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had that affection for him as to encourage him in his efforts at composition, shewing where lay the faults, that they might be corrected; and giving him such commendation as looked the likeliest to make him renew his labours. Could he have lost all thought of Joanna, or have been careless upon the subject of his birth, there can be no manner of doubt he would have enjoyed a very marvellous comfort; but, despite of his attempting to dismiss the subject as being unworthy of a thought, the mercer's daughter would ever be foremost in his contemplations; and he would at last acknowledge to himself it was pitiful-exceeding pitiful, she should so have disappointed his expectations: and when he got a thinking of his reputed father, it grieved him to the heart to know he should be the son of such a notorious poor scoundrel as that Holdfast.

Sir Walter had been walking with him on deck, as was his custom, after what was considered by both, the business of the day had been done, and, as was usual with them, they were discoursing together on such knotty points as might chance to come uppermost in their thoughts. From this there came to be some talk concerning of those who had distinguished themselves in any famous manner as commanders, which was ever a favourite subject with Sir Walter Raleigh; though with his

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şecretary there were divers other matters he would have preferred the discourse of.

66 Think you that war is not a thing in some degree to be lamented of all true Christians ?” enquired Master Francis to his patron, when the latter had finished a very moving picture of damage done to the enemy in one of his campaigns abroad. “ Methinks all this wasting and spoiling, this burning and slaughtering, is after all nothing better than the creating of so much misery and mischief, of which the world hath already such store, that it be scarce endurable at times.”

« Doubtless warfare is attended with such effects as must be exceeding distasteful to a benevolent spirit,” replied his patron ; “but you shall scarce find one good without having in it some admixture of evil; and among evil things there shall always be some that are absolute and necessary; nevertheless have they an especial good purpose. War is a sharp remedy for an intolerable disorder-it raiseth a blister and createth great irritation; yet in the end doth it remove the inflammatoriness of the parts adjacent; and the peace which followeth is the state of health that treadeth on the heels of such powerful medicaments.”

66 'Tis a thousand pities all cause for quarrel among neighbour states cannot be done away with," observed the secretary.

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66 'Tis a thousand pities all disturbances of the body cannot be done away with," answered Sir Walter. 6 The learned Cusanus hath it . Mundus universus nihil aliud est quam Deus explicatus'the world universal is nothing else than God expressed; thereunto would I add, you shall see in one man the whole world in a small compass; for, as the universe sheweth the greatness of the Deity, in one man appeareth the universe in miniature. There is in him strange passions and fierce desires, that are the rebellions of the flesh--pride and ambitiousness, the very tyrants of the body; and jealousies and revenges, relentless enemies that carry fire and sword through every vein: and these are oft the workers of such strife in the man as could not be exceeded in the world look where you will. It be these agencies that have a many score of times set the mind against the body, or stirred one member into the desire of overpowering the rest, with so dess rate an opposition, that at last nothing has come of

but the absolutest rack and ruin over all. Let a aqan govern himself as well as he may, still shall something or another internally or externally put him in a disturbance either with himself or with others : so let a state be ever so properly ruled, it cannot help upon occasion, avoiding of a quarrel either among its own parties, or with a neighbouring kingdom. War, therefore, it must not be expected of any, can ever be altogether

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done away with; and wars against the enemies of one's country, or for the hindrance of foreign invasion, in my opinion is as lawful an occupation as any man could be engaged in."

“ But surely the warfare of the mere conqueror hath no excuse for it," observed Master Francis.

6 That is as it shall happen,” replied Raleigh. 66 If he shall be a leader of barbarians and overrun a more civilised state, perchance he shall do but little good, unless as it hath come to pass before this, the conquerors being of a notable courageous spirit, mingling with the conquered, who may be luxurious and of an effeminate heart, produce in a future generation, a people having the valourousness of the one and the greater learning of the other mixed into one harmonious whole; but when such heroes as Alexander the Great or Julius Cæsar carry the arts and arms of a more enlightened country into countries rude and untaught, they shall presentiy make of their conquests a great benefit, inasmuch as they spread abroad the superior civilization they possess at home. What degree of good followed the victorious achievements of the son of Philip none can say with any great exactness of calculation, but that they were entirely unprofitable, as some would assert, will I never believe. It is, however, more notorious, that the Gauls and the Britons, to say naught of other nations that were possessed of the Romans, did

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gain exceeding advantage by the dwelling among them of their enlightened conquerors. To come more to our own time, the conquests of Cortes and of Pizarro, though they might be attended with many very monstrous cruelties, produced wonderful advantage in increasing of our knowledge of the earth, making known unto us kingdoms whereof the skilfullest geographers were ignorant, and diffusing among a heathenish and barbarous people some insight into the religion and the arts and sciences of a nation of Christians. In brief, it must needs be an evil indeed that hath no good mixed with it-war may be considered an evil, but upon proper scrutiny it shall be found, except upon rare occasions, to be attended with such advantages as must make it a thing necessary to the maintaining of the world in healthi

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“ Allowing of the necessity of warfare," said the young secretary, “which I can in no way help grieving at, it doth appear to me a monstrous sort of thing, that there should be companies of men willing to leave their own nation and take part in the brawls of another.

Of such mercenary soldiers I think they deserve but little respect of their fellow men. They fight not for their country but for their hire; and perchance they shall care nothing against whom they fight, so that they be well paid for it.”

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