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DECEMBER, 1811.

Additional Military Force.

Senate.

upon immediate supplies being furnished, to sus- and interests of the whole Western section of the tain the ground that might be acquired. Mr. A. Union. What, Mr. President, would any one of said, the honorable member had intimated that the old States say, at thus being thrown out of the he had not taken into consideration the peculiar protection of the Union ? Nay, what would be situation of the United States in relation to the the impulse of the nation were the President caFloridas, and the other parts of the Southern and pable of declaring, that in the event of a war with Western frontiers. He said he was much indebted an enemy, no matter whom, he would leave either to the honorable member, for evincing so much Philadelphia, New York, or Boston, without ofinterest for those sections of the Union; but, Mr. fering any defence, to be taken possession of by A. said, he considered those already provided for, the army of the enemy, and leave it to the citi.. by the provision made to fill up the regiments on zens of the State whose town should be thus octhe establishment, which; when complete, would cupied, to retake it themselves? Sir, the indig. amount to ten thousand men ; this number will. Dation of those people, and of the nation, would be quite competent to all the objects suggested by rise to such a height, that whatever respect, esteem, the honorable member, and it had not been con or veneration they may have had for him, all templated, that he had heard, to remove any of would be instantly swept from their bosoms, and these troops from the South or West; consequently he would be hurled from their confidence forever. the sitúation of those parts of the Union can have But; said Mr. A., the well-earned fame of our late no relation to the number of men to be raised by illustrious Chief, is his shield and his buckler, as the bill under consideration. These troops are well upon this, as it has been upon many other understood to be exclusively for the Northern sec- occasions; and an elucidation of facts will test tion-and with that express view they are to be the correctness of the assertion made by the honraised. Mr. A. said, before he quitted the subject orable member from Virginia. If, Mr. President, of the Southern and Western frontier," he felt him- there was any one part of the United States dearer self constrained to take notice of some very extra- to the late President than any other, in a national ordinary language, used by the honorable mem- point of view, Mr. A. said, he should naturally ber in relation to the intentions of the late and suppose it was New Orleans, It was, as it were, present Presidents, respecting the city of Orleans, his own begotten child; he had nursed it in its in the event of a war with England. It was ex- infancy, and had almost reared it 10 manhood. tremely painful to doubt the correctness of any Sir, he could never forsake it; much less could gentleman's statement; but this was of so very he voluntarily surrender it, to be sacked and plunextraordinary a character, that in duty to the sec- dered, as it most certainly would be, by a mercention of the country he represented, and from the ary foe. I will now, Mr. President, examine some respect due to those distinguished characters, Mr. facts, said Mr. A., which have a strong bearing A. said he considered himself bound to take no- upon the assertion made by the honorable memtice, in a particular manner, of the assertions ber from Virginia. It would be recollected by made by the honorable member from Virginia. every honorable member upon this floor, that some Mr. A. said, the words had very much surprised few years ago, when it was understood that Gen. him when he heard them uttered; and he had eral Prevost, with a body of troops, had sailed immediately written them down.

from Halifax, with intent, as it was expected, for The honorable member has said, that he did the mouth of the Mississippi, the then President know, that in the event of a war it was the inten- apprehended the movement might possibly be to tion of the late President to let the English take possess Orleans. What was the conduct of the Orleans without opposition, and leave it to the President upon that occasion ?. Did he leave it Western people to retake it themselves; and he defenceless for the enemy to take ? No, sir; he did believe that it was ihe intention of the present immediately gave orders for all the troops that Administration to act in the same way: [Mr. could be collected within almost any reasonable Giles attempted to explain ; but Mr. A. insisted distance, to march immediately for the protection that the words, as he had taken them dowó, were of the place; and those that were near the seacorrect, for which he appealed to the House. Mr. board were instantly transported by water; and G. desisted from making any further attempt at every exertion was made to throw a sufficient explanation, and Mr. A. proceeded.) If, sir, said force into Orleans and its vicinity, to afford it the Mr. A., I could believe the late President of the most ample protection. This, sir; happened United States capable of such an act; capable of shortly before the President went out of office; so deliberate an infringement of the letter and and no other occasion presented itself of evincing spirit of the Constitution, and all the moral and his good disposition towards that portion of the political obligations by which he was bound to his Union, until he was succeeded by the present country and to his duty, I should not hesitate to Chief Magistrale, who has also been measurably say, that all his well-earned fame ought to be for- implicated in the same charge, by the honorable ever merged in such an atrocious contemplated member ; but of this he has only expressed his act. But, said Mr. A., knowing, as I do, the mo- belief; he has not, however, told us upon what tives and views by which the late President had that belief is founded. Inasmuch then, Mr. Prebeen uniformly actuated with respect to the whole sident, as the charge exists only in the belief of Western country, I have very solid reason to be the honorable member, it is fair to presume pulieve he never contemplated, nor was he capable rity of intention on the part of the Executive of committing so daring an outrage on the rights until the contrary shall appear; and this, Mr. A

SENATE.

Additional Military Force.

DECEMBER, 1811.

said, he felt entirely confident never would ap. with the great deficit which he seems so anxious pear. The uniform tenor of the President's mor 10 charge to the Secretary. The Secretary was al and political rectitude, were ample vouchers opposed to the repeal of the salt tax, from his for the correctness of his motives, and the purity opinion of the correctness of it. The honorable of his intentions. Mr. A. said, so far as we have member was also opposed to it, for the same reahad an opportunity of judging of the disposition son; but from complaisance, he himself tells us, of the present Chief Magistrate, in relation to the he voted for the repeal. He then, and not the protection of Orleans, we had not the smallest Secretary, is answerable to the Treasury for the reason to doubt the purity of his intentions; and greai loss sustained by the repeal of ihat tax; for he had entire confidence, should an occasion pre. he bas told us, that its repeal depended upon his sent, that the President would faithfully, ably, and single vote; and that that vote he gave from comimpartially discharge the duties he owed to every plaisance, not from a conviction of ils correctness. part of the Union.

The honorable member charges the Treasury Mr. A. said the observations of the honorable Department with a recession from the difficulties member, respecting the Secretary of the Trea- of the nation during the last three years, and with sury, the financial department, and the Adminis. the unwillingness of the Secretary to afford the tration as connected with it, required and should usefulness of his talents to Government. Mr. A. receive an answer. Mr. A. said he considered said he could not well understand the meaning of himself peculiarly bound to support the Secretary, this charge, as the honorable member acknowl-. as he had been the innocent cause, by introducing edges that Government had not called on the Seco him into the debate, in the course of the observa- retary for greater exertions. Mr. A. said he would tions he had made, in support of his motion, and ask the honorable member-in what do that rethereby bringing upon him the animadversions, cession aod unwillingness consist? Have not all which the honorable member had taken occasion, the duties of the office been performed ? Has the to make. His attack upon the Secretary is of a Secretary eversbrunkfrom responsibility upon any singular kind; he does not impeach a single offi- occasion, or declined answering to the fullest excial act of that officer, but throws out vague in- tent any of the calls made upon him by Congress, sinuations, in so untangible a shape as almost to either for information or opinion? Has he not defy an inquiry into their truth. The official carried the financial bark safely to this moment, acts of a public officer are always free subjects of notwithstanding the difficulties of the times ? investigation and discussion; but, does it comport Have not all the public engagements been fulfilled; with the dignity of a member of this body, to as all the increased expenses been defrayed; notperse without proof, not his acts, but his supposed withstanding the decrease of revenue, occasioned opinions ? The honorable member presumes the by the state of our foreign relations? What is Secretary gave his assent to the repeal of the salt then meant by recession? Does the honorable tax-upon what authority does he found bis opin- member mean to say, that it was the duty of the ion of the Secretary? No proof can be given of Secretary to point out new, branches of revenue; it. Mr. A. said, he had always understood that wbile those already existing were sufficient to the Secretary was opposed to the repeal of that defray the expense authorized by law? At this tax. His numerous reports prove the fact; in all moment, while we are acting on ihe subject of the of which, if they are examined, it will be found Army, which will (greatly) more than double the that he considered that duiy as one of the bran- public expenses, the honorable member does not ches of revenue upon which he relied. But deign to inquire into the ways and means. He there would be no criminality, if we were to sup: scouts the very idea, and finds great fault with pose that the Secretary had joined in the general bim (Mr. A.) because he presumed to make some opinion and given his assent to the repeal, as well inquiry into the present state of the National Treaas the honorable member has done; the fact, how sury. Whether we now vote six or ten regiments ever, Mr. A. averred to be otherwise. That offi- of infantry, with the addition of those of artillery cer must be supposed more alive to everything and horse, the expense will be great; but we think connected with the Treasury, than other mem- it necessary some additional troops shall be raised, bers of the Government. So far had the Secre- and will vote accordingly. After they shall bave tary carried this feeling toward the Treasury, that been authorized, and not before, the Treasury Dehe was not only opposed to the repeal of the salt partment may be called upon, to point out the retax, but Mr. A. had always understood that he sources and present them to our consideration. was opposed to the repeal of the internal taxes at The honorable member, not satisfied with his the time they took place; with a view no doubt vague charge of what he calls a recession of the not only to be able to meet all the demands that Treasury Department, extends the charge, in a could be legally made upon the Treasury, but to most extraordinary manner, to the late and presprocure a surplus 10 meet any contingency that ent Administrations. To their indisposition to the peculiar state of our foreign relations might press on the Treasury, and to disturb the repose demand. How then the honorable member can and popularity of the Secretary of the Treasury, charge the Secretary with the deficiency which the honorable member ascribes the measures, the salt iax would have prevented, according to which, in his opinion, had dishonored the nation the gentleman's calculation, Mr. A. said he was the last three years. Can this be correct, Mr. at a loss to know. The honorable member ought President? Can this House believe that the late more properly to charge his own complaisance and present Administrations would be capable of '.

DECEMBER, 1811.
Additional Military Force.

SENATE. acting upon such , principles ? The honorable dent, and with their result now before us; he had, member has roạndly asserted that the late Pres- however, specified iwo cases under the former ident, tba! Mr. Jefferson, whenever he was op- Administration-a refusal to incur the expense posed to what he deemed unnecessary expense, necessary to carry the embargo into effect, and a instead of being acluated by his known aversion, rejection by the House of Representatives of a proto saddle such an expense on the people, instead position to authorize contingent letters of marque of being, as he had expressed it, averse to taking and reprisal. Mr. A. said, he had always unfrom the mouth of labor its hard earnings. had no derstood, that the Executive had used with great other motive, but a fear to disturb the repose and assiduity every means which had been placed in popularity of the Secretary of the Treasury! But, his hands by Congress, to carry into effect the Mr. President, what is the Treasury, abstractedly several en bargo laws; íhat the laws were as well speaking ? and what does the honorable member executed as any restrictive laws, of so pressing a mean, by a fear to press on the Treasury ? The character, could have been upon so extensive a officers of the Treasury are mere agents to receive coast, and more so than the restrictive laws of and to pay the money which is collected from the Great Britain and France had ever been, with all people. There is never any real pressure on the their navies and their numerous armies; and that Treasury. If there be at any time a pressure for it was not because this law was not well executed the purpose of defraying any'expense, it is a pres- that it was repealed, but in consequence of anosure on the people, who must pay the money, ther consideration, well known to the honorable Whether the Treasury has ten or twenty millions member himself, who can give as accurate a histo collect from the people, and to pay to the other tory of the repeal of that law as any honorable agents of Goveroment, the repose of the Secreta-member of either House. Mr. A. said, with rery is not in the least disturbed. When, during spect to the failure, on the part of the House of the Revolutionary war, Congress was obliged 10 Representatives, to adopt contingent letters of call on the people for heavy taxes, or unable to marque and reprisal, he could not see how that redeem our paper money, the pressure fell on the could with any propriety be attributed to the late people, who had the taxes to pay and in whose President. He did noi indeed, by an official hands the paper money died away. When, not-, message, recommend such a measure; and the, withstanding these inadequate resources, we were correctness of such a course might well be doubted, unable to defray the most necessary expenses, the upon Constitutional grounds. "But, Mr. A. said he pressure fell on whom? On our empty

. Treasury? well knew that the President was anxious for a No sir-it fell on the Army-on the defenders of provision of that kind, as a substitute for the emyour country on those war-worn veterans, who bargo; whether in the precise phraseology of the were scantilý fed, hardly clothed, and not paid at provision the House rejected, Mr. A. could not alt, and whose earnings, at last, fell into the hands say; but knowing, as he did, that the President of speculating harpies. But, sir, what effect had was desirous of a strong substitute, he was sorry this state of things upon the personal repose of that the honorable member had atiempted to ata your then Commissioners of the Treasury? Not tribute to him the failure of so important a meaihe least, except so far as they felt for the distresses sure, for which he was in no way responsible. of their country, and identified themselves with its fate; and it is only in this point of view, said

WEDNESDAY, December 18.
Mr, A., that the repose of a Secretary of your
Treasury can be disturbed on similar occasions.

The bill extending the time of certain patents That substitution of the Treasury-of the chest granted to Robert Fulton, was read the second

time. into which the taxes are paid-lo the people them. selves who pay them, is one of those equivoques

ADDITIONAL MILITARY FORCE. of which the honorable member is so fond. It is, The Senate resumed the second reading of the bowever, an artifice too thinly veiled, to deceive bill to raise, for a limited time, an additional inilthe Senate, or mislead our constituents. Mr. A. itary force; and the motion made by Mr. Andersaid, the course taken by the honorable member son, to strike out the word "ten," section ,one, had been so devious, that it had been bard to fol. line three. low him, and indeed sometimes to understand his Mr. CAMPBELL of Tennessee rose, and, in submeaning correctly.

stance, made the following observations. He said Mr. A. said, he could not, nor did 'he intend, he would submit to the Senate some of the reawhen he rose, to answer all the observations of sons which would govern bis vote on this questhe honorable member-he had selected the most tion, and then he would notice such of the reprominent, and should answer only one or two marks made by the honorable gentleman from more. The honorable member had said, that to Virginia (Mr. Giles) as appeared to him to rethe unwillingness of the late and present Adınin- late to the grounds on which he acted. It would istration to incor expense, he attributes the present seem, said Mr. C., from what has passed on this situation of our country. Although he has made subject, that little or no difference of opinion exthis charge against the Administration, he has ists, especially among gentleinen on the Repubnot specified any case in which the present Adlican side, with regard to the objects to be effected ministration bad refused to incur expense. Mr. by the troops proposed to be raised. All appear to · A. supposed it would have been rather too bold a admit the time has arrived in which you ought to, ebarge, after the measures adopted by the Presi- / and must act; the crisis requires it ; and nothing

12th Con. Ist Sess.-3

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short of a speedy and honorable accommodation and again amalgamate with their fellow-citizens, of existing differences, securing your rights, or without a murmur. Hence, the expense would open war, in which you may avenge your wrongs, be inconsiderable, the time of service being probwill meet public expectation. To produce one or ably short. It is, therefore, fair to calculate, if the other of these results, and be fully prepared your regular force amounts to twenty-seven thoufor either alternative, was his object; and be sand men, that you ought to, and will have in ace: would vote for such a force as appeared to him tual service, and, of course, in pay, forty thoubest calculated for that purpose. If all are seri-, sand men. Aod will it be contended that this ous, said Mr. C., as I trust they are, in the pro. force is not sufficient to accomplish all the purfessions made on this subject, the only difference poses which the most sanguine have in view ? of opinion appears to be in regard to the number But, it seems, volunteers are not pow to be reand kind of troops necessary to effect the objects lied on. You must , depend entirely on regular in view. Our decision on this point must be troops-on a standing army. This doctrine is of governed by the information we possess. The modern date among Republicans, and may, if it amount, as well as the description of the forces should gain currency, sap the vital principles of to be raised, ought, in a great degree, to be pro- your Government. The language of the Presportioned to and regulated by the impression in ident on this subject, in his Message, breathes a tended to be made on your expected enemy, and very different spirit.' He recommends that adthe probable force to be resisted or subdued. The equate provision be made for filling the ranks purpose for which these troops are raised, and the and prolonging the enlistments of the regular immediale use to be made of them, appear now troops; for an auxiliary force, to be engaged for to be made no secret. The honorable gentleman a more limited term; for the acceptance of vol. from Virginia (Mr. Giles) told you this force of unteer corps, whose patriotic ardor may court a twenty-five thousand troops, proposed to be raised participation in urgent services; for detachby this till, ought to be considered the Army of ments, as they may be wanted, of other porthe North, and are intended to take and occupy 'tions of the militia," &c. Here, we perceive, Canada, &c. If it be intended, said Mr. C., to. he considers the new force recommended to be occupy this country, of which, at present, there raised as only auxiliary to the present regular appears no ground to doubt, it' ought to be done force. Hence, it would seem fair to conclude he with the least possible delay, and in a time much did not mean the number of the former should shorter than would be required to raise so large exceed that of the latter. But, he seems to place a regular force. This number, with the present considerable confidence in “volunteer corps," establishment of ten thousand men, make an age on the ground that their “patriotic ardor may gregate amount of thirty-five thousand. Of these court a participation in urgent services ;" those you have in service little more than five thousand. very kind of services for which the force is now Of course, near thirty thousand are yet to be en to be provided. He did, therefore, contemplate listed. To raise and discipline this number, or that such volunteers should constiute an efficient the half of it, would consume more time than part of the force to be employed in effecting the ought to elapse before you act, if you are deter- niore important objects now in view; and that, mined to act with effect.

the milicia, also, should be engaged, and contribThe motion is, to strike out the word "ten,” ute their share in supporting any contest that the number of regiments of infantry, for the pur- might ensue. But, it seems, your volunteers and pose of inserting “six." This would make the militia are considered totally incompetent to pernumber of troops to be raised by this bill some- form any important military services. From what less than seventeen thousand men, and in them you are required to withdraw your conficrease the whole régular force to nearly twenty-dence, and place it in regular troops only, of seven thousand men. Mr. C. said, from the best whom, you must raise an army sufficiently large view which he had been able to take of the sub- to effect all your purposes. Let this doctrine be ject, upon the information we now possèss, this once established, and the people may tremble for force, aided by a proper proportion of volunteers, their liberties when it is too late--when their would be fully competent to effect any object the chains are'riveted upon them by a military power. Government can have in view ; to resist and sub. But the attempt to raise so large a regular force due any force; and to occupy, if necessary, any at this moment, would retard instead of accelerterritory in your neighborhood. On any sudden ate the completion of the objects intended; for, emergency, the number of volunteers or militia it will be found impracticable to enlist and organactually employed, might, and, perhaps, generally ize such force in time to act before the proper ought to equal, and, on many occasions, much ex- season is gone; before the ice breaks up in the ceed that of the regular troops, as they could be Spring. You might, indeed, collect that portion organized and marched to the scene of action in which consists of officers, but you cannot fill up much shorter time than would be consumed in the ranks. If ten or fifteen thousand effectives raising regular troops, would consist of better could be brought into service in time, it would materials, and could be more relied upon to make equal his most sanguine expectations. You a first impression than newly enlisted troops with would, therefore, have, it is believed, a force out the advantages of discipline. They would, equally efficient, if the proposed amendment prealso, when the service was completed, lay down vailed, as if the bill passed in its present shape, the military character, return to their homes, I while your expenditures would be thereby greatly

DECEMBER, 1811.

Additional Military Force. .

SENATE.

diminished, and no obstacle whatever presented to there be, at chis time, to increase your regular the most decisive and vigorous course of proceed force to thirty-five thousand men ? Have you no ing. If inmediate

operations be intended, as he confidence in the knowledge possessed, and the trusted they were, they must be principally car. opinion formed on this subject by your Governried on, in the first instance, by volunteers, who ment?. Have they not as ample means, at least, as could, and ought to be embodied and prepared to we have, to obtain correct information This, no act on the shortest notice. For this purpose, au- one, it is presuined, will deny; and the honorable thorize the Executive immediately to officer, or- gentlemen told you they are of opinion ten thouganize for a limited time, and put into motion, sand additional troops, making the whole regular sueh number of volunteers who may tender their force twenty thousand, would be sufficient for the services, as shall be deemed competent to the present occasion. . To those, the Government, no occasion ; bring to the scene of action as many doubt, intended to add as many corps of volunof your present regular troops as may be spared teers, properly officered and organized for the pura from other services, and can, with the least delay, pose, as circumstances, should require; and such be concentrated ; and let these, united with your united force would, certainly, be competent, acvolunteers and such of the new troops as can be cording to the present state of things, to subdue raised in time, make, ihe first impression, şeize any opposition to be expected, and to occupy any and occupy the country contemplated, and main- territory in your neighborhood, that comes within tain the contest until the additional regular force, the avowed object of your present preparations. about to be raised, can be organized and brougbi But, Mr. C. said, he was willing to go further; to into actual service. These may, then, support

, increase the regular foree to nearly twenty-seven and, in due time, relieve your volunteers. Hold thousand men, and make ample provision for the advantages you may have gained ; repel any bringing into actual service such corps of volunforce that may be brought to oppose them, and teers, officered by the Executive, and such numextend, if required, your acquisitions; while, in ber of the militia as shall be considered necessary. the mean time, sufficient corps of the militia may Should his motion not prevail, he would, notwithbe called into service and employed within the standing, vote for the bill, and for any other mealimits of the Union, with such of the regular sures proposed that could, in any degree, contribtroops as may be retained for the purpose, to pro- ute to maintain the rights and character of the tect your frontiers from incursions by the savages, nation. He should, also, at any future 'day, vote and your coasts against attacks from a foreign for such additional troops as the crisis might then enemy.

require; and this appeared to him the most effiThis mode of proceeding would enable you to cient as well as correct course. Raise, at present, act, before the season shall pass away in which the number proposed by the amendment, which your operations could be carried on, with the most; if not all who are in favor of actual resistleast probable resistance, and the greatest 'pros- ance, allow to be necessary, and before they are pect of success. The most distinguishing fea- organized, you will be better able to determine ture that could characterize your proceedings, at what additional force, if any, will be necessary. this moment, would be, the expedition with whichThis would produce more unanimity, occasion you progress, both in Legislalive and Executive less delay, and could not, in any possible degree, operations. But, if you wait, as seems to be con- weaken your operative measures, or embarrass templated by the gentleman from Virginia, until your Government. twenty-five or thirty thousand men are, by enlist Mr. C. said, believing, as he did, the force proments, raised, disciplined, and put in readiness for posed by the amendment fully competent to acactual service, the time to act will have passed complish the objects all profess to have in view, away; the ice will be broken up, and the ap- he was unwilling to vote for a greater pumber. proaches by water to ihe country intended as the He was opposed, on principle, to swelling the seene of action, will be thereby opened ; and, regular military force beyond the bounds really you may have to effect your object, should it then demanded by the crisis, as it would be setting a be practicable, at more than double the expense dangerous precedent, that might, hereafter, be reof blood and ireasure that would have been resorted to as a pretext for augmenting, from time quired had you taken advantage of the proper to time, without sufficient cause, or beyond the time. Whai evidence have we, said Mr. c., to nature of the exigency, your standing army; unshow that so large a regular force as that pro- til the people might, perhaps, be awakened from posed by the bill is necessary ? The object, as their security, as has been the case on many ocavowed by the gentleman, is to occupy Čanada.casions in other countries, by feeling the pressure From the best information he had been able to ob., of the chains of military despotism. He was, tain, there are not more than six thousand regu- also, unwilling to charge the nation with expenlar troops, if there be that number, in the prov. ditures which its tipances were pot prepared to iace. The gentleman states the number at about meet, and which, in his opinion, the occasion did seven thousand. Suppose the latter to be correct, not require. He trusted it was not the intention would not double the number of regular troops, of any one, by raising so large a regular force, (allowing for accidents of every description,) be and thereby incurring so great an expenditure, sufficient to oppose to those ? 'And, would not beyond what it is believed was necessary, to drain your volunteers be able to cope with Canadian your Treasury, embarrass your fiscal concerns, militia Upon these data what occasion can land paralyze the best concerted measures of your

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