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THE

HISTORY OF ENGLAND.

CHAP. XXIX.

HENRY VIII. . Digression concerning the ecclesiastical state-Origin of the Re

formation-Martin Luther-Henry receives the title of Defender of the Faith-Causes of the progress of the Reformation-War with France Invasion of France-War with Scotland--A parliament-Invasion of France, Italian wars-- The king of France invades Italy-Battle of Pavia and captivity of Francis-Francis

recovers his liberty-Sack of Rome-League with France. DURING some years, many parts of Europe had been agitated with those religious controversies which produced the Reformation, one of the greatest events in history ; but as it was not till this time that the king of England publicly took part in the quarrel, we had no occasion to give any account of its rise and progress. It will now be necessary to explain these theological disputes; or, what is more material, to trace from their origin those abuses which so generally diffused the opinion, that a reformation of the church, or ecclesiastical order, was become highly expedient, if not absolutely necessary. We shall be better enabled to comprehend the subject, if we take the matter a little higher, and reflect a moment on the reasons why there must be an ecclesiastical order and a public establishment of religion in every civilized community. The importance of the present occasion will, I hope, excuse this short digression. vol. IV. .

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state.

Digression Most of the arts and professions in a state are che cerning of such a nature, that, while they promote the siastical interests of the society, they are also useful or

agreeable to some individuals; and in that case, the constant rule of the magistrate, except, perhaps, on the first introduction of any art, is to leave the profession to itself, and trust its encouragement to those who reap the benefit of it. The artisans, finding their profits to rise by the favour of their customers, increase, as much as possible, their skill and industry, and as matters are not disturbed by any injudicious tampering, the commodity is always sure to be at all times nearly proportioned to the demand.

But there are also some callings which, though useful and even necessary in a state, bring no particular advantage or pleasure to any individual; and the supreme power is obliged to alter its conduct with regard to the retainers of those professions. It must give them public encouragement in order to their subsistence; and it must provide against that negligence, to which they will naturally be subject, either by annexing peculiar honours to the profession, by establishing a long subordination of ranks, and a strict dependance, or by some other expedient. The persons employed in the finances, armies, fleets, and magistracy, are instances of this order of men. · It may naturally be thought, at first sight, that the ecclesiastics belong to the first class, and that their encouragement, as well as that of lawyers and physicians, may safely be intrusted to the liberality of individuals, who are attached to their doctrines, and who find benefit or consolation from their spiritual ministry and assistance. Their industry and vigilance will, no doubt, be whetted by such an additional motive; and their skill in their profession, as well as their address in governing the minds of the people, must receive daily

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