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1. Yellow crowfoot in full bloom upon the paftures. Grafs at a stand, for want of rain and dews.-4, Green peas in the market; new potatoes 14d. per lb.-5. Fox-gloves in bloom.-7. A field of clover cutting for hay. Honey-fuckle in bloom.-8. The outward air cooled and refreshed by the rain of the preceding night. Sultry within doors.-11. The air extremely piercing and cold; a violent hail-storm at night.-13. The air still cold; the fea roars; black clouds in the Weft, and as if filled with fnow. Several fields mown. Grafs, both in the meadows and paftures, begins to burn.-14. Ice upon the water. Much damage done by last night's froft amongst fruit, potatoes, &c.-15. Field-beans in bloom, and strongly fcent the air. Apples drop off.-16. Busy housing hay. Wheat and barley in the ear. Cuckoofpit (cicadula) upon many plants-17. Gathered strawberries, very poor and fmail, the leaves and stems being shriveled up by the late storms.-20. Many people begun hay-harvest. Swallows and martins in abundance. Hawking over the new-mown grafs, and fo low and near to the mowers as only, by great dexterity, by quick turns, to avoid striking their perfons. Qu. is it accident or instinct that directs the birds to feek their prey in these places? - Fall of rain this month, 6-10ths of an inch; evaporation, 4-2-13ths. Height of Fahrenheit's Thermometer.

Height of Fahrenheit's Thermometer.

Barom Weather in. pts. in July 1791

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in. pts. in July 1791.


overcast, clears up, cold frofty air at night
blue fky, white clouds, showers at night
overcaft, flight fhowers, fine day

blue sky, white and black clouds, rain at night
blue fky, fun, gloomy afternoon

Eternoon blue sky, white veil, fine morning, high wind afovercaft, fmall rain

blue fky, white and black clouds, fine day
overcaft, pleasant day

blue fky, grey clouds, fine day, fmall rain at night blue fky, white and grey clouds, rain at night clear blue fky, afterwards clouded, little rain

State of Weather in June 1791.

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Gentleman's Magazine:






July 12.

lume, that he had left it as a mark of

his regard. Now, Mr. Urban, though I have been honoured with the corre fpondence of Princes, Prelates, and fome of the first and greatest men of my own country, and of fome other nations, I fhall confider thofe two prefents and vi fits from JOHN HOWARD the greatest honour I ever received FROM MAN; and therefore I fend you two guineas, to add my mite towards erecting the monument to the memory of fo GOOD


**XX*FTER living feventy-
two years backwards
and forwards in Great
A Britain, the island which
gave me birth, I am,
for reafons I will not
trouble you with the de-
tail of (having done that elsewhere), re-
tired, to spend the very little which re-
mains of a long life, to France, the
fquabbles of a public nature being lefs
painful to me than thofe of private ones
between man and man. The late Mr.
Samuel Sharp told me, that he never
knew a man at the approach of death
who had not fome folace to offer to his
mind at that aweful moment; and I re-
member to have read in the State Trials,
that a Colonel of fome fortune, who was
hanged for a wicked theft, faid at the
gallows, that his comfort was, that he
had never in his whole life gone into a
church without pulling off his bat! And
one of Mr. Sharp's own patients, a very
rich Quaker,
in his
laft hours, that he died under one re-
flexion that afforded him infinite com-
fort, that Mr. Sharp could not avoid
afking him what it was? The dying
Quaker replied, he had furnished Wil-
liam (commonly called Duke of Cum-
berland) with an hundred and fifty
thousand shovels, pickaxes, and inftru-
ments of that fort, to fupply the army
under William's command in foreign parts.
Now, Sir, as well as I can judge, my
confolation will be (if reflexion has not
quite left me), that, after being profe-
cuted, perfecuted, and ill-treated, for
more than a moiety of my whole life,
by bad men, I thall have the confola
tion of knowing that JOHN HOWARD
came twice to my houfe en perfonne,
and, though a stranger to my perfon,
brought in his hand, at each of thofe
vifits, a volume of his "State of Pri-
fons," &c.; and, as I unfortunately
was out when he made me his fecond
vifit, he wrote in the cover of that vo-

The ingenious, learned, and virtuous Mr. Woodhull, of Thenford, in Northamptonshire, has done me the honour to place those two books in his noble li brary; for nothing but want of bread could have induced me to fell them when I fold all my other goods and chattels, and departed, never to return. A TRAVELLER.

Mr. URBAN, Brompton, June 6. INCLOSE two drawings of Malvern-wells houfe. you to engrave them, they are at your service (fee pl. III. fig. 1, 2); and I will fend you a little sketch of the way of life at that place, and a jeu-d'efprit which appeared there lately. J. P. A. Fig. 3 and 4 are two gold coins found lately in the neighbourhood of Croydon.


July 2.



I pair of fhoes, of nearly the fame form as that defcribed in your laft, p. 513, 10 inches from heel to toe, and the toe 3 inches fquare, and made of red leather (Pl. III. fig. 6). They were intermixed with other articles of female apparel of the time, ftays or boddices with fleeves, and cafes of feveral high hats, a fteel cross-bow, two large yew bows, and an old wooden bedstead of the time. The houfe, in whofe upper room thefe articles were preferved, though much of the furniture had been stolen, ftood on the North fide of the high street, belonged

longed to the Wynnes of Ofcathlan, and had been built in the reign of Elizabeth. It formed a small quadrangle, with a back-court, and the fide correfponding with the entrance was afcended to by a double flight of steps from the fide to a terrace, continued on the Jeft. It was in 1770 let out to poor families. Most of the rooms had fuceoed eitlings and walls. Over the kitchen-chimney were the arms of England, and E. R. for Elizabetha Regina: on the walls, DW Dorothy Wynne G W leopards' faces jeffant Heurs de lis, fingle, and with a chevron R W. Eagles and a chevron between three fleurs de lis, 1577. A chevron between three ftags' heads caboft, owls, boars, griffins, lions, flags. In an upper room, ER and arms of England. Over the chimney, R W 1580 DW


eagles, chevron, and flags heads. yron and fleurs de lis, lion rampant. Over another chimney, Wynne quartering the chevron and fleurs de lis. Over another, RG1577. Quarterly, 1. a chevron between three eagles; 2. a chevron between three leopards' faces jeffant fleurs de lis; 3. a chevron between fleurs de lis; 4. a chevron between three tags' heads: alfo the chevron and eagles fingle. Over the inner ge in the fpandrils, the croft, date, Ibs Irs, &c. as in Pl. MI. fig. 5, RW W for Richard and Dorothy Wynne, or Gwynne. Over the outer gate the arms of England, fupported by the lion and griffin, in the Spandrils the eagles and chevron be tween the flags heads.


The above quarterings are the arms of Wynne on the altar tomb of Robert, on the South fide of the altar in Con way church, inferibed

Robert Wynne és quier was buried

the 36

date of

Ano. 1598.

And on another altar-tomb, contiguous,
Here lieth the body of Robert Wynne deby-
tie maior of Conway efq and fone of Tho-
'mas Wynne who died the 16th of gber 1664.
On which laft are alfo a lion rampant,
quartering three bears. At the Weft
end, Wynne quartering three lions pal-
fant guardants creft, an eagle difplayed.
Another altar-tomb, for a feinale

Wynne, has the chevron and heads quartering the lions rampant, and Wynne quartering the chevron and fleurs de lis; and a mural monument for John Wynne, Efq. 1617. quarterly, 1. and 4. Wynne; 2. the lions paffant guardant; 3. the chevron and fleurs de lis.

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As I do not recollect to have met with any account of this house in print, the present is at your fervice. D. H.

To the INHABITANTS of the Town of
My late Townsmen and Neighbours,

with eleven years, in which you had uniform experience of my peaceful behaviour, in my attention to the quiet ftudies of my profeffion, and thofe of philofophy, I was far from expecting the injuries which I and my friends have lately received from you. But you have been miled. By hearing the Diffenters, and particularly the Unitarian Diffenters, continually railed at as enemies to the prefent Government in Church and State, you have been led to confider any injury done to us as a meritorious thing; and, not having been better informed, the means were not attended to. When the object was right, you thought the means could not be wrong. By the dif courfes of your teachers, and the exclamations of your fuperiors in general, drinking confufion and damnation to us (which is well-known to have been their frequent practice), your bigotry has been excited to the highest pitch, and nothing having been faid to you to moderate your paffions, burevery thing to inflame them: hence, without any confideration on your part, or on theirs, who ought to have known and taught you better-you were prepared for every fpecies of outrage; thinking that, whatever you could do to fpite and injure us, was for the fupport of Government, and efpecially the Church. In deftroying us, you have been led to think you did God and your country the moft effential fervice.


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Happily, the minds of Englishmen have a horror of murder, and therefore you did not, I hope, think of that; though, by your clamorous demanding of me at the Hotel, it is probable that, at that time, fome of you intended me fome perfonal injury. But what is the value of life when every thing is done to make it wretched? In many cafes, there would be greater mercy in dif patching the inhabitants than in burn.

ing their houfes. However, I infinitely prefer what I feel from the spoiling of my goods to the difpofition of those who have mifled you.

ratus, ten more perfons, of equal or fuperior spirit and ability, would inftantly rife up. If thofe ten were deftroyed, an hundred would appear; and, believe me, the Church of England, which you now think you are fupporting, has received a greater blow by this conduct of yours, than I and all my friends have ever aimed at it.

You have deftroyed the most truly valuable and useful apparatus of philofophical inftruments that perhaps any individual, in this or any other country, was ever poffeffed of, in my ufe of which I annually spent large fums, with no pecuniary view whatever, but only in the advancement of science, for the benefit of my country, and of mankind. You have deftroyed a library corre fponding to that apparatus, which no money can re-purchase, except in a courfe of time. But what I feel far more, you have destroyed manufcripts, which have been the refult of the laborious ftudy of many years, and which I shall never be able to re-compofe; and this has been done to one who never did, or imagined, you any harm.

I know nothing more of the handbill, which is faid to have enraged you fo much, than any of yourfelves; and I difapprove of it as much; though it has been made the oftenfible handle of doing infinitely more mifchief than any thing of that nature could poffibly have done. In the celebration of the French Revolution, at which I did not attend, the company affembled on the occafion only expreffed their joy in the emancipation of a neighbouring nation from tyranny, without intimating a defire of any thing more than fuch an improvement of our own Conftitution as all fober citizens, of every perfuafion, have long wished for. And though, in anfwer to the grofs and unprovoked calumnies of Mr. Madan and others, I publicly vindicated my principles as a Diffenter, it was only with plain and fober argument, and with perfect goodhumour. We are better inftructed in the mild and forbearing fpirit of Chriftianity than ever to think of having recourse to violence; and can you think such conduct as yours any recommendation of your religious principles in preference to ours?

You are flili more mistaken, if you imagine that this conduct of yours has any tendency to ferve your caufe, or to prejudice ours. It is nothing but reafon and argument that can ever support any fyftem of religion. Anfwer our arguments, and your bufinets is done; but your having recourfe to violence is only a proof that you have nothing better to produce. Should you deftroy myself, as well as my house, library, and appa

Befides, to abuse those who have no power of making refiftance is equally cowardly and brutal, peculiarly unwor thy of Englishmen, to fay nothing of Chriftianity, which teaches us to do as we would be done by. In this business we are the theep, and you the wolves. We will preferve our character, and hope you will change yours. At all events, we return you bleffings for curfes; and pray that you may foon return to that industry, and thofe fober manners, for which the inhabitants of Birmingham were formerly diftinguished. I am, your fincere well-wisher,

London, July 19. J. PRIESTLEY. P. S. The account of the first toast at the Revolution dinner, in "The Times" of this morning, can be nothing lefs than a malicious fie. To prove this, a lift of the toasts, with an account of all the proceedings of the day, will foon be published. The first of them was,

The King and the Conftitution;" and they were all fuch as the friends of Liberty, and of the true principles of the Conftitution, would approve.


** We are particularly requefied to give place to the following answer to the preceding letter; but have no wish to continue a controversy on the subject. Friends, Countrymen, and Britons,


LETTER, figned J. PRIESTLEY, has appeared in many of the public prints. Its manifeft tendency is beyond the exculpation of an individual from a charge amounting to nothing fhort of high treafon; for, befides the denial of this charge in terms calculated to impress on your minds a full perfuafion of its incerity by its brevity, whereby it affumes the femblance of innocence, it recriminates with a degree of perfonality unworthy a gentleman, a fcholar, and a Chriftian. It pleads the immenfe lofs of property, compared to which life itself is nothing, and the deftruction of a philofophical apparatus, and a collection of MSS, from whofe liberal fource the world was to have been re-philofophized, re-policted, and re-Chriflianized.


Without infifting on the weakness of a defence founded on recrimination and perfonality, let us try the truth of fome affertions contained in it.

Dr. P. fets out with a panegyrick on "his peaceful behaviour in his attention to the quiet ftudies of his profeffion, and those of philofophy." How quiet his ftudies have been, or how fuitable to his profeffion, his various publications for the last ten years can best declare. Every inhabitant, not only of Birmingham, but of Great Britain, may judge him out of his own mouth; and, when he denies the thought of having recourfe to violence, he forgets that, however remote that thought is from the body of Diffenters, HE, as far as fpecious reafoning, fludied mifreprefentation, and fturdy claims, have fuch a tendency, has been taking every method to excite it. If his virulent reflexions on the Religion and Government of his country, and the Minifters of both, were not calculated to inflame men's minds, it is difficult to fay what was their tendency; for truth is not promoted by violence of any kind.

No one can deny that the outrages of a mob, reftrainable only by a military force, are unworthy both of Englishmen and Christians. But who can justify the outrages of invective and mifreprefentation, which violate the golden rule of Chriftian charity, and the quiet character of a teacher of Christianity, and must be expected, as in the prefent in ftance has too unfortunately been the cafe, to recoil on the heads of the first promoters of difcord? No one can avoid lamenting the cataftrophe, and pitying the fufferers; but if the fpirit in which fome of the fufferers fpeak of themfelves, and those whom they are pleased to call their enemies, provoke fevere reflexions, they have none to blame but themselves. We are next told, the lofs to the community in the fingle houfe of Dr. P. is irreparable; whereas, had the Doctor himself been demolished, a flight of phoenixes would have arifen out of his ashes, for the eternal benefit of mankind at large, with fuperior zeal and abilities. If he can thus arife again invigorated an hundred fold, the prefent catastrophe is not worth a regret. Perhaps, however, the world, wearied with the round of infidel, unitarian, feditious, leveling argumentation, will no more lament the lofs of future fermons, pamphlets, letters, and hiftorics, than of the mistaken and false system of

chemiftry and natural philofophy already defeated and detected.

To pafs by the perfonalities against individuals, and the unhand fome reflexions on whole bodies of men, contained in them, his writings, addreffed to the nation at large, fufficiently declare "what manner of spirit he is of.” While his worthy coadjutor exults in the profpect of bringing royalty once more to the block, bis fport is hunting down epifcopacy, and leveling every rank in fociety that favours of fubordination of mind or body. In praifing the French Revolution before it is half completed, he wishes for an IMPROVEMENT in the Conflitution of his own country, though he takes care to keep out of fight the many murders that must be hazarded in the exchange, and compliments his countrymen on their humanity. We try him not on any count to which he does not plead guilty, but on what he avows and glories in when fcarcely "efcaped with the skin of his teeth." The English people, in their plain underftandings, have light fufficient to guide them through this world to the next, without involving themfelves in metaphyfical and abstract reafanings, which have no place among the fimple truths of the Gospel. The boafted number of converts, augmented by the followers of every new enthufiaft, will have no influence on the national faith: ftill lefs will upbraiding the people or their rulers with Bigotry, Idolatry, Folly, and Knavery, with Prieftcraft or Kingcraft, induce them to change their principles or their party.

The people of England have had too fatal and repeated experience of the fpirit which actuates too many among the Diffenters. The quibbles of tender confciences, which firft began to disturb the glorious reign of Elizabeth, broke out into dreadful overt-acts of violence under that of the unfortunate Charles. Alarmed into concurrence with the meafures of William, they no fooner recovered from their fright, than they made a merit of their acquiefcence to bring forward demands, and have been rifing in their claims ever fince. When the language of Petition failed, that of Remonftrance was aflumed, and menaces, unworthy of men who wished to be accounted loyal or faithful fubjects, were reforted to. If these facts can be denied or vindicated, Dr. P's letter will deferve attention. If, on the contrary, it should appear that the leaders

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