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III. Refolved unanimoufly, That the Rev. Mr. Moorhoufe, the Rev. Mr. Wood, and the Rev. Mr. Langdon, be appointed as a Sub-committee to prepare a letter to the Rev. Dr. Priestley, expreffing our concern for his fufferings in the late riots at Birmingham.

IV. Refolved unanimoufly, That the letter drawn up, and now delivered in, by the Sub-committee, be figned by the Chairman, and fent to the Rev. Dr. Priestley, in the name of the Committee. "To the Rev. Dr. PRIESTLEY. "Reverend Sir,

"We, the Committee of Proteftant Diffenting Laymen and Minifters of the three Denominations for the Weft Rid. ing of the County of York, cannot avoid expreffing the intereft we feel in your late fufferings from a deluded po. pulace. However fome of us may differ from you in feveral doctrinal opinions, we are well convinced of the integrity of your character, and think our felves highly obliged to you for your fervices in the cause of religious and civil liberty. In this caufe we refpect you as a confeffor, and admire the magnanimity and meeknefs, equally honourable to the man and the Chriftian, with which you have borne the loffes you have fuftained. The approbation of your own mind, the efteem of the friends of freedom, and the perfuafion that your per. fonal misfortunes, under the direction of a wife and benevolent Providence, will finally prove conducive to public good, will, we doubt not, fill continue to afford you fupport, and enable you to rejoice even in tribulation. Sincerely wishing you every biefling which Heaven can beftow, we remain, Rev. Sir, yours, very refpe&fully.”

Signed by order, &c.


Paris, O. 3. TH HOUGH I was in Paris when the King accepted the new Conflitution, I was not prefent at that ceremony; but I know that what paffed on that memorable day has been faithfully related by (I believe) Mr. Perry, in the "Morning Chronicle" of the 23d of September; and, however I may be difpofed to admire the abilities of the late departed National Affembly, and revere, as I certainly do, many of the individuals who compofed it, and acknowledge their greatnets when they voluntarily pronounced their OWN DEATH, yet I. will pronounce this fentence AGAINST THEM, that they were, like the bulk of

their nation, ftrangers to fentiment, and not worthy the appellation of the name of Gentlemen; for, while their King was fpeaking to them, and confirming their opinions in an handsome manner, STANDING UPON HIS LEGS, they were in a fituation unbecoming the reprefentatives of a great nation, fome covering their heads with their hats, which ought to have covered their faces; for what has the prefent King, or their firft magiftrate, done to merit fo rude a mark of the want of common decency from men who plead the rights and equality OF MAN? for he had, before the Revolution took place, done every thing he could do to preferve their efteem. Thofe who know the exterior behaviour of this nation, as I did twenty-three years ago, would not believe it to be the fame nation now: fear then moved the civil hat and the ready hand of all the nation, liberty moves now, but in a very oppofite line; the very dealers in fish and fruit will give you a blow if you refufe to give them the price they afk. The Nobility, it is true, is annihilated, but then every Frenchman is now a Lord. The National Affembly have certainly effected wonders, but they have ftill wonderful difficulties to encounter; difficulties much greater than to oppofe the powers of the French emigrants and their borrowed troops. I am convinced that, were a foreign army of Germans, Pruffians, &c. &c. to enter this kingdom, few of them would return volunteers into their own. This is the time for Princes to look at home, and fupport their own codes of law, not to attempt redrelling thofe of other nations; and I muft obferve, that, if the National Affembly of France could overcome the power of the Nobility, the Clergy, and the Lawyers, and they certainly have done fo with the approbation of all the people, what power under the fun can overpower them? Yet a priest, under the roof in which I write, affures me that, before the month of January is expired, I fhall fee a counter-revolution; and then he will recover, he thinks, the four thousand pounds fterling a year he has loft, and, inftead of letting his houfe out to lodgers like me, live en prince like himfelf. When I was laft at Paris, the noife of the bells almost diftracted me; and therefore I rejoice to have fome of their bells in my pocket. A French lady of literature and good fenie, however, fays the blushes for her coun try; and I was glad to fee a lady in France capable of fuch an act of fenti


928 English Manners in the Reign of Charles II. defcribed. [O.

ment, for it is not often to be feen at Paris. The good things of this country are plentiful, and of courfe cheap; but where to find the good people, though they are to be found now and then, is difficult to name. It is, of all countries, the firit and beft to learn economy in.


Origin of Falfe Breafts-Theatre in
Moorfields, &c.-From the French of
Monf. Le Pays, written in 1690. By


To add to this, once or twice a week they go to fee the combats of their gladiators; who, to pleafe their admirers, break the heads of each other, or put all in gore. However, you are not to fuppofe the English women cruel in every refpect: they are favourable enough to their lovers; they are led by them eafily enough to the tavern or ale houfe, where they tipple together, make their lovers drunk, or are made drunk by them. There is an alehouse near a place they call Moorfieldst, where the company are entertained with mufick and Merry Andrews, who perform in their turns from morning till night on purpofe to divert thofe who come to drink, and where the company give themfelves up to every kind of gallantry. There are a number of actors of both fexes, who are painted to appear fair; and, as the place is built like an amphitheatre, the principal fports are made upon the open grafs-plat in the middle, which being the fame in this place as the ftage in a theatre, a very numerous company may enjoy the diverfions very much at their eafe. I am, &c.



08. 14.

To Monfieur D———. SHOULD have told you in my laft, that we came from Dover to London upon poft-horfes; and that upon an English faddle-horfe one is as little at one's ease as upon the wooden horfe of a garrifon (which is a punishment for foldiers). We have feen in London a number of fine women, who have a copious fhare of breafts, which are manufactured here; and, being scarce enough in France, we had determined to fend you fome by a veffel, attached as they are two together by a flame-coloured ribband, which, you know, is here looked upon as very fine. The only thing that has caufed us to change our minds is, the fear of their being spoiled by the commiffaries of foreign trade, who fuffer nothing of this fort to pafs without examination; and more efpecially, as you may guefs that this is a kind of merchandize that is foon fpoiled. -We have been at the theatre; and I need not tell you, that the English poets flatter the humour of the fpectators by introducing fcenes that would fhock one of our audiences; and that they feldom play a piece where fome one is not hung, affaffinated, or torn to-pieces! and that their women clap their hands, or join in the loudest peals of laughter! It is reasonable to fuppofe that, in this place, Monf. Le Pays principally alludes to the lower claffes of people.

HIS word, to gallop, runs through all the provincial languages, French, Italian, Spanish, as alfo the German; and they have taken it, probably, one from another: we may be thought to have had it from the French. As to the origin, Monf. Menage brings it from caluparet, citing Salmafius for this word, who efteems it to be of Greek extraction §; but this is going very deep, and therefore I fhould rather think it of Northern original, and in fact to be a compound word, quafi ga loop, for which fee Sewel's Dutch Dictionary. way in Kent is now a short or quick way, or bridle-way. L. E.

A lope

Note by the Tranflator. The alehoufe alluded to, near Moorfields, is the Flying Horfe, and is ftill diftinguished by the fame fign. It is on the Eaftern fide; and but a few years fince the large yard of the houfe had an entrance into Union-ftreet, which is now stopped up. According to the relation of aged perfons, now living, it was in this yard that the diverfions defcribed by the French Author were carried on. They remember the fmall houtės in the yard having their tops covered with feats, though within their memory only cudgel. ing and boxing were exhibited in that place, except that children and women ufed to ride upon the feats in the wings of a large wooden horte, that had a mechanical motion for that purpose upon a platform, and run in grooves. The ailemblies at this place being prohibited, probably on account of the gallantries alluded to by M. Le Pays, the diverfions of boxing and cudgelling were still carried on in the middle of the Upper-field; where, till within forty years paft, the ring, as it was called, was under the direction of a Mafter of thofe Ce remonies, very well known by the appellation of OLD VINEGAR.-Moorfields was, till within about twenty years paft, divided into Upper and Lower, by a wall, that ran from the end of Chifwell-ftreet to the oppofite fide.

Menage, Orig. Franc. in v.

See alfo Junii Etymologicon in v.

160. The


160. The Iliad and Odyssey of Homer, tranflated into Blank Verfe, by W. Cowper. (Continued from p. 845). RITICISM on a work like the prefent divides itself into various branches, which, if purfued with that diligence the importance of the whole feems to demand, might well occupy a feparate volume. If the tranflation was abftractedly confidered, we should have ample employment in examining it by the rules of English literature, in contemplating the general ftructure of the poem, in comparing the obvious beauties and ftriking defects of particular paffages, and in delivering our opinion on the whole, as a detached individual work. But when, in addition to this, it becomes neceflary to view it by the fide of its great original, of which it profeffes to be an accurate and faithful reprefentation, other talents are required, and other labours become indifpenf able. When we reflect on the volumes of commentaries which have been writ ten to illuftrate Homer, the many eminent names which have given their time and employment to this arduous work, we fhrink from the toil of going through Mr. Cowper's volumes with too faftidious and minute investigation. "Nam veluti pueri trepidant atque omnia cæcis

In tenebris metuunt, fic nos in luce timemus leterdum

Our duty, moreover, requires compref. fion; yet we shall not fail to do the ingenious author the juftice which his labours undoubtedly demand, and our limits will allow.

Book I. line 101. “Achilles swifteft "of the fwift." The original is odas wxus, which means no more than fwift of foot, or perhaps we might fay, with out a folecifm, foot-fwift. Here Mr. Cowper feems to have deviated from the law which he prefcribed himself concerning epithets.

Line 195. "No-fameless wolf —" We know of no authority which will juftify Mr. Cowper for fo rendering κύτωπα. It literally means dog-faced.

Line 227. her heed thy wrath a "jot." Surely this is a vulgarifm not to have been expected from the elegant -author of The Tafk.

The emotions of Achilles, and his behaviour on the fudden appearance of Minerva, with the different addreffes to ́each other, are described with all the

GENT. MAG. October, 1798.

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Slowly in smoky volumes climb'd the skies."
In the paffage which follows Mr Cow-
per is guilty of an unaccountable mistake:
Lead hither by the hand
Blooming Brifeis, whom, if he withheld,
Not her alone, but other spril myself
Will take in perfon.

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Εἰ δέ κε μὴ δώησιν, ἐγὼ δέ κεν αὐτὸς ἕλωμαι 'Exby oÙY LOVEL

The meaning of which is, "If he will

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not give her up, I myself will take "her away, coming with numbers"— Ed who cannot poffibly bear any other interpretation; it was Brifeis, and Brifeis only, which it was fuitable to the dignity of Agamemnon to take. Indeed, a few lines before, Achilles had faid, that if Agamemnon prefumed to touch any thing elfe, he would kill him with his fpear:

Of thefe, take none away without my leave. "I have other precious things on board;

My spear

Shall stream that moment purpled with thy blood- "

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Line 534. "Arrived within the haven "deep. whether he has properly rendered the Mr. Cowper feems doubtful word woλeos, which, he thinks, expreffes variety of foundings. think it means no more than deep.


praife to the defcription of Jupiter's af-
Line 648. We cannot refufe our
fent to the request of Thetis :
"He ceafed, and, under his dark brows, the

Vouchfafed of confirmation. All around
The Sovereign's everlasting head his curls
Ambrofial fhook, and the huge mountain

Line 697. "My glorious bands-" by glorious bands. It means, my hands, ἀάπλες χεῖρας is very feebly rendered which no one may prefume to check, ligiven this passage with adequate energy. terally, to touch. Neither has Mr. Pope



Review of New Publications.

With the conclufion of the first book we take our leave of the author for the prefent month. Our attention to him we shall willingly renew; but we hope not to excite his difpleafure if we go. through what is to fucceed in a more fummary manner.

"So spent they in feftivity the day,


Robin, a Tale; An Apology for Kings; and
An Address to my Pamphlet. By Peter
Pindar, Efq.

"Pindarum quifquis ftudet æmulari," &c.

PINDAR is a clever fellow, and now got on our fide; witnefs his Tale of the Magpie and Robin, which we shall select in our Poetry, and, for a shorter fample

And all were cheered; nor was Apollo's harp of his talents and fentiments, give here
Silent, nor did the Mufes fpare to add
Refponfive melody of vocal fweets.

But when the fun's bright orb had now declined,

Each to his mansion, wherefoever built,
By the lame matchless architect, withdrew.
Jove alfo, kindler of the fires of heaven,
His couch afcending, as at other times,
When gentle fleep approach'd him, flept


With golden-fceptred Juno at his fide." On which lines we have only to remark, that they are good, and generally faithful. Matcblefs architect is very incompetent. Homer adds, that the matchiefs Vulcan built thofe manfions; ειδυίησι πραπίδεσσι which means, with skill, which was the refult of deep meditation. In the laft line, goldenfceptred is wrong; the original is, Xevoolgovos, golden-throned, who fits on a golden throne. (To be continued.)

161. The Hiftory of Sudeley Castle, in Gloucefterfhire. By the Rev. Cooper Willyams, Vicar of Ixning, in Suffolk. folio. WITH pleasure we announce a publication of this fort, as an inducement to other antiquaries to follow Mr. W's plan. He has given a hiftory of this caftle, which Fuller, in his quaint language, calls "of fubjects' caftles the moft handfome habitation, and of "fubjects' habitations the strongest "caftle," from the time of Harold, before the Conqueft, to the builder of the prefent caftle, who took his title from it, and the Bridges family, in the reign of Mary. It was reduced to its prefent ftate in the civil war, for the loyalty of the laft of this family, who, fettling it on his wife, daughter of John Earl of Rivers, he conveyed it to her second husband, George Pitt, Efq. of Strathfay, whofe fon, George, is now Earl of Rivers. To him the Eaft view of the caftle and chapel, annexed to this work, is dedicated. A Weft view, by Buck, 17.., has been copied in Rudder's Gloucefterfbire, 1778.

162. The Remonfirance. To which is added, in Ode to my difs: alfo, The Magpie and

his character of our Gallic neighbours : "Keel up lies France!-long may she keep that posture!

Her knav'ry, folly, on the rocks have toft her; Behold the thousands that furround the wreck !

Her cables parted, rudder gone,

Split all her fails, her main-maft down,

Choak'd all her pumps, broke-in her deck; Sport for the winds, the billows o'er her roll! Now am I glad of it with all my foul. "FRANCE lifts the bufy fword of blood no

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"Mad fools!And can we deem the French profound,

And, pleas'd, their infant politicks embrace, Who drag a noble pyramid to ground,

Without one pebble to fupply its place? "Yet are they follow'd, prais'd, admir'd,


Be with fuch praise these ears no longer bor'd! This moment could I prove it to the nation all, That verily a FRENCHMAN is not rational. "Yes, FRENCHMEN, this is my unvarying You are not rational indeed; [creed, So low have fond conceit and folly funk ye: 'Only a larger kind of monkey!"

163. An Hiftorical Difquifition concerning the Knowledge which the Antients bad of India; and the Progrefs of Trade with that Country, prior to the Discovery of the Passage to it by the Cape of Good Hope. With an Appendix, containing Obfervations on the Civil Policy, the Laws and Judicial Proceedings, the Arts, the Sciences, and Religious Inflitutions, of the Indians. By William Robertfon, D. D. F. R.S Ed. Principal of the Univer fity, and Hiftoriographer to bis Majefty for Scotland. 40.

DR. R. has been led, by the perufal of Major Rennel's Memoir for illufrat ing his Map of Indoftan, to examine more fully than he had done in his Hif tory of America into the knowledge which the antients had of India. He divides his hiftorical difquifition into four fections. The first defcribes the intercourse with India from the earliest times, until the conqueft of Egypt by the Romans; the fecond deduces the hiftory of the India trade, from the eftablishment of the Roman dominion in Egypt to the conqueft of that kingdom by the Mohammedans; and the third continues the fame fubject to the difcovery of the paffage by the Cape of Good Hope, and the establishment of the Portuguese dominion in the Eafl. The fourth fection confifts of fuch general obfervations as naturally refult from the preceding narrative. Thefe are followed by notes and illuftrations. He paffes briefly over the connexion between the Eaft Indies and Egypt and Phenicia. The policy of the former forbad all intercourfe with ftrangers, and all the efforts of Sefoftris to render the Egyptians a commercial people ended with him. Every circumftance in the character and htuation of the Phenicians was favourable to the commercial fpirit. An intercourfe with the latter country enabled the Jews, in Solomon's reign, to "make a tranfient commercial effort; but they "quickly returned to their former ftaje

"of unfocial feclufion from the rest of "mankind." The Donor enlarges no more on the voyage of Scylax, and the expedition of Darius, to which it is faid to have given rife; but expatiates in a new and ftriking manner on the con❤ quefts of Alexander, which firft opened the Eastern world to Europe.

"If an untimely death had not put a period to the reign of the Macedonian hero, India, we have reason to think, would have been more fully explored by the antients, and the European dominion would have been established there two thousand years fooner. When Alexander invaded India, he had fomething more in view than a tranfient incurfion. It was his object to annex that extenfive and opulent country to his empire; and though the refractory spirit of his army obliged him, at that time, to fufpend the profecution of his plan, he was far from relinquishing it. To exhibit a general view of the measures which he adopted for this purpofe, and to point out their propriety and probable fuccefs, is not foreign from the fubject of this Difquifition, and will convey a more just idea than is ufually entertained of the original genius and extent of political wifdom which distinguished this illustrious


"When Alexander became mafter of the

Perfian empire, he early perceived, that, with all the power of his hereditary dominions, reinforced by the troops which the afcendant he had acquired over the various ftates of Greece might enable him to raise there, he could not hope to retain in fubjec tion territories fo extenfive and populous; that to render his authority fecure and permanent, it must be established in the affection of the nations which he had fubdued, and maintained by their aims; and that, in order to acquire this advantage, all diftinctions between the victors and vanquished must be abolished, and his European and Afiatic fubjects must be incorporated, and become one people, by obeying the fame ftitutions, and difcipline. laws, and by adopting the fame manners, in

"Liberal as this plan of policy was, and well adapted to accomplish what he had in view, nothing could be more repugnant to the ideas and prejudices of his countrymen. The Greeks had fuch an high opinion of the pre-eminence to which they were raised by civilization and science, that they feem hardly to have acknowledged the rest of mankind to be of the fame fpecies with themselves. To every other people they gave the degrading appellation of Barbarians; and, in confequence of their own boafted fuperiority, they afferted a right of dominion over them, in the fame manner as the fou has over the body, and men have over irrazional animals. Extravagant as this pretenfion may now ap pear, it found admiffion, to the difgrace of


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