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that he could not be supported in Competition with Mr. [Avery]. Your Friend makes no Claims on his Country, nor does he set himself in Competition with Mr. [Avery] whose Connexions have made him a necessary Man.1 He is, I confess, one whom I have esteemd for his Honesty and easy good Humour. We have been entertaind with the Speeches both before and after putting on the Regalia, and we expect to see Congratulatory Addresses from various Orders, civil and ecclesiastick. I shall pity the Governor if he is apt to be discomposd with the high Complimentary Stile. I could wish, if we must have abundant Addresses to see the manly Simplicity of Barckly the Quaker in his Dedication to Charles the 2d of England. Excepting that Instance, I do not recollect ever to have seen an Address to a Great Man, that was not more or less, and very often deeply, tincturd with Flattery. If the Town Clerk of Ephesus, has "treated me with great Disrespect," I am sorry for him. It gives me no Uneasiness on my own Account. If he treats every one in that way who "will not worship the Great Image," he leaves me in the best of Company, Company which he may at another Time, find it his Interest, if that governs him, to court and respect. We are even reducd to the Hutchinsonian Times, if a Citizen shall think himself constraind to malign his old Friend, merely because the Great Man has been prevaild upon to mark him as his Enemy? But the History of all Ages and all Countries shows, that there is no Absurdity into which Idolatry will not lead Men. Pray remember me to my Friend Mr. Gerry, and tell him I have not forgot his Letters and that I will write him soon. All my Friends complain of me for Omission on that Score. Mr. Peny I suppose will return in a few Days. Adieu. Your affectionate,

3

S. A

Will you call on Mrs. A. and let her know that I am well.

1 Perhaps Avery is the person described in a letter to Mrs. Adams, March 7, 1779, in Writings of Samuel Adams, Iv. 129.

2 Robert Barclay (1648-1690). The letter to the King, dated November 25, 1675, is in the Apology.

3 William Cooper.

ADAMS MSS.

JAMES WARREN TO JOHN ADAMS
BOSTON, November 22d, 1780

MY DEAR SIR, - Two days ago I received your favour of the 18th March, without ever hearing before of, or seeing since the Gentleman there recommended. when I have an Opportunity I shall most certainly pay proper respect to your recommendations, by taking proper Notice of him. my last to you was by a French frigate from Newport with a copy of what went by Capt. Hayden from here to Amsterdam I believe I gave you a General State of our Affairs here, and as you will doubtless get one of them, I shall not trouble you with repetitions. since that our New Government has taken place. the Papers will tell you who are the Governing Powers, that compose the Administration. it is only necessary for me to tell you that it is now perfectly Systematic. the Influence here is as uniform, and extensive as in England, and the Criterion to determine the qualifications for office much the same as in the most Arbitrary Governments, or in the most servile Nations. how long this will last I dont know. whether Pisistratus will be able to establish himself Perpetual Archon, or whether he will be able to convey that Honor and rank to his Family by hereditary right Time must determine he has no Guards, yet established, but he has unbounded Adulation, and Submission and that may effect here all the purposes for which Guards were necessary at Athens. it is certain there is a greater Influence, and a more unlimited Confidence here than is consistent with a Republican Government, that Influence has already effected here what Hutchinson was never able to do, it has not only removed S. Ad[ams] from all Share in the Government but taken from him his Bread, and given the Secretaryship to Mr. Avery,1 Son-in-Law to the Lieutenant Governor. Your Friend Gerry is the next Object and who among you that at Congress committed the unpardonable Sin of opposing or not submitting to his Measures, is uncertain. perhaps the Extent of the Atlantic may secure you, and Mr. Dana for a while. we have no public News. our Troops have

I John Avery (1739-1806) held the office of Secretary of the Commonwealth from 1780 to his death.

gained some Advantages in Carolina, but there is no prospect of any great, and decisive Strokes. Clinton is landed in Virginia with about 3500 Troops what will be the Issue is uncertain. Chesapeak is a fine Trap, if policy and spirit should dictate to the French in the W. Indies an Expedition here. The State of Vermont as they stile themselves grow Troublesome. I believe it is certain they have made a Truce with the Gov. of Canada for a Number of days, and it is said they are on this occasion making peremptory demands on Congress, to acknowledge their Independence, within a certain Time. the French Fleet and Army still at Newport and the several States employed in ways and means to fill up their Army during the War and in arranging their finances to pay and supply them. if any Body asks how long the War is to continue, I shall refer them to you, who can tell much better than I can. Mrs. Warren writes to you, and may make her own Acknowledgments for the Compliment you make her. My Compliments to Mr. Dana and the Young Gentlemen. I am Your Friend and Humble Servant,

J. WARREN

P.S. We hear that Mr. Laurence [Laurens] is taken and carried to Newfoundland,1 and that you are at Amsterdam I wish you success and Happiness wherever you are.

No Advice yet of the Trunk committed to Doct'r Winship, and perhaps never will, unless you catch him in France.

JAMES WARREN TO SAMUEL Adams 2

PLYMO., Decr. 4th, 1780

MY DEAR SIR, My last was upon the Subject of dissipation of Manners. this shall be on Inattention to public Principles. Either of them may be dangerous to a Young Republic, and when united may Shake the foundations of an old one. I suppose you have before this seen the doings and Resolutions of the Hartford

I Taken in the Mercury packet from Philadelphia.

2 From the Samuel Adams Papers in the New York Public Library.

Convention.1 if one of them does not astonish you I have forgot my political Catechism. surely History will not be Credited when it shall record that a Convention of Delegates from the four New England States and from the next to them met at Hartford in the Year 1780, and in the heigth of our Contest for public Liberty and Security solemnly Resolved to recommend it to their several States to Vest the Military with Civil Powers of an Extraordinary kind and, where their own Interest is Concerned, no less than a Compulsive power over deficient States to oblige them by the point of the Bayonet to furnish money and supplies for their own pay and support. this must have been done without recollecting political Maxims, without attending to Historical Admonitions and warnings, or the Principles on which our Opposition to Britain rests. General Washington is a Good and a Great Man. I love and Reverence him. But he is only a Man and therefore should not be vested with such powers, and besides, we do not know that his successor will be either Great or Good. much less can we tell what Influence this precedent may have half a Century hence. sat Verbum sapienti. I hope the Resolution will at least shew Congress that something is necessary to be done. it is obvious that your proportions of Men and supplies to the several States are unequal and Consequently Unjust.2 but what is more surpriseing is your Method for a final Adjustment, which is a full and ample Encouragement to every State to be totally deficient. the Exertions of M[assachusetts] and Hampshire supported your Army last Campaign. they gave Three pounds for Beef. Connecticut and the other deficient States as a reward for their Shameful Negligence are to be Excused upon paying 33/4. we are now again Exerting ourselves on your New Requisitions (which by the way come very late), but this cant last long unless the other States are made to do their Duty. shall the M. over Taxed as they are furnish the whole and P[ennsylvania] not a Thousandth part, and Connecticut not a quarter, and so sink one-half the value and be at the same time Continually wounded with the Groans of the Army. some new Step must be taken, or

1 Records of Connecticut, 11. 562.

2 Journals of the Continental Congress, XVIII. IOII.

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the Ship will go on Shoar. I have no News. I wish you every Happiness and am your Friend,

J. WARREN

What has been the fate of our Memorial. if Congress will not do us Justice, I will Instantly quit, or rather I must.

JAMES LOVELL TO JAMES Warren

Decr. 5, 1780

DEAR SIR, In your Letter of Sepr. 28 you make the most just Remarks upon the manner in which our naval Affairs have been fostered here; I think it not becoming my Situation to say starved.

Some days ago the Salaries given Sepr. 13 and 23 were made to have retrospect to Nov 2d 1778, but, yesterday, to Sepr. I 1777.

By Letters from Spain recd. yesterday I find that our Friend Jos. Gardoqui will be here to succeed Don Mirailles. Spain is slow towards alliance, well disposed as to Money for our Use, but, be assured, she wants it herself there. She may help us nearer home. She was upon a Scheme of getting some in France which Necker found out and stopped by his Influence.1

I shall not be able to hint these Things to Mr. Gerry. In short, I believe I shall soon be obliged to omit taking Pen in hand except on Committees; I shall otherwise neither serve the public nor my friends with propriety. Your Friend and humb Servt.

J. L.

Some Constitutions of Bodies politic may be supposed to be so good in themselves that, like some human Frames, they may not want a skilful Physician to watch them: They may only now and then stand in need of an half bred Apothecary and his Assistant, with their Ivory Tube.

I "No printing" is written against this paragraph.

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