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1808 and 1809, and have been occasioned by two it appears, from the official returns of his emoluments causes : :

and expenditures, that his net emoluments for that Ist. The generally depressed state of commerce, dur and the two succeeding years have amounted to but ing those years, which so materially affected the gene

$1,180 57, being an average annual compensation for ral revenue of the country, and, consequently, the

those years of but $393 52; and, so far as can be as. emoluments of the officers employed in its collection,

certained from a comparative view of the official rein different degrees.

turns, it appears that the expenditures of that office 2d. The payment over, by some of the present in have, during that period, been kept within as reasoncumbents of those particular offices, to the legal repre

able limits as circumstances would justify. sentatives of their deceased predecessors, of a moiety of

Under this view of the several cases referred to them, the commissions arising from duties bonded by such the committee recommend to the House the follow. predecessors, but actually received by such incumbents, ing resolutions : pursuant to the 4th section of the act to establish the 1st. That the prayer of the several petitions of the compensations for those officers, passed March 23, 1799. collectors of the ports of Philadelphia, Norfolk, and

On this view of the subject, the committee would Plymouth, (Massachusetts,) and of the naval officer of remark, that, so far as such diminution of compensation the port of Philadelphia, ought not to be granted. has been occasioned by the first mentioned cause, it 2d. That there be allowed to James H. McCulloch, must be expected by public officers, whosc emoluments collector of the port of Baltimore, the sum of $1,500, depend, in a great degree, upon the actual state of the as a remuneration for services in his said office, during general commerce of the country, that they should, in the years 1808, 1809, and 1810, for which his official some measure, share their part in the occasional varia- emoluments were an inadequate compensation.. tions which, at particular periods, may happen to that The committee beg leave further to report : That, commerce; and if, during some years, they are enabled in the course of the examinations which became neto receive an amount which is obviously something cessary in relation to the merits of the particular cases more than an average compensation for services equally under consideration, their attention has been drawn arduous, in the ordinary branches of private business, to the practical operation of those portions of the rev. it ought not to be complained of, if, in other years, I enue laws which were designed to limit, within reasonthey should receive somewhat less. Applying this able bounds, the net annual emoluments of the officers principle to the case of the particular officers under of the customs, in some of the principal ports of the consideration, the committee are convinced that, upon Union. an average of three years, from 1808 to 1810, both in- By the third section of the act of Congress, passed clusive, those officers (with the exception of the collec. on the 20th day of April, 1802, it is provided “ that, tor of Baltimore) have been enabled to receive an an- / whenever the annual emoluments of any collector of nual compensation for their services, which, in reference the customs, after deducting therefrom the expendito the general rewards of skill and industry, during tures incident to his office, shall amount to more than that period, ought, under all the circumstances of their five thousand dollars, or those of a naval officer, after case, to be deemed a reasonable one. The net emal- a like deduction, to more than three thousand five hunuments of the collector of Philadelphia, (including the dred dollars, or those of a surveyor, after a like deduchalf commissions paid to his predecessor) during that tion, to more than three thousand dollars, the surplus period, amounting to the average sum of $2,537 12, shall be accounted for, and paid by them, respectively, annually; those of the gaval officer of that port, to to, the Treasury of the United States." $2,625 89; those of the collector of Norfolk, to $921 82; The principal items composing the aggregate of "ex. and those of the collector of Plymouth, to $1,341 45.

penditures incident to these offices, consist of clerk That, so far as the net emoluments of some of those hire, stationery, office rent, and fuel; an account of officers have been affected by the second consideration which, those officers are now required by law to transabove stated, it ought not to form a ground for remun- mit, annually, to the Comptroller of the Treasury, to be eration by the Government, since it is a circumstance by him laid before Congress. So long as the whole incident to all other officers of the same description, net amount of emoluments received by them, respectupon the commencement of their official duties, and is, lively, does not exceed the maximum which they are in effect, but the advance of a sum out of their first authorized to retain for their own compensation, the year's emoluments, which they may calculate upon be- personal interest of the officer is undoubtedly a suffiing refunded to them, or their legal representatives, cient check against an unreasonable application of after the expiration of their official duties by death or their gross emoluments for clerk hire and other official resignation.

expenses. But, whenever the net amount comes to That some inequalities exist in the compensations exceed that maximum, it is evident that the expendinow allowed to the officers of the customs, is not im- tures for those objects are liable to misapplication and probable, and a general review of that subject may, at abuse. In the branch of clerk hire, particularly, the esà suitable time, be proper and expedient. But it is tablishment of an officer may be extended amongst his doubted whether the present unsettled state of our friends, connexions, and dependents, to a degree limcommerce and revenue will afford sufficient duta on ited only by the amount of which the whole net emolwhich any permanent regulations in this behalf ought uments of the office exceeded that to which the law to be founded.

| has limited the personal compensation of the officer. The case of the collector of Baltimore is the only one, The committee do not pretend to aver that any inamongst those referred to them, which, in the judg- stances of such actual misapplication or abuse have ment of the committee, is attended with such obvious been brought to their knowledge ; but it is deemed circumstances of hardship, and so striking inadequacy their duty to state those of which the system, under of compensation, as to justify extending to him specific present regulations, is susceptible, From the informaand temporary relief. The present collector came into tion received from the Truasury Department, it apoffice near the commencement of the year 1808; and pears that no legal or practical check against such

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abuses now exists in that Department. It may, percial expenditures of the collector of Baltimore, from haps, be difficult to provide any which shall be entirely the year 1805, inclusive, to the present period. . effectual. It has occurred to the committee, that some 2d. A similar statement in relation to the collectors of limitations upon the amount of clerk hire might prop. Philadelphia and Norfolk for the preceding quarters of erly be provided ; that it should be made the duty of the year 1811. . all custom-house officers to return to the Comptroller 30. A statement of the official expenditures of the of the Treasury a specification of the number, names, three officers aforesaid, from the year 1807, inclusive, and respective compensation, of all clerks employed by to the present period, noting distinctly, the nature of them; and giving to the accounting officers of the those expenditures, the number of clerks employed by Treasury Department a power of revising the accounts each, with their respective salaries and compensations. of office expenditures, and disallowing such parts there. 4th. Whether the official expenditures of the colof as should appear to thern unreasonable or improper. lectors (particularly that portion of them occasioned by That all the emoluments arising from any agency em clerk hire) may not, without inconvenience, be diminployment, or office, attached to, or dependent on, any ished in proportion to the corresponding diminution of principal office in the customs, should be included in the current official business and emoluments of the sev. their general annual return of emoluments and expenderal officers. , , itures—the returns heretofore made, as it is understood, 5th. Whether the necessary actual duties of said offinot being uniform in this respect, some of the officers cers have not, in a good measure, diminished in a cor. including those particular emoluments in their returns, responding proportion to the diminution of their net and others omitting them. In illustration of the nature emoluments. . . . . . and extent of these emoluments, it is to be observed 6th. What practical checks exist against the imthat all the collectors, in the ports where there are no proper expenditure of money for clerk hire and other 'surveyors, and the surveyors, in those ports where office expenditures, and what are the general rules there are such officers, hold a separate commission of adopted by the Treasury Departmentin relation thereto. inspector of the revenue for the port, in virtue of which 7ih. Şuch information, tending to elucidate the subthey are entitled to certain fees. One collector, in each jects referred to the committee, as you may think proper State, under the act of April 6th, 1802, (for repealing to communicate. the internal taxes) has been authorized to prepare cer I am, sir, with great respect, your obedient servant, tain certificates to accompany spirits, wines, and teas,

E. BACON. imported, for which they receive certain fees. Sundry

· Hon. A. GALLarix, . . collectors are agents for the marine hospital, and super

'i' Secretary of the Treasury. .. intendents of light-houses, for which they receive certain commissions on moneys expended by them. And whether it is within the intention of the law of the

TREASURY DeparTMENT, '. 30th of 'April, 1802, limiting the compensations of

December 2, 1811. these officers, that such incidental emoluments should

| Sir: I have the honor to enclose the statements of be included in that limitation, or not, it is equal

emoluments and official expenditures of certain collecly proper that their annual amount should be known, 1

tors, required by your letter of 19th ultimo, so far as ught within the review and controlling powers the same are known at the Treasury. of Congress.

I do not know the number and salaries of clerks em. : Although the amount received by the custom house ployed by the collectors. No other returns are required officers, for their share of fines, penalties, and forfeito

" from them by law, in that respect, than those which

from ures, does not form a part of their ordinary emolu. have

have been annually transmitted to Congress. The ments, so as to subject this portion of them to the lim.

| Treasury has no control over, or checks against, the em

Tre itation, yet they ought, as it is conceived, to include

ployment of a superfluous number of clerks by those them in their returns, and for this obvious reason, viz:

officers—the only check provided by law being the that the same causes which may have much dimin

amount of their gross emoluments, out of which they ished the regular einoluments of those officers, may,

must pay their clerks, office rent, fuel, stationery, &c. and probably have, greatly increased the casual ones

The expense of clerk hire may certainly be diminished arising from this source. Another reason for requiring

when there is a great dimination of business; but this such returns is that of uniformity-some of the offi.

may decrease more suddenly than it is practicable to cers now including, and others omitting them.

dismiss men in your employment. It is so much the Some regulations of this sort, designed to bring the interest of the collectors to reduce their expenses, when official expenditures of the officers of the customs more

more their profits are diminished, that it is probable that immediately under the review of the Legislature, and

they have all done it as far as they could ; but I can. the reasonable control of the Treasury Department,

not assert the fact of my own knowledge. I am of have suggested themselves to the committee, and have

opinion that, under the restrictive laws, the personal been incorporated into the bill, which, by order of the

and actual duties of the collectors have been increased, House, is herewith reported. "

notwithstanding the diminution of business in other

respects. That the three collectors, whose petitions ... COMMITTEE Room, November 19, 1811. you enclosed, have not, during the period of their servi

SIR: The Committee of Ways and Means, to whom ces, received a compensation adequate to those services, has been referred the several memorials of the collec- appears to me evident. How far justice and policy may tors of Norfolk, Philadelphia, and Baltimore, praying for require that an additional allowance shonld be made extra compensation for past services, and for an increase to them on that account, is not a question for me to of the commissions attached to their offices, for the fu- decide. I have the honor to be, &c. ture, and which are herewith enclosed, have directed

· ALBERT GALLATIN. me to request of you the following information, viz: | Hon. E. Bacon, Chairman

Ist. A statement of the gross emoluments and offic Committee of Ways and Means.

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Tuesday, December 31.

House resolved itself into a Committee of the Mr. Morrow, from the Committee on the Whole on the proposed bill. The bill was gone Public Lands, presented a bill giving further through, reported without amendment, read a time to the purchasers of public lands Northwest

I third iime, and passed. : of the river Ohio to complete their payments;

The House then resumed the consideration, in which was read twice, and committed lo a Com.

Committee of the whole, of the bill to raise an mittee of the Whole on Monday vext.'

additional military force; when, . On motion of Mr. KENT,

Mr. Clay (the Speaker) moved to amend the Resolved, That the President of the United | bill by the following proviso: States be requested to cause to be laid before « Provided, however, That officers for eight regithis House information whether tobacco, the ments only shall be appointed, until three-fourths of growth of the United States, is admitted into the privates of such eight regiments shall be enlisted, Holland, and, if admitted, whether the adminis. when the officers for the remaining five regiments shall, tration, en regie. on that article, as it exists in also, be appointed.” . France, extends to Holland and the Hanseatic Mr. CLAY observed that a difference of opinion Towns, and whether the tariff in Holland is the had arisen yesterday, whether the additional milsame as that in France.

itary force proposed to be raised ought to be fifteen Mr. KENT and Mr. ORMSBY were appointed a thousand, or twenty-five thousand men; not so committee to present the said resolution to the much, he believed, from a conviction that twentyPresident.

five thousand men would be too many, but from An engrossed bill for the revision of former a dislike to the appointment of officers for the confirmations, and for confirming certain claims

whole before they would he wanted, so as to have to land in the District of Kaskaskia, was read the an army of officers without the requisite num. third time, and passed. .

ber of men for them to command. This objec· An engrossed bill providing for the more con- lion would be obviat

lion would be obviated by the adoption of this venient taking of affidavits and bail in civil causes

amendment, for the officers for eight regiments depending in the courts of the United States, was

would not be more than would be required for read the third time, and passed.

fifteen thousand men, had the friends of that A message from the Sepate informed the House

number carried their point. And, as the whole that the Senate have passed a bill " extending the wenty-five thousand men could not be got at time of certain palen is granted to Robert Fulion: once, the expense of the officers, whose appointas also a bill for the establishmept of a Quarter

| ment was proposed to be deferred, would be

saved ; and ihe officers for eight regiments would concurrence of this House. ..

be fully sufficient for the recruiting service. He The SPEAKER laid before the House a letter| hoped, therefore, the amendment would be adoptfrom the Secretary of the Treasury, transmirting ed.-Agreed to... : the estimates of appropriation's for the year 1812;

| The CHAIRMAN was about to put the question which were read, and referred to the Committee on the Commillee's rising, when of Ways and Means.

Mr. Clay (the Speaker) said, that when the · Mr. POINDEXTER called for the consideration subject of this bill was before the House in the of the resolution which bad been laid upon the abstract form of a resolution, proposed by the table some days ago, calling upon the President Committee of Foreign Relations, it was the pleafor information whether any negotiation be now sure of the House to discuss it while he was in pending between the United Siates aod Spain, the Chair. He did not complain of this course of or any other Power, respecting the claim of the proceeding; for he did not at any time wish the United States to thai pari of the country of which I House, from considerations personal to him, lo depossession was taken by virtue of the President's part from that mode of transacting the public proclamation of October. 1810, &c., which was business which they thought best. He merely agreed to, and a committee appointed to wait up

adverted to the circumstance, as an apology for on the President therewith. .

the trouble he was about to give the Committee.

He was at all times disposed to take his share of '. ADDITIONAL MILITARY FORCE.

responsibility, and, under this impression, he felt The House resolved itself into a Committee of that he owed it to his constituents and to himself, the Wbole on the bill from the Senate to raise an before the Commillee rose, to submit to their aladditional military force; when,

| teption a few observations. Mr. D. R. Williams moved that the commit- He saw, with regret, diversity of opinion among tee rise, and have leave to sit again, in order to those who had the happiness generally to act 10take up the bill from the Senate, authorizing the gether, in relation to the quantum of force proPresident of the United States to raise certain posed to be raised. For his part, be thought it companies of rangers for the protection of the was 100 great for peace; and, he feared, too small frontiers of the United Siates; as, from informa- for war. He had been in favor of the number tion received, it was probable that this force would recommended by the Senate, and he would ask be immediately wapied, serious apprehensions be gentlemen who had preferred fifteen thousand, to ing entertained of renewed hostilities from the take a candid and dispassionate review of ihe Indian tribes on our frontier. .

subject. It was admitted, on all hands, that it was The Committee rose accordingly, and the a force to be raised for the purposes of war, and

ma

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to be kept up and used only in the event of war. itself into the question merely of a short or proIt was further conceded that its principal desti-tracted war, a war of vigor, or a war of languor Dation would be the provinces of our enemy. By and imbecility. If a competent force be raised, the bill, which had been passed, to complete the in the first instance, the war on the Contineni peace establishment, we had authorized the col will be speedily terminated. He was aware that lection of a force of about six thousand men, ex- it might still rage on the ocean. But, where the clusive of those now in service, which, with the vation could act with unquestionable success, he twenty-five thousand provided for by this bill, was in favor of the display of an energy correwill give an aggregate of new troops of thirty- spondent to the feelings and spirit of the country. one thousand men. Experience in military af. Suppose one-third of the force he had mentioned fairs has shown that, when any given number of (25,000 men) could reduce the country, say in men is authorized to be raised, you must in count three years, and that the whole could accomplish ing upon the effective men which it will produce the same object in one year, taking into view the deduct one-sourib or one-third for desertion, sick greater bazard of the revulsion and defeat of the Dess, apd other incidents, to which raw troops are small force, and every other consideration, do not peculiarly exposed. · lo measures relating to war, wisdom and true economy equally decide in favor it is wisest, if you err at all, to'err on the side of of the larger force, and thus prevent failure in the largest force, and you will consequently put consequence of inadequate means? He begged down your thirty-one thousand men at not more gentlemen to recollect the immense extent of the than an effective force in the field of about twen- United States; our vast maritime frontier, vulty-one thousand. This, with the four thousand perable in almost all its parts to predatory incurnow in service, will amount to twenty-five thou- sions, and he was persuaded they would see that sand effective men. The Secretary of War has a regular force of twenty-five thousand men was stated, in his report, that, for the single purpose of not inucb too great, during a period of war, if all manning your forts and garrisons on the sea board, design of invading the provinces of the enemy twelve thousand six hundred men are necessary. I were abandoned. . Although the whole of that number will not be Mr. C. proceeded next to examine the nature taken from the twenty-five thousand, a portion of of the force contemplated by the bill. It was a it probably will be. We are told that, in Canada, regular army, enlisted for a limited time, raised there are between seven and eight thousand reg. for the sole purpose of war, and to be disbanded ular troops. If it is invaded, the whole of that on the return of peace. Against this army all force will be concentrated in Quebec, and will our Republican jealousies and apprehensions are you attempt that almost impregoable fortress attempted to be excited. He was not the advowith less than double the force of the besieged ? cate of standing armies; but the standing armies Genilemen who calculate upon volunteers as a which excite most his fears are those which are substitute for regulars, ought not to deceive them. kept up in time of peace. He confessed he did selves. No man appreciated higher than he did not perceive any real source of danger in a milithe spirit of the country. But, although volun-tary force of twenty-five thousand men in the teers were admirably adapted to the first opera- | United States, provided for a state only of war, lions of the war, to the making of a first impres- even supposing it to be corrupted and its arms sion. be doubled their fitness for a regular siege, turned, by the ambition of its leaders, against the or for the manning and garrisoning of forts. He freedom of the country. He saw abundant seunderstood it was a rule, in military affairs, never curity against the success of any such creasonable. to leave in the rear a place of any strength unde. I attempt. The diffusion of political information fepded. Canada is in vaded; the upper part falls, among the great body of the people constituted and you proceed to Quebec. It is true, there a powerful safeguard. The American character would be no European enemy behind to be appre- has been much abused by Europeans, whose lourhended; but the people of the country might ists, whether on horse or foot, in verse and prose, rise ; and he warned gentlemen, who imagined have united in depreciating it. It is true that we that the affections of the Canadians were with do not exhibit as many signal instances of scienus, against trusting 100 confidenily on a calcula- tific acquirement in this country as are furnished tion, the basis of which was treason. He con- in the Old World ; but he believed it undeniable cluded, therefore, that a portion of the invading that the great mass of the people possessed more army would be distributed in the upper country, intelligence than any other people on the globe. after its conquest, among the places susceptible of Such a people, consisting of upward of seven military strength and defence. The army, con- | millions, affording a physical power of about a siderably reduced, sels itself down before Quebec. million of men, capable of bearing arms, and arSuppose it falls? Here again will be requisite à dently devoted to liberty, could not be subdued number of men to hold and defend it. And, if by an army of 25.000 men. The wide extent of the war is prosecuted still farther, and the lower country over which we are spread was another country and Halifax are assailed, he conceived it security. In other countries, France and England obvious that the whole force of twenty-five thou, for example, the fall of Paris or London is the fall sand men would not be too great.' . .

of the nation. Here are no such dangerous ag. The difference between those who were for gregations of people. New York, and Philadelfifteen thousand, and those who were for twenty-phia, and Boston, and every city on the Atlantic, five thousand men, appeared to him to resolve might be subdued by an usurper, and he would

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have made but a small advance in the accom- nomination, we lose annually, in revenue only, plishment of his purpose. He would add a still ten millions of dollars. Gentleinen will say, remore improbable supposition, that the whole peal the law of non-importation. He contended country east of the Alleghány was to submit to that, if the United Siates were capable of that the ambition of some daring chief, and he insist-perfidy, the revenue would not be restored to its ed, that the liberty of the Union would be still former state, the Orders in Council coniiouing. unconquered. It would find successful support Without an export trade, which those orders prefrom the West. We are not only in the situa- | vent, inevitable ruin would ensue, il we imported tion just described, but a great portion of the as freely as we did prior to the embargo. A pamilitia-nearly the whole, he understood, of that tion that carries on an import trade without an of Massachusetts-bave arms in their bands; export' trade to support it, must, in the end, be as and he trusted in God that that great object ceriainly bankrupt, as the individual would be, would be persevered in until every man in the who incurred an annual expenditure, without an pation could proudly shoulder the musket which income. was to defend his country and himself. A people He, bad no disposition to swell, or dwell upon having, besides one General Goveroment, other the catalogue of injuries from England. He local governments in full operation, capable of could not, however, overlook the impressment of commanding and exerting great portions of the our seamen; an aggression upon which he never physical power, all of which must be prostrated reflected without feelings of indignation, which before our Constitution is subverted. Such a peo- would not allow him appropriate language to deple has nothing to fear from a petty, contemptible scribe its enormity. Not content with seizing force of 25,000 regulars.

upon all our property, which falls within her raMr. C. proceeded more particularly to inquire pacious grasp, the personal rights of our countryinto the object of the force. That object, he un. men-rights which forever ought to be sacred, are derstood, to be war, and war with Great Britain. trampled upon and violared.. The Orders in It had been supposed, by some gentlemen, impro- Council were pretended to have been reluctantly per to discuss publicly so delicate a question. He adopted as a measure of retaliation. The French did not feel the impropriety. It was a subject, in decrees, their alleged basis, are revoked. England its nature, incapable of concealment. Even' in resorts to the expedient of denying the fact of countries where the powers of Government were the revocation, and Sir William Scott, in the celconducted by a single ruler, it was almost impos. ebrated case of the Fox and others, suspends judgsible for that ruler to conceal his intentions when ment that proof may be adduced of it. And, at he meditates war. The assembling of armies, tbe the moment when the British Ministry through strengthening of posts, all the movements prepara- that judge, is thus affecting to controvert that tory for war, and which it was impossible to dis- fact, and to place the release of our property upon guise, unfolded the intention of the Sovereign.its establishment, instructions are prepared for Mr. Does Russia or France intend war? the intention Foster to meet at Washington the very revocais almost invariably known before the war is com- tion which they were contesting. And how does menced. If Congress were to pass a law, with be meet it ? By fulfilliog the engagement solclosed doors, for raising an army for the purpose emnly made to rescind the orders ? No, sir, but of war, its enlistment and organization, which by demanding that we shall secure the introduccould not be done in secret, would indicate the tion into the Continent of British manufactures. use to which it was to be applied; and we cannot England is said to be fighting for the world, and suppose England would be so blind as not to see sball we. it is asked, attempt to weaken her exer. that she was aimed at. Nor could she, did he ap. | lions? If, indeed, the aim of the French Empeprehend, injure us more by thus knowing our ror be universal dominion (and he was willing to purposes than if she were kept in ignorance of allow it to the argument,) what a noble cause is them. She may, indeed, anticipate us, and com- presented to British valor. But, how is her phimence the war. But that is what she is, in fact, lanthropic purpose to be achieved ? By scrupudoing, and she can add but little to the injury lous observance of the rights of others; by respectwhich she is inflicting. If she choose to declare ing that code of public law, which she professes war in form, let her do so, the responsibility will to vindicate, and by abstaining from self-aggradbe with her.

dizement. Then would she command the symWhat are we to gain by war, has been emphat-1 pathies of the world. What are we required to *ically asked ? In reply, he would ask, what are do by those who would engage our feelings and

we not to lose by peace?-commerce, character, a wishes in her behalf ?. To bear the actual cuffs nation's best treasure, honor! If pecuniary con- of her arrogance, that we may escape a chimerisiderations alone are to govern, there is sufficient cal French subjugation ! We are invited, conmotive for ihe war. Our revenue is reduced, by jured to drink ihe potion of British poison aciuthe operation of the belligerent edicts, to about ally presented to our lips, that we may avoid the six million of dollars, according to the Secretary imperial dose prepared by perturbed imaginations. of the Treasury's report. The year preceding the We are called upon to submit to debasement, disembargo, it was sixteen. Take away the Orders honor, and disgrace-to' bow the neck to royal in Council, it will again mount up to sixteen mil insolence, as a course of preparation for manly lions. By continuing, therefore, in peace, if the resistance to Gallic invasion! Whal nation, what mongrel state in which we are deserve that de- individual was ever laught, in the schools of igno

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