activities, the volun- The problem of student activities teer authorities of the undergraduate outside of the curriculum is not new. At world, aided by the alumni, have all times since universities began, stufounded another institution, created in dents have lived a great part of their their own image, to meet their own lives beyond the view of faculties. There desires. They have framed their own have always been student organizations, courses, employed their own instructors, for pleasure, for profit, and for protecbuilt their own buildings, provided tion; there are such organizations now

and con

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