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will it serve any good end to shed croc- exploiters, white and yellow, will emerge odile tears over poor, down-trodden with riches. China, which is not a whit worse off Some influential Republicans underthan some of our own Southern states, stand this and are ready to accept its man for man, road for road, town for implications. But the majority seem town. Asia is Asia. It must work out still under the spell of economic impeits own salvation. Too far away and rialism, or else hypnotized by the Japtoo huge to be controlled by us, who anese bogey manufactured by our yelcannot even manage our own cities low press. And so, while they may cry intelligently, its hundreds of millions for world peace and the prosperity it can be swayed by us only under the must bring, they thwart it by refusing compulsion of overwhelming force. to accept the consequences of disarmaThey who are compelled will gain little. ment. If the Conference fails, they will We who compel shall lose much in probably have to share the guilt with money and in reputation. Only a few the extreme militarists of Japan.

THE FAR EASTERN PROBLEM

BY J. 0. P. BLAND

I

EARLY in August, the Washington based upon recognition of the realities correspondent of the Philadelphia Led- of the Far Eastern situation (including ger announced that it was the intention recognition of the instinct of self-presof the United States Government to ervation which underlies Japan's ex'make the settlement of the Far East- pansion on the Asiatic mainland), the ern situation a condition precedent to Conference should pave the way, at the discussion of the curtailment of least, to what President Harding calls armaments. If this be so, supreme ‘approximate disarmament,' and thus importance must attach to whatever relieve the world of the burden and danscheme of settlement is eventually ger of acute naval rivalry. framed and proposed by the State De At the outset it may be asked, why partment. Seldom, indeed, have the should America seek to make an interprospects of peace in our time been more national agreement for disarmament directly dependent upon the knowledge dependent upon the settlement of the and breadth of vision of a few states- Far Eastern question, more than upon men. America, because of her unchal- the removal of any other potential cause lengeable wealth and resources, holds of conflict? The answer lies obviously the master-key to the gates of peace in the fact that every nation's foreign and war in the regions of the Pacific. policy is inevitably inspired by the funIf, at this juncture, her foreign policy is damental instinct of survival, which compels it to seek and preserve, at all lenge to Western civilization and, ulti. costs, national security. Also, that mately, a claim to the mastery of the many things have happened during the Pacific. past ten years to lead public opinion in The course of events during and the United States to the belief that since the great war- the elimination America's security is menaced by Ja- of Russia as an Asiatic power, the inpan's rapid rise to the front rank of creasing chaos in China, and the swift world powers and by the activities and rise of the United States to leadership ambitions of her military party.

in the council of nations — has served

When, after the Russo-Japanese War, to increase the points of contact and to the United States played the part of accentuate the economic and political host and peacemaker at the making of differences between the two nations the Treaty of Portsmouth (1905), the which confront each other across the general sentiment of the American na- Pacific. The racial aspect of the antion was one of unmistakable sympathy tagonism thus created was emphasized and friendship for Japan; but since at Versailles, and finds expression tothen much has occurred to change this day in a widely prevalent belief in the feeling into one of apprehension and in- idea of a “color war,' wherein the forces creasing antagonism. First came the of Pan-Asia (and even Pan-Africa), orRusso-Japanese Entente of 1907, fol- ganized and led by Japan, will challowed by the definite agreement of lenge and overthrow the dominant July, 1910, which made the Treaty of white race. Mr. Lothrop Stoddard's Portsmouth a dead letter and definitely Rising Tide of Color, and other works of abrogated the principle of the Open the same kind, have given form and Door in Manchuria and Mongolia. substance to a Yellow Peril spectre, as Next came the humiliating fiasco of fantastic in its way as Kaiser Wilhelm's Mr. Secretary Knox's scheme for the famous vision of China's warlike milneutralization of railways in Manchu- lions ranged in battle array against the ria; and finally, the annexation of Korea pale legions of the West. by Japan. But more significant than The limits of this article do not perall these indications of Japan's activi- mit, nor does the occasion require, any ties as a world power was her increasing detailed exposition of the absurdity of insistence on the principle of racial this Pan-Asian delusion. In propoundequality, combined with the assertion ing their scheme for the settlement of of rights of migration to the American the Far Eastern question to the Washcontinent. Thus, before the revolution ington Conference, the American State in China and the great war in Europe Department and the British Foreign gave Japan new and unexpected oppor- Office will have work and to spare in tunities for advancing her outposts and dealing with the actual and immediate accelerating her economic penetration difficulties of the situation. The theory in the comparatively undeveloped re- of profound racial antagonism is obvigions of the Asiatic mainland adjacent ously incompatible with the proclaimed to Korea, the Yellow Peril (as pro- intention of the British and American claimed by Homer Lea in the Valor of governments to substitute a spirit of Ignorance) had begun to loom largely coöperation and mutuality for the inon the political horizon, and public opin- tense spirit of competition in solving ion in America had become definitely the problems which arise out of the imbued with the conviction that Ja- political and financial disorganization pan's ambitions must involve a chals of China. It is a theory that cannot be invoked without weakening the whole East and with disarmament, there would Anglo-American position in the matter be no necessity for a renewal of the of the Asiatic Exclusion acts, and stulti- Anglo-Japanese Alliance. fying their essential justification, which rests on economic, as distinct from

II racial, grounds.

Mr. Lloyd George has recently de- As matters now stand, the first thing clared that the foreign policy of Great necessary, to remove the immediate Britain, as a partly Asiatic empire, difficulties and dangers of the Far East'can never range itself in any sense ern situation, and to diminish the causes upon the differences of race and civili- of friction between Japan and the zation between East and West. It United States, is the conclusion of an would be fatal to the Empire. No international agreement for the restoragreater calamity can overtake the world tion, by concerted action, of the powers than any further accentuation of its of law and order in China. Unless steps divisions upon the lines of race. We are taken, and that speedily, to this look confidently to the Government end, there can be no prospect of any and people of the United States for permanent settlement of the Far Easttheir understanding and sympathy in ern question. American participation this respect. Friendly coöperation with in such an agreement, and in an Interthe United States is for us a cardinal national Council' to carry it into effect, principle, dictated by what seems to is a solution that presents obvious diffius the proper nature of things, dictated culties; nevertheless, it is the only one by instinct quite as much as by reason that affords practical means of carrying and by common sense.'

out the American idea of friendly coöpMr. Lloyd George's words undoubt eration, and the only way of putting an edly express the sentiments of the great end to the chaos of misrule in China, in majority of his countrymen. Every dis- a spirit of genuine friendship for the cussion of the question of the Anglo- Chinese people. Failing active AmerJapanese Alliance, by the Imperial ican participation, the Anglo-Japanese Conference, in Parliament, and in the Alliance, renewed under conditions press, has served to emphasize the consistent with the Covenant of the general opinion that the treaty should League of Nations, would appear to be renewed, but in a form that will offer the only alternative solution of the give no umbrage, and evoke no misgiv. problem; the only one, at all events, ings, in the United States. The Aus- that would provide England with the tralian Premier has declared that ‘Aus- leverage necessary to secure the future tralia's safety lies in a renewal of the maintenance of the Open Door for Anglo-Japanese Alliance, and that it trade, a revision of the Shantung quesis her bounden duty to use every means tion, and the settlement of other points at her disposal to effect such a modus of difference in the Far East. vivendi as will secure it in a form agree

а

Assuming that the first desideratum able to the United States.' On a later for the Washington Conference is a occasion, Mr. Hughes expressed the spirit of harmony and helpfulness beopinion (which has found wide support tween the representatives of those in the British press) that, in the event powers, whose ultimate object is the of a tripartite understanding being limitation of armaments, the decision reached between America, Great Brit- to invite China's participation in the ain, and Japan, dealing with the Far Conference, though diplomatically and

a

theoretically sound, is calculated, in country, including Manchuria and practice, to frustrate the ends desired. Mongolia, without reserve, to the comFor there is already ample evidence in bined activities of the Consortium. the press, here and in the United States, The British Government, at the outset, , that China's representatives on this gave friendly support to this proposal; occasion will conform faithfully to their but inasmuch as it conflicted obviously traditional policy of setting one bar- with certain accomplished facts and barian against another, and will do recorded pacts, it was possible to do so everything in their power to make the only by concurring vaguely in the Conference an arena of enmity and sus- benevolent argument that, 'with the picion. All the undeniable eloquence establishment of the Consortium, a and intelligence of that highly vocal

new era was about to dawn, in which element of Young China which pro- conditions have changed, and that the fesses its present belief in American powers therefore propose henceforward institutions and ideals will be concen- to work together in harmonious and trated in an appeal to the chivalrous friendly coöperation, rather than in support of the American people, and competition.' this appeal will no doubt be powerfully The Japanese Ambassador's reply to supported by many of the missionary the dispatch in which Lord Curzon societies and the Y.M.C.A., which supported this argument tactfully renaturally sympathize with the aspira- frained from discussing the practical tions of their pupils and protégés to be effects of the 'new era’ upon intercome the dominant force in Chinese national politics. He contented himself politics. There is already evidence that with reiterating his Government's relithe public utterances of adroit diplo- ance upon the British Government's mats and lawyers like Mr. Wellington explicit assurance that the powers would Koo and Dr. Wang, and the press prop- refuse to countenance any activities of aganda conducted by Putnam Weale, the Consortium ‘affecting the security and other foreigners in Chinese pay, of the economic life or the national to which Professor Dewey's distin- defense of Japan,'a reservation capable guished reputation lends additional of the widest application, and one which force, have achieved considerable re- leaves the question of Japan's 'special sults in the direction indicated; that is interests' in the same nebulous condito say, they have created an atmos- tion as that in which it remained after phere of hostility toward Japan, and the Lansing-Ishii agreement of 1917. toward the Anglo-Japanese Alliance, in the United States. Something of the

III effect of China's propaganda and appeals may even be discerned in the dis- The line that China's representatives patches of the State Department that and advisers may be expected to adopt form part of the correspondence ante- at Washington was clearly indicated cedent to the establishment of the In- some months ago by the Chinese Minternational Financial Consortium last ister in London, Mr. Wellington Koo, year.

well known in the United States. They Briefly stated, the object of the Amer- will undoubtedly present a glowing ican Government, as expftssed in these picture of the Chinese Republic, sucdispatches, was to eliminate all special cessfully progressing toward Utopia by claims in particular spheres of interest the development of liberal ideas and in China and to throw open the whole democratic institutions, all regardless of the fact that these are as remote as lamentable fact that, since the death the planet Mars from all the realities of of Yuan Shih-k’ai (1916), the several the situation in China. They will make political factions that have struggled eloquent appeal to the sympathies of for mastery at Peking have vied with the civilized world, in the name of each other in mortgaging to Japan, Democracy, on behalf of Young China's in return for subsidies and loans, chimerical Republic, and of its splen- many rights, privileges, and concessions did programme of purely imaginary calculated to jeopardize their country's reforms. In the typical words of Put- political independence. nam Weale, they will claim their Early this year, the Chinese Minister place in the family of nations, not only in London gave the Foreign Office an on terms of equality, but as represent indication of the attitude to be adopted atives of Liberalism and subscribers to by China's representatives at the forthall those sanctions on which the civili- coming Conference in regard to the zation of peace rests. They will con- renewal of the Anglo-Japanese Alliance. tinue to describe the social activities They desire to protest, in the first place, and academic theories of a few thousand against any reference in the treaty, if 'Western-learning' students and jour- renewed, to the preservation of the nalists as truly representative of the territorial integrity and political indepolitical convictions and institutions of pendence of China,' as an implication the Chinese people.

derogatory to the dignity of China as a And all the while they will compla- sovereign State, and distasteful to the cently ignore the lamentable and noto- sentiment of her people. rious facts of China's actual position, Inasmuch as the first object of their the utter demoralization and inevitable presence at the Conference is to inbankruptcy of the Peking Government, voke assistance for the maintenance of the lawlessness and insatiable greed of China's sovereign rights, this initial prothe military chieftains, whose rabble test may be regarded as a face-saving de armies have devastated the country for vice, a mild bluff for the benefit of the the last ten years, and the untold suffer gallery, based on the oldest traditions ings of the defenseless people, more of Oriental statecraft. Next, they will pitiful to-day than ever they were un- ask for the abrogation of the 'twenty-one der the Manchus. Above all, they will demands' agreement (signed by Yuan carefully refrain from admission of the Shih-k'ai in May, 1915,

Shih-k'ai in May, 1915, under pressure undeniable truth that the political and of a Japanese ultimatum), and for the financial ascendancy which Japan has restoration of China's full sovereignty established at Peking, and the rapid in Shantung. Here we reach a crucial advance of her 'peaceful penetration' point of the Far Eastern question. For in Manchuria and Mongolia, are direct it is undeniable that, in these twentyresults of the incorrigible money-lust of one demands, Japan availed herself of the mandarin class, more flagrantly dis- the opportunities created by the war played by the officials of the Republic in Europe and the demoralization of than under the old régime. They will China, to regularize and consolidate her earnestly invoke the assistance of position at China's expense, in ShanAmerica and England against Japan, tung (as successor to Germany), and in for the restoration of China's rights in Manchuria, Eastern Inner Mongolia, Shantung, and of her unfettered sov- and on the coast of Fukhien province. ereignty over the Northern dependen- Now, it must be obvious that no cies; but they will say nothing of the satisfactory results are to be expected

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