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employment of ghese fifteen hundred seamen ings and local interests should have been so would have executed the embargo! An embargo strongly excited in the discussion of this quesis a municipal regulation and can only be exe- tion. The gentleman from New York (Mr. GER

cuted efficiently upon land. The great mass of Man) bas asserted that the people of the Southern · violations was committed by vessels which cleared and Western States are decidedly hostile to com

out for ports in the United States, but which merce, and that their opposition to the proposisailed to foreign ports. ' In sailing from port to tion to build an additional number of frigates is port it is impossible to sail in a direct line, and the result of that hostility. It is highly imporit would have been equally impossible to have tant to investigate the truth of this assertion. Its framed instructions which would have enabled refutation, if untrue, is imperiously demanded. your naval officers to have executed the embargo: That every 'well informed community underif they had had the physical power. But a pari stands its immediate interest, and is disposed to of the public vessels were in service, and were foster those measures which are calculated to employed in the execution of that measure, and promote that interest, are propositions which canyet the gentleman from Virgioia has not been able not be denied. The greatest amount of domestic to show that any essential service has been ren- articles exported from the United States in one dered by them. upon this view of the subject year has been about $49,000,000. The single arMr. C. said he had voted against the employment iicle of cotton has constituted about $14,000,000 of an additional number of seamen in 1809, and of that amount, and that article is cultivated only believing that the proposition now advocated by in the three Southern States, the State of Tenthat genileman was calculated 10 diminish and Dessee, and the two Southern Territories. A connot to increase the means of annoying Great siderable portion of North Carolina and TennesBritain on the ocean he should vote against it. see does not cultivate cotton for exportation, but In the year 1809, as well as upon the present those States export a considerable amount of other question, he certainly believed he was right, and articles,* the precise amount of which cannot be he had no doubt that the gentleman from Virginia ascertained, but there can be no danger of conthen thought, and now thinks, that he is right. tradiction in bazarding the assertion that the

The honorable gentleman from Massachusetts same number of people in any other part of the (Mr. LLOYD) thinks that nothing has been done Union do not furnish the same amount of do. by the Government for commerce, whilst com-mestic articles for exportation. Without commerce has done everything for the nation; that merce, the annual sum of $14,000,000 in the arcommerce has paid into the public Treasury ticle of cotton alone, estimated at a fair price, $200,000.000. If it is contended that this sum would be lost to that part of the inhabitants of the has been paid exclusively by commerce, nothing Southern States which is employed in the cultican be more incorrect. The money collected vation of cotton. from imposts and duties is paid by the consumer Who are the most interested in commerce, the of merchandise upon which the duties are im-. growers of the articles, the exchange and transposed. It is collected immediately from the mer- portation of which constitutes commerce, or the chant, and ultimately from the nation. The only factors and freighters employed in the exchange. money paid into the Treasury which can justly and transportation of those articles ? Can any be placed to the exclusive credit of commerce, is man doubi for one moment that the growers, the the sum retained by the Government upon de- rightful owners of the articles to be exchanged, bentures, which is only 7–10ths of one per cent. are more deeply interested in commerce than the upon goods paying a duty of twenty per cent. ad merchant and ship-holder, who only make a profit valorem, and has never amounted to $400,000 in from the sale and transportation of the articles any one year. The export of foreign productions exchanged? If the profit they derive from comfrom the United States in the year 1807, exceeded merce should be so enormous as to exceed the $59,000,000, and the sum paid into the Treasury original value of those articles in the hands of that year on account of drawbacks was about the growers, still, it can be demonstrated that the $390,000, which is the greatest amount received interest of the latter is more vitally affected by a from thai source of revenue since the organiza- prosperous or adverse state of commerce, than tion of the Government.

ihat of the merchant or ship-holder. The mer. The duty upon tonnage, like the duty imposed chant will be regulated in the price which he on merchandise, is paid by the consumer or grower gives to the grower by the state of the market of the cargoes transported by the ship-holders, of and the price of transportation to the market. whom this duty is immediately collected. The Let the price be what it may in foreign markets, ultimate payment of this duty by the grower or the merchant is regulated by it, and can only be consumer will depend upon the relative demand affected by sudden changes in those markets for, and supply of the articles in the market to which may be prejudicial or advantageous to which they are exported. If the demand for the bim. It is a matter of small moment to him article is greater than the quantity in the market, it is paid by the consumer; if the supply exceeds * There can be no doubt that the surplus produce the demand, it is paid by the grower, in the form tions of those States amount to one-third of the doof a reduction of the price of the article equal to mestic exports of the United States, and their reprethe duty imposed.

sentation is less than one-fifth of that of the United It is a subject of lasting regret that local feel. States.

MARCH, 1812.

Increase of the Navy.


whether the articles in which he deals bring a ple, the great mass of agriculturists in the United high or low price in the market to which they States, never had, and never can have any direct are sent, if that price is not variable, because he interest it. The farmer of the Eastern and Midwill regulate the price he gives for them by the dle States, and the planter of the Southern and price which he can obtain. But the price which Western States, stand in the same relation to this those articles will bring in the market to which commerce. Whether it be prosperous or adverse, they are sent, is all important to the grower, be- is a matter of small concern to them, and nothcause it will regulate the price which he is to re-ing but an effort of pure, disinterested patriotism ceive for them beyond the power of his control. could induce them to jeopardize the peace and Every circumstance which iends to destroy com- happiness of the nation, and stake the prosperity petition and reduce the number of markets to of the direct commerce of the country, for the which our produce is sent, vitally affects the protection of this mushroom commerce. This interest of the grower. The planter, the farmer, irade, which was carried on chiefly in the prois, therefore, more deeply interested in the pros: ductions of the French and Spanish colonies, perity of that commerce' which finds a market was almost eradicated in 1805 by the decisions of for the annual surplus, productions of his indus- the British Court of Admiralty, which establishtry, than the merchant or ship-holder. This directed the principle that neutrals should prosecute no commerce is indispensable to the internal growth trade in time of war which they did not enjoy and improvement of the country, and to the com- in peace. This decision did not affect the direct fort and happiness of the people, and, more so to commerce of the nation. That commerce in the people of the Southern and Western States which the agriculturist, the farmer, and the plantthan any other part of the United States. Sir, er, has so deep an interest, was prosecuted as sucwe are not so grossly ignorant as lo mistake our cessfully as though this decision had never been

interest in this matter. We know that, without made. But an acquiescence in this principle of · commerce, without a market for the surplus pro- the British Government, asserted and promulga

ductions of our labor, we should be deprived of ted through its Courts of Admiralıy, would have many of those articles which long habit has made been' an abandonment of the colonial carrying necessary to our ease and comfort. If, then, we trade, which had been so extensively prosecuted are pot grossly ignorant of our true interest, by our commercial cities during the present Eunothing can be more unfounded than the accusa- ropean war. As a neutral nation, we had a right tion of the gentleman from New York (Mr. GER- to prosecule this trade, however deeply it might MAN.) The charge must be the resuli of igno- affect the interest of either of the belligerent narance or prejudice. Mr. C. said he would not tions, That the extensive prosecution of this follow the example of that gentleman by saying, trade deeply affected the interest of Great Britain "perhaps this prejudice might be an honest pre- cannot be denied. It impoverished her West Injudice." No, he would not insuli the feelings of dia planters, and cherished and promoted the prosthat gentleman; he would not question his vera- perity of those of France and Spain, with whom city or integrity by stating hypothetically," that she was at war. The merchants of the United perhaps his opinions were honest.” Whilst he States, under our system of drawbacks, were enrepelled this unfounded charge in the manner abled to undersell the British merchants in foreign which its nature imperiously demandeủ, he had markets. The productions of the French and no hesitation in admitting that the opinions of Spanish West Indies, through our agency, found that gentlemen, whether the result of prejudice a profitable market, to the almost total exclusion or of ignorance, were strictly honest. Mr. C. of those of Great Britain. · It appears by a report said there was no man in the nation more friendly made to the British House of Commons several to that commerce which he had described than years ago, that the best managed estate in Jahe was, and that no part of the nation cherished maica did not yield more than seven per cent., it with more ardor than that which he in part and that the average produce of estates in that had the honor to represent on this floor. But, sir, island did not exceed three-and-a-half per cent. there is a commerce which has been prosecuted The committee which made this report to the to a very great extent by the commercial capital. Hậuse of Commons, ascribe the unproductiveists of the United States, for the prosperity of ness of the West Iodia estates to the commerce which the agricultural part of the nation do not which the American merchants carried on in the feel the same solicitude.

productions of their enemies' colonies, to the total In the year 1807, the United States exported exclusion of the productions of the British West upwards of $59,000,000 of foreign productioos. India islands from the markets of the continent of This commerce has no connexion with or de Europe. Among the remedies proposed for that pendeuce upon the annual surplus productions of evil by the committee is, the exclusion of the ihe country, which is the only commerce that es- American merchants, not simply from this com. sentially promotes domestic industry and multi- merce, but from all commerce with their enemies plies the domestic comforts of the great mass of colonies, even for home consumption, Against ihe people. This commerce, which is the legiti- the decision made by their Courts of Admiralıy in mate offspring of war, and expires with the first 1805, which was intended to give the British merdawning of peace, is prosecuted principally by chants the exclusive right of vending West India our commercial cilies to the east and north of productions in the Continental markets, the Amethe Potomac. The landholders, the country peo-Trican merchants in the principal commercial cit

Increase of the Navy.'

MARCH, 1812. ies most solemnly protested, and presented me- ing trade, with the whole world, except to Great morials to Congress, in which they represented Britain and the few ports then open to lier vessels. the direful effects it was calculated to produce. These orders were the result of ihe pressure made They stated that their warehouses were full of upon her Councils by the merchants trading to West India productions, which must perish on the West Indies, and the inhabitants of those their hands unless the British Government could Islands; or they were the result of a mean and be induced to abandon this principle : they pro- sordid jealousy of the commercial prosperity of posed a special mission, and pledged themselves the United Siates. · If they were the result of to support any measure the Government should the first cause assigned, the contest now about to adopi for vindication of this right. so essential to be waged will be undertaken wholly on account their interest. A special mission was sent of the commercial part of the pation; because Shortly after this event the Berlin decree was the agriculturist, in whatever part of the United promulgated, and the British Ministry seized States he may reside, whether in the Eastern upon it as a pretext, not simply to enforce the and Middle or Southern and Western States, has no principle established in their Courts of Admi-interest in the colonial carrying trade. If the secralty, ihat neutrals should prosecute no trade in ond cause assigned should be the true one, we have war which they did not enjoy in peace; but that only to ascertain which of the States are princineutrals should pot trade with any port or place pally agricultural, and which are principally from which their vessels were excluded, unless comniercial, to determine upon whose account they should first enter a British port and pay tri- the intended war is to be prosecuted. The conbute, under the denomination of transit duties. test then which we are about to commence, as Thus, by contending for the right of trade in the already stated, is the result of the colonial carry, productions of the belligerent colonies; by insisting trade, or it is the result of the commercial ing to be the carriers of France and Spain and jealousy of Great Britain; it is, therefore, a contheir colonies, when they were unable to carry liest rendered necessary by the injustice of Great for ihemselves, we have jeopardized the general Britain, to which injustice she has been excited commerce of the nation-we have sacrificed that by the pursuits and interests of the commercial commerce which is essential to the internal cities in the Middle and Eastern States, and not growth and improvement of the country, and to by those of the Southern and Western States. the comfort and happiness of the people. And yet, If this contest is now given up-dishonorably sir, we are told that we have done nothing for abandoned--the disgrace of that abandonment, commerce; that we have ruined commerce ; nay, and the total exclusion from the colonial carry sir, we are upbraided by the gentleman from New ing trade consequent thereon, must rest upon the York, (Mr. German,) with having intended to Eastern gentlemen. Let them consider of it; let ruin it, and that the people of the Southern and them abandon it at their peril. Once abandoned Western States are radically hostile to the pros- by those exclusively interested in it, we shall perity of commerce. If, sir, we would take the not again be lightly induced to jeopardize the trouble of examining this subject rationally, the direct commerce of the nation, by engaging in a charge of hostility to commerce would never be contest where we have everything io lose, and reiterated against the Southern and Western nothing to gain-a contest to which, under such States. There is no possible point of collision circumstances, we shall be impelled neither by between those States and Great Britain. What interest or honor, and in the prosecution of which is the summit of our wishes in relation to com- we shall have just reason to apprehend the demerce? A good market for the surplus produc- fection of those for whose benefit it would be tions of our labor. What nation furnishes us undertaken. with the most extentive and suitable market for The honorable gentleman from Massachusetts this surplus ? ' Great Britain. From whom do (Mr. LLOYD) has presented for the consideration we receive the supply of articles which habit has of the Senate, a comparative statement of the made necessary to our comfort? From Great land and naval force necessary for the prosecuBritain. The benefits resulting from the inter- tion of a war with Great Britain. The statecourse between the United States, and especially ments and arguments of that gentleman are enthe Southern and Western States, and ihat na titled to great weight, but there is just reason to tion, when conducted upon just and liberal prin- doubt the correctness of his calculations in the ciples, are strictly reciprocal.

present case. He has supposed that the regular Where is the point of collision between the force and volunteers, making together eighty-five Southern and Western States and Great Britain ? thousand, will cost the nation annually $45,000,None. That point is to be found alone in the 000. It is believed that this estimaie must be Eastern and Middle States. The principle that incorrect, because the estimate for ten thousand neutrals should enjoy no trade in war not per- men for the present year is less than $3,000,000. mitted in peace, did not affect the Southern and Admitting, then, thai eighty-five thousand men Western States; it almost exclusively affected will be kept in service the whole year, the exthe commercial cities to the north and east of pense, according to this estimate, will not exceed the Potomac. The principle gave way to, or $26,000,000 ; and there is strong reason to conrather was merged in the Orders in Council of fide in their accuracy, because it is believed the November, 1807, which alike destroyed the direct estimates of this department have never been commerce of the country, and the colonial carry. I deficient. But it is not expected, or believed,

MARCH, 1812.

Increase of the Naty.


that any large proportion of the volunteers will will have the aggregate sum of $86,580,000, inbe called into service at any one time, or remain stead of the sum of $39,852,000 as estimated by long in service when called upon. It is, there that gentleman. fore, not probable that the land service will cost But there is just reason to believe that the esthe nation more than $15,000,000, because the timates now presented are under, rather than over regular force, if kept in service the whole year, the truth. The estimates of that department have will not require an expenditure of more than frequently been deficient, and extraordinary ap$11,000,000, and it is believed that the volunteers propriations have several times been made io and militia who may be called into service will supply those deficiencies. The allowance for renot cost the nation more than $4,000,000. The pairs, it is believed, will be found to be wholly calculations of the honorable gentleman from insufficient in time of peace, and much more so Massachusetts (Mr. LLOYD,) relative to the Navy, in war. In December, 1809, the head of that are liable to objections of a different nature. He department stated that the vessels then in service estimates the present naval force of the United had been so thoroughly repaired, that in the States as equal to-ten stout frigates, and the ex- opinion of practical men they were greatly supe pense of building twenty frigates of thirty-six rior to what they were when first launched, and guns at $3.420.000. The annual expense of that in consequence thereof, $150,000 would be thirty frigates he estimates at $3,060,000. The sufficient to keep them in repair for one year. estimates of the War Departmeni are not relied At the end of ihe year, however, it appeared upon by the honorable gentleman, notwithstand- $410,000 had been expended in repairs, notwithjog the history of that department entitles them standing their great superiority to new vessels. to the fullest credit, while the estimates of the Mr. President: The estimates which have been Navy Department are implicitly received by taken as the basis of my calculation, can be demhim, notwithstanding the history of that depart-onstrated to be less than what they must be in ment, from its organization to the present day, time of war. In the year 1809, $175,000 were proves conclusively that they cannot be safely transferred from the article of provisions to those relied on. That ihe estimates of that depari- of repairs, freight, and other contingent expenses, ment, upon which the honorable gentleman has when the whole amount of the appropriations founded his calculations, are not entitled to im- for provisions was only $567,000. In the year plicit faith, can be clearly demonstrated. The 1810, $150,000 were transferred from provisions vessels in service in the year 1808 carried one to repairs, when the whole sum appropriated for hundred and sixty-two guns, and cost the nation ihat object was $353,610, and $110,000 were $1,056,872, which is at the rate of $6,520 per transferred froni the pay to the repair of vessels gun. At this rate of expense, thirty frigates of also, when the appropriation for that object was thirty-six guos would cost the nation annually $718,115. These facts prove beyond the possi: $7,041,880. In 1809, we had three hundred and bility of doubt, that the number of men authorfifty-four guns in service, which cost $2,816,129, ized to be employed were neither fed or paid, which is $7,736 per gun. At this rate of expense and consequently were not employed. But in the thirty frigates would apnually cost $8,354,- time of war, the full complement of men must 880. In 1812, the estimates are for three hun be employed, and the article of repairs, which in dred and fifty-six guns, and the expense is esti. time of peace has so greatly exceeded the esti. mated at $2,504,669, which is $7,035 per guo. mates, must in time of war, if they perform any At this rate of expense the thirty frigates would service, be'swelled to an amount vastly beyond cost andyally $7,597,800. The estimates of these that estimated by the honorable gentleman from years have been resorted to because they were Massachusetts, (Mr. L.) The expense of a navy ihe only estimates which were at' my lodgings of thirty frigates, according to the actual expense The average annual expense of a gun during of that department already incurred, cannot be these three years has been $7,130, and the annual safely estimated at less than $10,000,000 annually. expense of the thirty frigates would accordingly, The honorable gentleman thinks that a naval be $7,700,400, instead of $3,060,000, as estimated force of thirty frigates employed in the destrucby the honorable gentleman from Massachusetts, tion of the enemy's commerce would make her (Mr. LLOYD.) That gentlem in estimates the calculate-would bring her to terms. Mr. C. annual cost of repairs at 12 per cent., and the said if he could believe this he most certainly whole expense of thirty frigates for ten years, in- would vote for the proposition; but believing cluding the original cost of building twenty new that every seaman employed in the public vesones, at $39,852,000. The thirty frigates, accord-sels would be a diminution of that force by ing to the average expense of three years of peace, which the enemy was to be most vitally asaciually incurred. will' cost the nation in ten sailed, he was constrained to vote against it. The years $77,004,000, to which add the cost of the honorable gentleman from Kentucky has said, if iwenty* new frigates, and twelve per cent. annu- thirty frigates can bring Great Britain to terms, ally on that sum, and on the cost of those now in why' has not the Emperor of France brought her service estimated ait balf that amount, and you to terms, as he is able to send out one hundred

of such frigates. If the gentleman from Massa• $3,420,000. † $1,710,000, making $5,130,000, twelve per cent. the means, and no man doubts that he cherishes

chusetts (Nr. L:) is right, Bonaparte possesses for ten years is $6,156,000, making together $9,576,- | the disposition, to annoy his enemy so as to bring 000, and added to $77,004,000 is $86,580,000.


Increase of the Navy.

MARCH, 1812.


her to terms. But he has failed in all of his at. States, which made it extremely hazardous for tempts, and would do doubt fail were he to make our privateers to approach our own coasts, or this,

enter our own harbors. It is expected that our The use proposed to be made of these frigates, situation will be very different in the event of if built, certainly meets my approbation. The war at this time. Instead of possessing the prinidea of protecting our commerce by a naval cipal ports of the United States we expect to exforce, which has been pressed with so much ve- pel them from the whole of their continental hemence by some of our pavy gentlemen, is possessions in our neighborhood. If this should worse than' visionary. A navy can injure com- be the result of the war, their means of annoymerce, but cannot afford it protection, unless it ing our commerce, and of destroying our privaannihilates the naval force of the adverse nation. teers, will be greatly diminished, and their power Unless, therefore, we have the means of creating of protecting their commerce from the depredaand supporting a naval force able to contend suc- tions of our privateers will suffer an equal dimicessfully with the British navy for the empire of Dution. the seas, we must abandon all'idea of protecting Mr. C. said that his friend from Kentucky, in our commerce against that nation. Great Britain, the discussion of this question, had taken a view with her thousand ships of war, is unable to pro of the taxes which were intended to be im posed in tect her commerce even in sight of her own the event of war. Every measure of additional coasts. According to my understanding of the expense at the present time involves, at least in views of the honorable gentlemen, these thirty contemplation, the idea of additional iaxes; but frigates are to be employed in destroying the he should have been glad if this incidental view commerce of the enemy, and not in fighting her of that subject had been omitted by his honorable public armed vessels. They are in fact to be friend, who, 'notwithstanding his objections, innational privateers. In this point of view, the tends to vote for such of those taxes as the exiproposition to cashier the officer who should gencies of the nation shall require. Some of his strike the American flag seems to be at war with observations appeared calculated to make an unthe nature of their employment. They are to. favorable impression upon the public mind, against direct their efforts to the destruction of merchant internal taxation; although he was convinced vessels, and to avoid collision with the ships of that the honorable gentleman did not intend

It is to be apprehended that men, whose them to have that effect. If we engage in war, dury it is to avoid serious conflicts with the these taxes will be necessary, and it will be a enemy, will grow timid from habit, and will re- subject of deep regret if they should be rendered sist but feebly when inevitably forced into them. more objectionable by the observations of those The character of the naval officers of the United who feel the necessity of imposing them. The States makes a regulation of this kind wholly direct and internal iaxes imposed during Mr. unnecessary. Their enterprise, their courage, Adams's administration were certainly un popular. and intrepidity, are too well established to re- But, Mr. C. said, he had always understood that quire a regulation of such severity. As then the they were so, because they were believed to be gentleman does not intend to dispute the sover- unnecessary, and because they were imposed in eignty even of our own seas with our expected the most objectionable form." The measures of enemy with this naval force, but intends io em- expense adopted by that Administration made ploy it in the destruction of merchant vessels, an those taxes necessary; but it was believed that increase of that force appears to me to be wholly the expensive measures then adopted were not unnecessary, and impolitic. Individual enterprise, required by the actual state of affairs. The nadirected by individual interest, will more effectu- tion disapproved of the object, for the attainment ally destroy the commerce of the enemy, than of which those expensive measures were adopted, any number of frigates in the power of this and coosequently were opposed to the additional Government to build and employ. The Balti- taxes which were imposed at that time. more Federal Republican states that a French If war is now thought to be necessary by the privateer in the Atlantic ocean bas captured nation, we ought not to doubt for a moment that about thirty merchant vessels, and that the im- the people will willingly furnish the means nepression made by this single privateer was so cessary for its vigorous and successful prosecuserious that thirteen vessels, several of which tion. 'If there is not a sufficiency of good sense were frigates, were employed in cruising for her. and patriotism in the nation to submit io the imThe truth of this staiement may be relied on, positions necessary for the successful execution because that paper is not in the habit of exagger- of those measures which have been adopted pur. ating French successes, or of aggravating British suant to their wishes, and for the protection of sufferings. But it is said, that although our pri- their rights, then indeed our rights and liberty vateers were successful at the commencement of are but empty names—the idea of our free and the Revolutionary War, before the conclusion of happy Government, an idle phantom! Whenever that contest they were entirely destroyed. Ad- the fact shall be demonstrated, the preservation mitting the fact to be true, it does not necessarily of our Constitution, and the integrity of the follow that such will be the result of the war Union, will not be worth a struggle. But, until now in contemplation. After the first years of it is demonstrated, its possibility ought not to be that contest, the British forces were in possession admitted, and will not be admitted by the Naof the principal ports and harbors of the United tional Legislature.

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