« ZurückWeiter »
Additional Military Force.
in hostile inflexibility. How did France'act upon scene of country with himself. It was imperious-
Mr. G. said, that whilst upon this most un- tion of peace, he were called on to decide merely
encies of opposing such a force, would not be comWe had, however, experienced the effects of a pensated for by her hostile aggressions, she would debt, of above $80,000,000, now reduced to perhaps probably abandon them. If she thought that by $40,000,000, yet this difference of theamount of debt the chances of war an obedient and friendly colhad never been felt by society. It had produced ony might be converted into an enemy's counno sensible effect upon the common intercourse try, it would afford a great inducement to her to amongst men in their pecuniary affairs. He asked avoid the war. If she found a hostile population every gentleman to reflect and recollect, whether, approaching Halifax, the inducement would be in his pecuniary arrangements, he ever took into increased; for that is the point nearest her heart; his calculations the present, compared with the and she would risk much in its protection. It is former state of the public debt? For his part, he important to lier, as a protection to her West Insaid, he should never have known of the reduc- dies, &c. Besides, the war would deprive her of tion of the debt, but for the annual Treasury Re- her best commercial customer, &c., &c. These port. The reason why a debt of eighty millions and similar considerations might induce her to of dollars is not felt in the United States, is, that prefer peace. Without presenting a competent the amount is so entirely within their ability. military force, perfectly prepared and placed in Now, sir, is it not infinitely better to restore the a situation for action, none of these inducements debt to its former amount, or more, when we for the preservation of peace will be presented to know from experience how little influence it has the British Cabinet. But if, disregarding these on society, and that influence will necessarily be considerations, she should prefer war, no gentlediminished in proportion to our increase in wealth man can seriously conclude that even thirty thouand population, than to surrender the smallest at- sand additional troops can be too many.
for the tribute of the national sovereignty?
purposes of war. Mr. G. said, before he concluded, he begged
Note-Observe the chronological statement of the permission 10 observe, that particular individuals supposed they had an interest in imputing to him following facts, and mark the obvious course of cause
and effect. a wish to involve this pation in a war with Great Britain, and had accordingly reproached him with
HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES- -Dec. 13, 1808. the most unworthy epithets. He said, no gepile- The question was taken on agreeing to the followman present wished for peace, or deprecated war ing resolution, to wit : with Great Britain, more than himself. He said; “ Resolved, That the United States cannot without a he hoped he was not bliod to his own interests: sacrifice of their rights, honor and independence, subpor the interests of those inhabiting the samel, mit to the late edicts of Great Britain and France."
Additional Military Force.
And resolved in the affirmative-yeas 118, nayš 2, Smith of Maryland, Smith of New York, Smith of Tenas follows:
nessee, Thruston, and Tiffin-21. YBas-Messrs. Alexander, W. Alston, L. Alston, Ba. Nays-Messrs. Bayard, Crawford, Gilman, Goodcon, Bard, Barker, Bassett, Blackledge, Blake, Blouni, rich, Hillhouse, Lloyd, Parker, Pickering, Reed, SumBoyd, Boyle, Brown, Burwell, Butler, Calhoun, G. W. ter, Turner, and White-12. Campbell, Champion, Chittenden, Clay, Clopton, Cul.
House of REPRESENTATIVES— - Feb. 24, 1809. peper, Cutts, Davenport, Dawson, Deane, Desha, Durell, Elliot, Ely, Findley, Fisk, Franklin, Gardner, Garnett,
On the question, that the House do concur with the Gholson, Goodwyn, Gray, Green, Harris, Heister, Committee of the Whole in striking out of the eleventh Helms, Holland, Holmes, Howard, Humphreys, Ilsley, section of the above-mentioned bill the following J. G. Jackson, R. S. Jackson, Jenkins, Johnson, Jones, words: "and to cause to be issued, under suitable pledges Kelly, Kenan, Key, Kirkpatrick, Lambert, Lewis, Lloyd, and precautions, letters of marque and reprisal against Love, Macon, Marion, Masters, McCreery, Milnor, D. the nation thereafter continuing in force its unlawful Montgomery, N. R. Moore, T. Moore, Jeremiah Mor: edicts against the commerce of the United States :"
It was resolved in the affirmative, as follows: Yeas John Morrow, Moseley, Mumford, Nelson, Newbold, Newton, Nicholas, Pitkin, Porter, Quincy, Ran
74, nays 33: dolph, Rea of Pennsylvania, Rhea .of Tennessee, J.
Yeas-Messrs. Alexander, W. Als Bacon, BarRichards, M. Richards, Russell, Say, Seaver, Shaw, ker, Bibb, Blackledge, Blake, Blount, Boyd, Butler, Sloan, Smelt, Smilie
, J. K. Smith, J. Smith, Southard, Champion, Cook, Culpeper, Dana, Durell, Elliot, Ely, Stanford, Stedman, Storer, Sturges, Taggart, Tallo Eppes, Findley, Franklin, Garnett, Gholson, Goodwyn, madge, Taylor, Thompson, Trigg, Troup, Upham, Van Harris, Helms, Humphreys, Ilsley, R.S. Jackson,
Jones, Allen, Van Horn, Van Rensselaer, Verplanck, Whar. Kelly, Kenan, Lambert, Lewis, Livermore, Lloyd, ton, Whitehill Wilbour, Williams, A. Wilson, N. Wil- Lyon, Macon, Marion, Masters, Milnor, John Morrow, son, and Winn.
Moseley, Mumford, Newbold, Pugh, Quincy, Randolph, Nays-Messrs. Gardenier and Hoge.
Riker, Rowan, Sloan, J. K. Smith, S. Smith, Southard, The report of the Committee on our Foreign Rela- Stanford, Stedman, Storer, Sturges, Swart, Taggart, tions, positively declared, that there were but three al: Tallmadge, Thompson, Upham, Van Allen, Van Cortternatives left to the United States by the belligerents: landt, Van Dyke, Van Rensselaer, Verplanck, Whiteembargo, submission, or war.
hill, Wilbour, Williams, and Wilson—74. Of course the resistance mentioned in the resolution, houn, Clay, Cutts,
Deane, Desha; Fisk, Green, Hol
Nays-Messrs. Bard, Bassett, Boyle, Brown, Calwas intended to be resistance by force--not by commercial restriction. Look forward at the infidelity land, Holmes, Johnson, Love, McCreery, John Montmanifested to the principle of this resolution ;* and re
gomery, Nicholas R. Moore, Thomas Moore, Newton, dect upon its disastrous consequences. Attempts are Nicholas, Porter, Rea of Pennsylvania, Rhea of TenDow industriously making to cast the public odium nessee, J. Richards, Matthias Richards, Say, Seaver, opon those, who could not be driven from this wise, Smilie, John Smith, Taylor, Wilson, and Winn-33. manly and pledged policy. Do they deserve it? Why
In SENATE-Feb. 28, 1809. are such attempts made ?
The Senate proceeded to consider the amendments IN SESATE-Feb. 20, 1809. “
of the House of Representatives to the bill, entitled
"An act to interdict the commereial intercourse beThe bill “to interdict the commercial intercourse between the United States and Great Britain and France, and their dependencies, and for other purposes.”
en the United States and Great Britain and France, and their dependencies, and for other purposes," was read the second time, and considered as in Committee eleventh section, as follows: Strike out the words,
On the question to agree to the amendment of the of the whole, and the President reported the bill to the "And to cause to be issued, under suitable pledges and House amended. On motion by Mr. Reed, to strike out of the 11th nation thereafter continuing in force its unlawful edicts
precautions, letters of marque and reprisal against the section, the following words: " And to cause to be is against the commerce of the United States :" sued, under suitable pledges and precautions, letters It was determined in the affirmative-yeas 17, nays of marque and reprisal against the nation thereafter 11, as follows: continuing in force its unlawful edicts against the
Yeas-Messrs. Anderson, Bayard, Bradley, Condit, commerce of the United States :" It was determined in the negative-yeas 11, nays Meigs, Mitchill, Parker, Pope, Reed, Sumter, Tiffin,
Franklin, Gregg, Howland, Kitchell, Mathewson, 14, as follows:
and White. YEAS-Messrs. Condit, Franklin, Gilman, Goodrich, Hillhouse, Lloyd, Mathewson, Parker, Pickering, Hillhouse, Leib, Lloyd, Milledge, Moore, Pickering,
Nars—Messrs. Gaillard, Giles, Gilman, Goodrich, Reed, and Sumter-11. Nárs-Messrs. Anderson, Crawford, Gaillard, Giles, Tennessee, and Turner.
Smith of Maryland, Smith of New York, Smith of Gregg, Howland, Milledge, Moore, Robinson, Smith of Maryland, Smith of New York, Smith of Tennessee, January, 1809, and his arrangement proclaimed by the
Mr. Erskine's instructions were given on the 23d of and Turner-14.
President of the United States on the 19th of April, February 22.
1809. This arrangement was disavowed by the BritYeas and Nays on the passage of the bill to inter. ish Government on the 24th of May, 1809. dict the commercial intercourse between the United
The French Rambouillet decree took place on the States and Great Britain and France, and their de
230 March, 1810. pendencies, and for other purposes :
When Mr. Giles had concluded, Mr. ANDERYEAS—Messrs. Anderson, Condit, Franklin, Gail- son rose and addressed the Senate as follows: lard, Giles, Gregg, Howland, Kitchell, Leib, Mathew Mr. ANDERSON said, he was not a little surprised son, Meigs, Milledge, Mitchill, Moore, Pope, Robinson, I to hear the gentleman from Virginia (Mr. Giles)
Additional Military Force.
say, that he was unprepared to oppose a very un- as soon as an opportunity presented, would most expected motion, when he, Mr. A., had two days certainly be thrown into that country. Mr. A. before, whilst the bill was under consideration, said, upon a fair view of the whole subject, as it suggested his intention, in his place, to make the presented itself to him, he was decidedly of opinmotion he had now made; upon which the honor-ion that the number of regular troops to be raised able member expressed a wish to postpone the con- by that bill ought not to exceed 16,000; and he sideration of the question, and immediately moved had no hesitation in saying, that in his opinion, the postponement of the bill, which was not op- as efficient a force would be raised under such a posed, and of course prevailed. Mr. A. said, that provision within the time limited for taking the ihe motion was not, therefore, made without due field, as would be raised were the present numnotice, and, he would add, without due consider ber in the bill retained and in the former case, ation.' He had consulted with a number of the we should prove to our enemies, that we were members of this honorable body, for whose judg- able to raise such a number of regular troops as ment and opinions he had great respect, and wiih might be wanted upon a sudden emergency; but whose approbation, and he might indeed add, at in the latter, we should not be able to make the whose instance, the motion had been made, He same exhibit. What then would be the consewas, however, himself ready and willing to meet quence ? You would give a most mortifying all the responsibility that might attach to it; not proof that your means were not commensurate withstanding the surprise of the honorable mem- to your ends; that your plan had been badly diber as to the quarter from which it had come. gested, and worse executed. And surely the
Mr. A. said, he should not pretend to reply to gentlemen can have no desire to present such all the various observations the gentleman had a state of things, at the very moment when all thought proper to make, very many of which he the energies of the nation seem to be required. considered altogether irrelevant to the question Mr. A. said, to avoid this extraordinary exhibit under consideration, but which might, perhaps, was also one of his objects; and this, in his answer some other purpose, which the honorable opinion, could be done by taking the course be member might have in view.
had.contenplated ; reduce the number of reguMr. A. said, he was as strongly impressed with lars, and supply the deficiency by volunteers. the necessity of a sufficient force, for the inva. This, he firmly believed, was in our power, sion of Canada, as the gentleman from Virginia Combine the two corps ; take nearly an equal could possibly be, and not a single expression had number of each ; and the object intended could escaped him to induce a belief ibat he should be be effected. Mr. A. said, he was convinced unwilling to vote a proper and ample force for that it was the mode the President had contemthat service; but he differed greatly with the plated, and he entirely approved it; and if the gentleman as to the kind of force we ought im- honorable member had attended to another part of mediately to employ. The honorable-member the President's Message where it speaks of volunappeared to place his sole dependence upon the teers, he must himself have been convinced, that regular troops; and yet, if he understood his ar- the President did not mean' to make the descent gument, he was decidedly in favor of making a upon Canada with the 10,000 regulars only; which descent upon Canada early in the Spring. As had been understood, as the gentleman had stated, to the time, Mr. A. agreed with him ; but as to to be the auxiliary force referred to in the Mes. the means, he certainly differed very greatly from sage. The object of the President cannot be bethim. The number of regulars contemplated by ter explained than by referring to the Message the gentleman could not possibly be raised within itself.' He says—"I recommend, accordingly, the time; he was therefore of opinion, that a less that adequate provision be made for filling the number ought to be inserted in the bill. It should ranks and prolonging the enlistments of the regube recollected that we had very recently author- lar troops;
for an auxiliary force, to be engaged for ized the regiments on the Peace Establishment to a more limited time; for the acceptance of volbe filled; they would require at least 6,000 mens' unteer corps, whose patriotic ardor may courla add thereto 25,000 more, the number proposed by participation in urgent services.” The manner the honorable member, and he would ask him in which the President'speaks of the volunteers, to answer candidly, whether he really believed can leave no doubt upon the mind of any one as that so great a number of regular troops could be to the service in which they were to be emenlisted within the time required for the service ployed-they are evidently intended to be united to be performed. Mr. A. said, impressed, as he with the regular troops, to perform urgent serwas, with a firm belief that not more than half vices, according to the express language of the the number proposed by the honorable member Message. Mr. A. would ask the honorable memcould be enlisted within the time they must take ber, what was the urgent service meant by the the field in order to act efficiently against Cana. President ? Most certainly, a descent upon Canda, he could not see the propriety of retaining the ada, in which the regulars and volunteers were whole number contemplated by the bill. Mr. A. equally to participate. Why then, the honorsaid, it must be well known to every gentleman, able member had taken so much pains to prove that the invasion of Canada musi necessarily that the 10,000 regulars were the only military take place before the breaking up of the ice in force with which the President had intended to the river St. Lawrence ; otherwise, twice 25,000 perform the urgent service referred to in his would be required-because large reinforcements, Message, Mr. A. was at a loss to comprehend;
Additional Military Force.
for be understood the Message and the object of under all circumstances, adventure to predict, that it very differently; and he should have expected the scheme of now raising twenty-five thousand that the candor of the honorable member would regular troops, to perform the arduous service have induced him to have given the Message'a contemplated in the President's Message, would fair interpretation. That he had not done so, entirely fail, and that the course pointed out by must be supposed to proceed from this recent but the President must at last be adopted ; that is, to very strong attachment to a regular military force. unite volunteers with regular troops. However anti-republican this doctrinę had form Mr. A. 'said he trusted that the honorable memerly been, it seemed now to be viewed through a ber and himself had in view the same object, but different medium by the honorable member from differed as to the means of carrying it into effect. Virginia. Mr. A. said, that having, as he thought, the means proposed by the honorable member proved, by a fair interpretation of the President's were regular troops only. If then the bill should Message, that he intended to unite the volunteers pass to raise 25,000, entire dependence would, (that might be thought requisite) with the regu- in all probability, be placed upon the regular lar troops, to perform the urgent services of which troops, ordered to be raised ; the consequence, as be speaks, he would endeavor to present a fair he had before said, would be, that the whole oband impartial view or the course recommended ject must fail. He was, therefore, for taking the by the President, and compare it with the course regular troops that could be raised in time, and which had been taken and so strenuously sup- supplying the additional pumber of men, which ported by the honorable member from Virginia. migh i be wanted, by volunteers-fifteen or twenty The President had recommended the raising of thousand of whom could, he had no doubt, be volunteers; and it was incidentally made knowo, brought into the field, before ten thousand of the that the auxiliary force spoken of, was 10,000 regular troops, contemplated by the bill, could be regular troops. If the provision had been in- enlisted. By this mode (notwithstanding so much mediately made by the law for raising 10,000 reg- time had been lost) an efficient army might be ular troops, and also for raising volunteers, those yet provided in time to carry into effect the obtroops now would be in a state of preparation ;jects of the Government, which, Mr. A. said, he a considerable number of the regular iroops would did not believe could or would be done, if depenere pow have been enlisted, and the chance of dence were placed upon the regular troops. Notgetting the whole number greatly increased. If withstanding the little confidence which the hontime had been afforded, as it ought to have been, orable member seems disposed to place in the volthe laws passed within two or three weeks after unteers, Mr. A. said, he had no hesitation in givCongress met, which might have been done, a suf-ing it, as his most decided opinion, that at least ficient regular force would, in all probability, have as much dependence might be placed upon the been in a state of readiness in all the month of volunteers, as upon the newly raised regular April; and the number of volunteers which troops. The volunteers would have the same might have been required to make up the neces-chance of discipline that the new regulars would sary force, would no doubt long since have offered have. A sufficient number of those who offered their services, and the whole have been in a state their services might be called into the field, as of preparation to take the field in time to have early as the season would admit, and placed unperformed the arduous service contemplated by der strict discipline : to which for their own honthe President. But, instead of that course having or they would readily submit-pay, require, if been pursued, what has been done? Your first left to their own choice; for the first object they military bill, reported only a few days ago, is would have in view would be to acquire military Dow under consideration; the session now 'al- 'skill; and they would not only be very soon premost balf expired; and, at this late period, the pared to perform field duty, but might entirely be honorable member, to whom, as chairman of the depended upon for any other service. Witness committee, &c., the whole management of the the prowess of the volunteers at the battle of the military business was referred, iosists upon rais- Wabash, and these had not been disciplined at ing 25,000 regular troops, whose duty it shall be all. Mr. A. said, he expected the honorable memto make a descent upon Canada, in all the month ber would admit, that the materials of which the of May. Cao the gentleman be serious ? Does volunteers would be composed, would be at least he believe it practicable? If he does, Mr. A. equal to those of which the regular troops would said, he should be obliged to believe, that the be formed ; and the officers of the volunteer corps honorable member was in earnest some days ago, being appointed by the President, would, he had when he assured the Senate that he knew very no doubt, faithfully perform their duty. Those, lityle of military affairs. Mr. A. said, from the said Mr. A., are completely in our power; and he proofs we have repeatedly bad, of the difficulty considered it our best policy, as well as our duty, of obtaining men by enlistment for so long a time to bring ihem into action. "Mr. A. said in addias five years, and the want in our country of those tion to the efficiency of the means which be prokinds of materials of which regular troops are posed to bring into the field, it would have made, he did not believe that one-half the num. one very considerable advantage over the regular ber proposed to be raised by the bill could be en. army of the honorable member. It would be more listed within the time required. Mr. A. said, al- conformable to the true principles of the Constithough he was not as much in the habit of 'tution, and would consequently be more acceptaprophesying as the honorable member, he would, ble to the nation. The confidence with which he
DECEMBER, 1811. had spoken of volunteers, was not founded upon firmness as the regular troops. Many of them visionary theory, but practical experience; he had were killed and wounded. Among the number, often, in the Revolution, had opportunity to wit- were said to be seven of one family connexion, ness iheir military ardor and persevering firmness; brothers, brothers-in-law, and cousins; several of on two occasions in particular, the one at Con- whom he had himself seen after ihe action. necticut Farms, the other al Springfield, in the Scenes like this
, Mr. President, (said Mr. A.,) of Spring of 1780. The enemy had advanced, in which he had been an eye-witness, and in which force about iwo thousand, to a place called Con- he claimed some participation, had given him that necticut Farms, about four miles from Elizabeth- confidence in volunteers, which he had evinced town, in New Jersey. The only troops that were to the Senate in the course of his observations, within striking distance to oppose ihis force, was and which, he said, should never cease but with the brigade of Jersey Regulars, containing then bis existence. They are, sir, the best military about a thousand men; many volunteers, hów- materials in your country—they are the flower of ever, flocked to their standard--the enemy were your forests ; they ought not to be thrown into met by this force--a barile ensued-the American the back.ground, the better to enable the bonorarmy had the advantage of the ground; but the able member from Virginia to present his reguright wing of the enemy extended so far, that if lars in front. not suddenly checked, it would have enabled them Mr. ANDERSON said, I have stated, Mr. Presito have flanked our left. It was necessary to pre- dent, perhaps with some warmth, the grounds vent it-services of this kind must be promptly upon which my confidence in volunteers has been rendered; four hundred regulars and two hundred founded ; and be it remembered, said Mr. A., that volunteers were ordered to execute it; no more they were militia volunteers. He said, he ought could be spared from the line. A good position to have stated, that the enemy they had encounalone could have justified the allempt, witb the tered, was composed of regulars and Hessiansdisparity of numbers. It was first made by man- the whole under the command of the Hessian cuvre, but it was soon found it could only be done General Knyphausen. Mr. A. said the volunteers with the bayonet. A determined charge was he now proposed raisiog he would have engaged made, and it was successful; the enemy were re- for nine or iwelve months, from the time of their pulsed; the volunteers were upon the left; not a reaching the place of general rendezvous. They man broke his ranks. Some brave fellows fell, should be engaged by officers to be appointed by but their places were immediately filled ; all be the President, under such regulations (of course) haved with the firmness of veterans. The next day, as might be provided by law; but which could those troops had the thanks of General Wasi- not now be well detailed. INGTON in general orders. The volunteers had Mr. A. said, he should now offer some observaonly joined the regulars a few days before the actions upon the number of troops that ought to be tion. In about two weeks after, the enemy ad. employed. He said that the invasion of Canada vanced in greater force--about five thousand—the 'was not now contemplated for the first time it troops who had been in the former acţion had had often been a subject of conversation, whenkept their position where the battle had been ever there had been any prospect of a war with, fought; it was advantageous for an inferior force; England. It has been considered as the most conit was a defile, covered for some distance on the venient means upon which we could make repri. right by a morass ; on the left it was not well pro- sal, and thereby obtain some small reparation for tected.' Against this position, the enemy again the many losses and injuries, which have been advanced; and, by their increased numbers, they sustained from the depredations committed upon were enabled to extend their right wing so far as the honor and interests of the nation. Mr. A. completely to turn our left. We were obliged to said, that upon different occasions, he had always retreat; but not without having kept the enemy given it as his opinion, that a descent upon Canaa considerable time in check. You know, Mr. da ought never to be attempted with a force of President, there is no situation so trying lo the less than twenty-five thousand men; that such a bravery and firmness of troops, as a retreat (for force would make an awful impression—and even you, sir, I believe, had to retreat sometimes.) would, in all probability, save many valuable The volunteers, upon this occasion, behaved like lives; as no opposing force, in the usual state of themselves; a sullen, indignant step, marked the country, would be able to meet it in the field. their movements; and from the mouths of their Mr. A. said, he repeated, that no expression had guns they spoke to the enemy the language of de escaped him, either in public debate or in private fiance; the enemy did not advance one mile, be conversation, to justify the insinuations made by, fore a fortunate position, supported by determined the gentleman, that he was unwilling to vote a bravery, enabled the united force of the regulars sufficient force for the invasion of Canada. On and volunteers to arrest their progress for the re- the contrary, he believed that no man who had mainder of the day. This day's action began with seen active military service, and who had any the dawn of the morning, and continued until the knowledge of the situation and state of that counsetting of the sun, when the enemy fell back to try, would say that it would be prudent or safe, take a secure position against the expected at to make a descent upon Canada, with a force of tacks of the night. During the whole of this less than twenty-five thousand' men; peculiar day's action, the volunteers kept the stations as circumstances might, however, render it necessasigned them, which they sustained with as much I ry, to attempt with a smaller number, and depend