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FEBRUARY, 1812.

Increase of the Navy.

SENATE.

and carried into Dantzic. On her arrival at that subjected to the payment of costs, in a French port, she was put under the control of the Con- court, the payment of these condemns her, besul of France, and all her papers were forcibly cause she ought to have been released without .taken by the said Consul, and sent to Paris, in them. order that legal process might be there instituted If she has been met with going to, or coming against her.

from an English port, whether with a cargo or In unloading the cargo, the most illegal con- without, this is sufficient ground to capture or duct was adopted. Several of the crew were destroy her; if she has been spoken by a vessel impressed for the service of His Imperial Majes from her own country in the English language, ty, and impediments were thrown in the way of lor has entered a port where an English vessel the supercargo, by withholding his passports near should be lying at anchor, which did not even two months, although he had applied for them pay her so much attention as to hail her, she is to the American Chargé d'Affaires, to prevent to be condemned; if no proof is given that she his getting to Paris to defend the vessel and car- took convoy, it is alleged that no proof is furgo. Thus situated, at a very early period the nished that she might not have taken it; if she supercargo inade known to Mr. Russell, the is visited by a British ship she is condemned ; and American Chargé d'Affairs at Paris, the circum- if she has not been visited, por molested, she is stances of the capture, who applied to the French condemned, because her not being so disturbed is Minister of Foreign Affairs, and received assu- evidence she was in the interest of the enemy's rances from 'him, that he had made a favorable commerce! Nor has this been done by an infe. report of the case to the Emperor.' Notwith- rior court, or by subordinate agents. The constanding this perfect knowledge of the case, and demnation of the Catharine and cargo was dethe favorable report of the French Minister, the creed at Paris by the highest prize court on the Council of Prizes, on the 10th day of September 10th September, and was confirmed by the Emlast, without bearing any plea or defence on be peror in person on the 14th, after a full knowlhalf of the owners of the vessel and cargo, pro- edge of the cireumstances, and after a favorable ceeded to the condemnation of them both; in decision on the case had been promised by the which, after reciting that the Catharine had been French Minister of Foreign Affairs. Thus, sir, captured by the French armed ship the Jeone is situated our commerce as it respects France, Adolphe, and that she had been libelled on the and such is the evidence of the virtual actual ground" that part of the cargo came from Span- repeal of her decrees. ish and Portuguese colonies, and that, moreover, Still, sir, if we are going to war with Great it consisted of colonial articles, whose importa. Britain, let it be a real, effectual, vigorous war. tion was prohibited by His Majesty's decrees;" Give us a naval force. This is the sensitive that she had been captured by the Dades, and chord, you can touch, and which would bave acquitted by the Danish courts, and that she had more effect on her than ten armies. Give us arrived at Gottenburg, in which port an English thirty swift-sailing, well-appointed frigates; they cutter was then lying, but which had not hailed are better than seventy-fours; two thirty-six-gun the Catharine; after reciting that another vessel frigates can be built and maintained for the same bad hailed her on her passage, the officers of expense as one seventy-four, and for purposes of which had spoken the English language; that annoyance for which we want them, they are the captain, supercargo, and mariners, had all better than two seventy-fours; they are managed concurred in these facts; after reciting moreover easier, ought to sail faster, and can be navigated a complete list of all the papers found on board in shoal water. We do not want seventy-fours ; the Catharine, which consisted of every docu- courage being equal, in line-of-baitle ships, skill ment required by the law of nations, and the and experience will always insure success. We modern usages of France, all certified by the are not ripe for them; but butt-bolt the sides of French Consul, at Boston; the Council of Prizes an American to that of a British frigate, and proceeded to condemn both vessel and cargo, though we should lose sometimes, we would win valued at eighty-five thousand dollars, on the as often as we should lose. The whole history following pretences, if even such they may be of the Revolutionary war, when we met at sea called: thai “the said brig had anchored at Got on equal terms, would bear testimony in favor of tenburg, at which port there was an armed Eng. this opinion. Give us, then, this litile fleet well lish packet boat, and that this was an indication appointed; place your Navy Department under or proof-the cargo consisting also mostly of arti. an able and spirited Administration; give tone cles of colonial produce—that the same was in to the service. Let a sentimeni like the followthe ioterest of the enemy's commerce; that there ing precede every letter of instruction to the capwas no reason to believe that she entered the tain of a ship of war—“Sir, the honor of the Baltic without convoy; and if she were not dis- nation is in a degree attached to the flag of your turbed by the numerous vessels of the enemy, it vessel ; remember, that it may be sunk without was because she was an enemy's ship under an disgrace. but can never be siruck without disAmerican mask;" and they then proceeded to honor." Do this; cashier every officer who strikes condemo both vessel and cargo, and to decree his flag, and you will soon bave a good account that the capture was good and available. Thus, of your Navy. This may be said to be a hard if an American vessel is cleared in a Danish tenure of service; but, hard or easy, sir, embark court as being bona fide neutral property, but in an actual, vigorous war, and in a few weeks,

SENATE.

Increase of the Navy.

FEBRUARY, 1812.

perhaps days, I would engage completely to offi- As Great Britain wrongs us I would fight her. cer your whole fleet from New England alone. Yet I should be worse than a barbarian did I pot

Give us this little fleet. and in a quarter part of rejoice that the sepulchres of our forefathers, the time you could operate upon her in any other which are in that country, would remain un. way, we would bring her to terms with you, sacked, and their coffins rest undisturbed by the not to your feet. No, Sir. Great Britain is, at unballowed rapacity of the Goths and Saracens present, the most colossal power the world ever of modern Europe. witnessed. Her dominion extends from the ris. How then, sir, will it be asked, are we to opeing to the setting sun. Survey it for a moment. rate on a Power such as I have described? Let Commencing with the newly found continent of us have these thirty frigates; she cannot block. New Holland, as she proceeds she embraces un- Tade them; our coasts are in our favor; the eleder her protection, or in her possession, the Phil- ments are in our favor; from November to the ippine Islands, Java, Sumatra ; passes the coast month of March, in the Northern States I mean, of Malacca; rests for a short time fruitlessly to all the navies of all the world could not blockade endeavor to number the countless millions of her them jo our ports; with our inclement weather subjects in Hindostan ; winds into the sea of Ara- and northeasi and southeast storms, and hazard. bia; skirts along the coasts of Coromandel andous shores, and tempestuous northwest gales, Ceylon; stops for a moment for refreshment at which afford the best chances to go off the coast, the Cape of Good Hope; visits her plantations enemy ships of war could not keep their stations. of the Isles of France and Bourbon ; sweeps Divide these thirty frigates into six squadrons ; along the whole of the Antilles; doubles Cape place them in the northern ports ready for sea ; Horn to protect her whalemen in the Northern and, at favorable moments, we would pounce and Southern Pacific.oceans ;-crosses the Ameri. upon her West India Islands, and repeat the game can continent from Queen Charlotte's Sound to of De Grasse and D'Estaing in 1779 and 1780. Hudson's Bay; glancing in the passage at her By the time she was looking for us there, we colonies of the Canadas, Nova Scotia, and New would be round Cape Horn cuiting up her whaleBrunswick; thence continues to Newfoundland, men. When pursued there, we would skim to look after and foster her fisheries, and then away to the lodian ocean, and look after her takes her departure for the United Kingdoms of China and India fleets, of whom we would give England, Ireland, and Scotland, nor rests until a far different account from that of Linois, the she reaches the Orkneys—the ultima thule of the Frenchman. . Occasionally we would look after geography of the ancients. Such an overgrown her Quebec fleet, and her Jamaica fleet; somecommercial and colonial power as this never be times we would do as the French privateers now fore existed. True, sir, she has an enormous do, make our appearance in the chops of the national debt of 700 millions of pounds sterling, Channel, and now and then we might even wind and a diurnal expenditure of a million of dollars, north about, and look into the Baltic. We should which, while we are whiping about a want of sometimes meet with disasters, but we have abunresources, would, in six short weeks, wipe off the dant means to repair them. Well managed, it whole public debt of the United States. would require a hundred British frigates to waich · Will these millstones sink_her? Will they the movements of these thirty. subject her to the power of France ? No, sir; These are the means, sir,' by which I would burst the bubble to-morrow; destroy the fragile bring Great Britain not to our feet, but to her basis on which her public.credit stands, the sin- senses. The Government of Great Britain is in gle word confidence; sponge her national debt; some degree a popular one; two branches of her revolutionize her Government; cut the throats of Government–ihe King and the Commons-are all her royal family, and dreadful as would be governed by the popular sentiment, and the hos: the process, she would rise with renovated vigor (pital of incurables must always follow suit. from the fall, and present to her enemy a more Touch the popular sentiment effectually, and you . imposing; irresistible front than ever. No, sir; control the Commons; the Commons, by with. Great Britain cannot be subjugated by France; holding the supplies and the civil list, control the the genius of her institutions, the genuine game- King and obtain a change of Ministry and a cock, bull-dog spirit of her people, will lift her change of measures. In this way you obtained head above the waves long after the dynasty of the peace of 1783. Had it depended on the King Bonaparte-the ill-gotten power of France, col- and the Lords, you would not have had a peace lected by perfidy, plunder, and usurpation, like until this time. the unreal image of old, composed of clay, and of We can'touch the popular sentiment. With iron, and of brass, and of silver, and of gold; shall the fleet I have mentioned we could harass greathave crumbled into atoms.

ly the commerce of Great Britain ; we could From this belief I acknowledge I derive a sen- bring her people to their senses ; we could make timent of gratulation. In New England our them ask their Government for what object they blood is unmixed; we are the direct descendants continued thus to violate our rights ļ whether it

In the Legislature of the respectable and once pow. into the lap of her enemy? Whether it was for erful State of Massachusetts now in session, com- her interest to embitter us toward her still more? posed of rear seven hundred members, to my. Whether it was for her interest to sever the prinknowledge pot a single foreigner holds a seat. Icipal lien of connexion between her and us, by

FEBRUARY, 1812.

Increase of the Navy.

SENATE.

obliging us to become a manufacturing people ? add twelve per cent. per angum, to And on this bead we could make an exhibit that keep the whole number in repair for would astonish both friends and foes. Whether it ten years, this would be ·

5,832,000 was for her interest to force us to become premacurely a great maritime pation, destined, one day

Making

- 89,820,000 or other, to dispute with her the sceptre of the ocean?' In short, I would make the people ask Thus giving an efficient maritime force of 30 the Government cui bono in this war." And the frigates in complete order for ten years, with a moment this is effected on both sides the water, surplus left sufficient to replace every ship of this the war is terminated, the business is finished, and fleet, should every one of the thirty in that time you have only to agree on fair and equal terms of be lost or destroyed by the enemy. peace.

Give us, then a navy. The Senate have pro. Look at the expense and the effect of the mea- ceeded thus far with a unanimity and harmony sures you have adopted. You are to have a highly honorable to them as men and as statesstanding army of 35,000 men, 50,000 volunteers, men. This measure will be considered as the and 100,000 of the militia. These you cannot test of our sincerity. For one, if it be not accedget into actual service without the militia, at-less ed to, however reluctant it may be to my feelexpense than forty-five millions of dollars annu.ings, to divide at a moment like this, without an ally-the ways and means proposed being less is effectual defence being given us, I shall not conno evidence to the contrary-no experienced mil- sent to burden my constituents with itary man can estimate it at less. What are you Annual loans to a large amounts to do with it? You overrun Canada without Additional twenty-five per cent. retention on material difficulty, Quebec excepted; that Gib. drawbacks, thereby destroying the colonial raltar of the American continent can only be trade, and crippling the Treasury instead of taken by regular siege and investment; you must replenishing it; stárve it out, but it will be provisioned for three New and heavy tonnage duties on our own vesyears at least, and, before you get there, it will be

sels; fully garrisoned by experienced troops. Thus, Duties on salt; then, to get Quebec you have got to summer and on licenses; wister a siege in the face of an able and veteran on auction sales, frequently the last refuge garrison for three years, and in a climate where,

of the distressed ; during its long winters, the thermometer some

on refined sugars; times stands at thirty degrees below zero, and the on carriages, chaises, and wagons, for the sentinels freeze' at their posts. Suppose it then

carriage of persons; falls, what do you then get? The gentleman on spirits from Virginia (Mr. Giles) has already told you: Nor shall I, under such circumstances, by my your enemy takes possession of New Orleans, vote, consent to impose on them stamp and direct New York, Newport, or some other "promineni taxes, cum mullis aliis, that must follow-expenand important point-you then let one hand wash ses that ought not to be gone into, except for the the other-make the exchange, and leave off just purpose of vigorously prosecuting a war in such where you began, with a debt of $130,000,000 and a manner as to procure a speedy and favorable the country subjected to all the evils of war. peace, the only rational object of 'war. Instead of three years' expense of the land

Peace is most unquestionably the polar star of forces, take one year-call it $45,000,000 instead the policy and the interest of the United States ; of $130,000,000-contrast this with the

expense

it should be obtained at every cost short of an

essential sacrifice; it is no disgrace for an infant The existing naval force of the United States not to contend with a giant; if we cannot carry

on may be estimated as equal to ten stout frigates; power of the nation, let us record our wrongs,

the war with all the energy, and the force, and twenty additional thiriy-six gun

frigates would make the best of the existing state of things, and, cost, agreeably to the estimate of the Secretary when we have the ability, punish our aggressors of the Navy of November 19, 1811, $162,000 to the last letter of the alphabet. Possibly this is each, equal for twenty new frigates,

the real policy of the United States ; but, if we • $3,420,000

are to go to war, give us a navy; if you do not,

and our commerce is abandoned, our pavigation Annual expense of thirty thirty-six

to be swept from the face of the ocean, our houses gun frigates, according to 'the same

battered about our ears, and we are denied those estimate, at $102.000 annually, is ,3,060,000 ineans of defence which the God of pature has

given us, and to which we are habituated, then, Multiply this sum ten times for ten

indeed, the Northern section of this Union will years service, and it would give - 30,600,000 be little better situated than the colony of JamaiAdd the first cost, in complete order,

ca; and, forms apart, there will be some cause to of twenty additional frigates now

suspect that it has liule more real voice or weight proposed to be built

3,420,000 in the Councils of the Government than it has in For the first years they would want

the Parliament of Great Britain. but little comparative expense, but

Give no cause, sir, for suspicions of this sort

of a navy.

to

.

SENATE.

Increase of the Navy.

March, 1812.

you, that

take off your restrictions anmuzzle us—let us Tennessee, Condit, Crawford, Franklin, Gregg, Howhave peace or war. If we have war, let it com- ell, Robinson, Tait, Turner, and Varnum. mence with one cheering prospect, the prospect of Nars-Messrs. Bayard, Campbell, of Ohio, Cutts, unanimity. Give us this little fleet, and in iwelve Gaillard, German, Giles, Goodrich, Hunter, Lambert, short months after it has been fairly launched upon Leib, Lloyd, Reed, Smith of Maryland, and Worththe main, we will engage to render you a good ac

ington. count of it, we will be enabled proudly io show On motion, by Mr. LLOYD, the motion was fur

ther amended, so as to read as follows: '“ Our march, too, shall be upon the mountain wave, Resolved, That the Secretary of the Treasury be diOur cannon shall re-echo o'er the deep."

rected to lay before this House a statement, so far as the same may be practicable, exhibiting the number of

"ships and vessels, and the amount of tonnage, and the FRIDAY, February 28.

several kinds and amount of merchandise, being of the The bill for the relief of the representatives of growth, produce, or manufacture of the United States, Samuel Lapsley, deceased, was read the second or territories thereof, and of colonial produce, exported time.

from thence to any port or place in France, subsequent On motion, by Mr. Giles, Messrs. Bradley to the period at which the repeal of the Berlin and Miland Gregg were added to the committee to whom an decrees was to have taken place; stating distinctly was referred the bill for the relief of Charles the duties payable in the ports of France on each artiMinifie.

cle, before and since that period. Mr. Pope, from the committee to whom was

On the question to agree to the motion, as referred the bill, entitled "An act for the relief amended, it was determined ip the affirmativeof the officers and soldiers who served in the late yeas 17, pays 12, as follows: campaign on the Wabash,” reported it amended. Yeas-Messrs. Bayard, Bradley, Brent, Campbell

The Senate resumed, as in Commiitee of the of Ohio, Crawford, Cutts, German, Giles, Goodrich, Whole, the bill, entitled “ An act for the benefit Gregg, Hunter, Lambert, Leib, Lloyd, Pope, Reed, and of Christopher Miller;" and the words nine hun. Smith of Maryland. dred and sixty having been struck out of the bill,

Nars-Messrs. Anderson, Campbell of Tennessee, the President reported it to the House accordingly. Condit, Franklin, Gaillard, Howell, Robinson, Smith

On the question, Shall this bill be read a third of New York, Tait, Turner, Varnum, and Worthtime? it was determined in the negative.

ington. Mr. Giles, from the committee to whom was Mr. Lloyd, from the comınittee to whom was referred the petition of Larkin Smith, collector referred the petition of Mary Nicholson, reported of the districi of Norfolk and Portsmouih, in Vir-" that, in their opinion, it is inexpedient to make ginia, reported a bill for the relief of the collectors provision for individual cases of the description of the ports of Baltimore and of Norfolk and Ports of that of the petitioner;" and the report was mouth; and the bill was read, and passed to the agreed to. second reading

On motion, by Mr. Tait, the further considerMr. LLOYD, from the committee to whom was ation of the bill was postponed to, and made the referred the bill, entitled “ An act authorizing a order of the day for, to-morrow. loan for a sum not exceeding eleven millions of Mr. Brent presented the petition of Robert dollars," reported it amended.

Young and others, inhabitanis of the town of Mr. 'WORTHINGTON, from the committee to Alexandria, in the District of Columbia, praying whom was referred the bill, entitled " An act giv- a charter for a bank, under the title of the “Meing further time for registering claims to land in chapics' Bank of Alexandria," for reasons therein the western district of the Territory of Orleans," stated; and the petition was read, and referred to reported it without amendment.

a select committee, to consider and report thereon On motion, by Mr. Smith; of Maryland, the by bill or otherwise; and Messrs. BRENT; CAMPfurther consideration of the bill, entitled " Aá act BELL, of Tennessee, and Taylor, were appointed concerping the Naval Establishmeol," was post- the committee. poned to, and made the order of the day for, Mon- Mr. Lloyd presented the memorial of John day next.

Parker, of Boston, merchant, in behalf of himself

and the owners of the brigantine called the CathMONDAY, March 2,

arine, and her cargo; stating that the said brigan

tine, whilst proceeding on her lawful voyage 10 The bill for the relief of the collectors of the St. Petersburg, was, on the 3d of May, 1811, capports of Baltimore and of Norfolk and Ports- lured by a French privateer, and carried into mouth, was read the second time.

Dantzic and condemned, and praying indemniThe Senate resumed the consideration of the fication, for reasons stated at large in the memomotion made by Mr. Reed, on the 21st January, rial; which was read, and ordered to be printed as amended.

for the use of the Senate. On motion, by Mr. ANDERSON, that it be referred to a select committee, further to consider and

INCREASE OF THE NAVY. report thereon, it was determined in the negative The Senate resumed the consideration of the -yeas 12, nay's 14, as follows:

bill, entitled “An act concerning the Naval Es. Yeas-Messrs. Anderson, Bradley, Campbell, of tablishment.”

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Mr. CRAWFORD regretted that his ill health and members of Congress during the Winter of 1809, want of strength would not permit him thoroughly which in his opinion influenced the conduct of to investigate all of the important subjects which that body upon several important questions. Mr. have been incidentally introduced in the course C. said he had not attended any of those meetof this discussion. The proposition to build ings, and had never felt himself under any oblitwenty frigates has no intimate connexion with gation io conform to their determination. It was several of those subjects, which might with great impossible for him to discover any assignable repropriety have been kept entirely out of view; lation between the history of those inofficial but, as they have been introduced, he would not meetings, and the proposition to build twenty decline their discussion. Such had been the state frigates. Nor had he been able to discover, that of his health, from the time that this proposition the history of the embargo, and the agency of parhad been submitted to the consideration of the ticular individuals in procuring its repeal, bad Senate, that he had not until this morning deter- any tendency to elucidate that proposition. Upon mined to participate in the discussion. The ob. this subject he would only say, that the gentleman servation of the honorable gentleman from Ken- must be mistaken, in the inference which he had tucky had made it unnecessary to reply to many drawn, from the vote of įhe House of Represenof the statements and remarks of the honorable tatives on the 5th day of January, 1809, by which gentlemen from Massachuseus and Virginia (Mr. Mr. CHITTENDEN's resolution for repealing the LLOYD and Mr. Giles.) The latter gentleman embargo was ordered to lie on the table. This complains of a change which he says has taken vote is offered by that gentleman as unquestionplace, in the character of the discussions of this able evidence, that a majority of that body had, House, which is highly detrimental to the freedom as early as that day, determined to repeal the of debate. He con plains that the motives instead | embargo. If the honorable gentleman from Virof the arguments of the speaker have become the ginia will take the trouble of examining the whole subject of investigation. If this complaint is of the Journal of the House of Representatives of founded in fact, it is greatly to be lamented; but that day, a part of which it appears he has examit may be proper to inquire whether it is not the ined, he will find that the inference which he necessary result of another change in the char; has drawn from that vote is contradicted by a acter of our discussions introduced by those who solemn decision of that House. Io page two hunmake the complaint. If, instead of presenting for dred and twenty-seven he will find an amendment the consideration of the Senate a train of reason- offered to the act for enforcing the embargo, ia ing calculated to elucidate the proposition under the words following: consideration, the speaker should substitute the

“Sec. 14. And be it further enacted, That this act, bistory of his political life, opinions, and motives, and the act entitled an act, laying an embargo on all he ought not io complain, if his proffered substi- ships and vessels in the ports and harbors of the Unitute should be accepted and discussed by his ted States, and all laws supplementary thereto, be, and opponents.

they are hereby repealed, from and after the fourth day The same gentleman has taken a review of of March next.” past measures, which are very remotely, if in The question was decided by yeas and paysany degree, connected with the proposition before yeas 35, nays 81. The House of Representatives, the Senate. Such a review as will enable us 10 instead of furnishing evidence of their determiavoid the errors into which we may have fallen, nation to repeal the embargo as early as the fifth from precipitaney or from the want of sufficient in- day of January as the gentleman has supposed, formation of the subjects upon which we have gave the most unequivocal evidence of their debeen compelled to legislate, may be highly useful. termination neither to repeal it then, or two But if this review should be conducted simply months afterwards. Mr. C. said he was neither with the design of proving that the reviewer has qualified or disposed to decide between the genalways been right, and those opposed to him al- tleman from Virginia and the gentleman from ways wrong, it is impossible to discover any ben- Tennessee, touching the agency of the former in efit which can result froin it. It may indeed be producing the repeal of the embargo. That genhighly gratifying to the speaker, but it cannot Jileman had ascribed its repeal to the late Presiexcite any pleasurable sensation in the bosoms of dent of the United States--because he had dethose who are charged with being uniformly clined iaking into the public service fifteen hunwrong. A procedure of this kind is calculated to dred seamen. By the estimate for the present irritate and to produce the effect of which that year it appears that six thousand nine hundred honorable gentleman has so seriously complained. and sixty-two seamen will man the whole of our It is natural for every man to believe that his public vessels, including twenty-two gunboats. opinions are right, and that those who differ with The seafaring men in the United States may be him are wrong. The difference between the gen- estimated from sixiy to one hundred thousand, tleman from Virginia and other men consists not and yet by employing fifteen hundred, which, in thought but in words. Every man believes together with ibose then in service, might amount that he is right, but every man does not upon all to five thousand, ihe gentleman from Virginia occasions undertake to prove that he has always would have insured the execution of the embargo, been right.

by creating a scarcity of sailors to navigate the The same gentleman has given us the history vessels destined for its violation. of proceedings at several inoficial meetings of the But the public vessels called into service by the

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