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the (latter)' second' is the more stringent.' The sense to be conveyed by former' and 'latter' and the other expressions is 'the first mentioned of the two subjects', 'the second or last mentioned of the two’; and the aptest condensation of this is 'first-named, second-named', 'first, second.' 'Former' and latter' introduce the extraneous circumstance of succession in time; they are suitable when there is actually such a reference; ‘former kings', 'latter kings'; 'former years', latter
In the following example, three subjects are referred to by the numerals, 'first', 'second', 'third': 'We shall never have true knowledge of the schools of the middle ages, until those who have studied both (?) their philosophy, their physics, and their state of tradition, will look at their weapons of controversy as both offensive and defensive, and give a fair account of the amount of protection afforded by the first, in the existing state of the second and 'the third.' This is much too difficult to follow. We might say—'until those that have studied, on the one hand, their philosophy, and, on the other hand, their physics and their state of tradition, will -protection afforded by the philosophy to the physics, and to, &c'.
The following is from Bishop Butler's Sermon on Compassion : ‘The social nature of man, and general goodwill to his species, equally prevent him from doing evil, incline him to relieve the distressed, and to promote the positive happiness of his fellow.creatures; but compassion only restrains from the first, and carries him to the second ; it hath nothing to do with the third.' Hearers could not be expected to make the distinctive references here demanded. Indeed, all references whose meaning depends on the hearer's observing the position of the antecedents, are peculiarly unsuitable to oral address, and should, if possible, be excluded from it, even though tolerated in writing.
Our adjectives of reference include the present', 'the above', 'foregoing', 'the one in question', 'the following' —which are more distinctive than 'this' and 'that'.
The ellipsis of the noun, whereby the demonstrative
adjectives assume the character of pronouns, is a very general process of the language. It occurs even with adjectives of quality. Speaking of an assemblage of persons, we say
the old conversed, the young danced or played'. So 'the rich', 'the poor', 'the noble' are abbreviations, a noun being understood. Still oftener do we suppress the noun with adjectives of quantity. 'All is lost', 'many will depart', 'none remain'.
It is super
Our ARTICLES have the force of Adjectives, while they are also adjectives in their origin.
The chief point of grammatical importance of the INDEFINITE ARTICLE is its being the sign of the singular number of conimon nouns. When a general or common noun in the singular is used without either article, there is something to be explained.
The article is not superseded by an adjective of quality; we must say 'a rich man', a white horse'. seded by certain other adjectives, as follows:
1. 'Any' takes the place of the indefinite article, by stating the same meaning still more emphatically. 'Bring me a knife' means no knife in particular, any knife.
2. The demonstratives this', 'that', dispense with the article by changing the meaning; "this book' negatives a book, or any book.
3. The same reason applies to the possessives ; 'my book' renders the noun definite.
4. One' also renders a noun more definite than the article, and so supersedes it. So may some'; some day you will know'.
5. ‘Every', 'each', 'either', 'neither', are incompatible with 'a' or 'an'.
6. The adverbial adjective 'no' excludes the article. This is because it already contains an equivalent-being by derivation, as well as in meaning, 'not one'. (See p. 106.)
7. The indefinite article cannot be used in an addressWretch, I dare thee'. The reason still is incompatibility of meaning
The indefinite article is superseded by the definite-the'. In using 'the 'we have not the saine means of discriminating between the common and the other nouns; for, excepting Proper Names, 'the’ is applied to all kinds of
can say—the man', 'the goodness', 'the gold'.
There are certain instances of omission of the article that need to be accounted for.
We say 'man is mortal'; 'poet and philosopher alike employ—'; 'beast and bird their common charge attend—'. In such instances, the singular seems to have a personifying effect, in the way of binding up a whole class into an individual possessed of the class attributes; energy is supposed to be gained by saying 'man' for men, “beast' for beasts.
Government resolved', for the government', in like manner regards the government as an individual, and converts the name into a singular name. 'Society' is an abstraction personified.
Another case is exemplified thus : 'He became captain'; . he was elected chairman of the company'; 'when Chatham was minister'; 'I once sat with Major Abercrombie, son of the immortal general' (Scott). These instances are supposed to be too definite for the indefinite article ; and if an article is to be given, it must be the definite. Similar instances are _head of the family', 'baker to Her Majesty ,
brother to the Earl of Cork', 'doctor of medicine', 'bishop of London', 'professor of Mathematics'. All such forms · are used as complements, or in apposition; they cannot stand as subjects, or as objects.
The cominon phrase—'the rank of major’, is extended by De Quincey to the bereditary rank of gentleman'. There is here a certain dignity iinparted by leaving out the indefinite article. We address an officer 'Major Brown', meaning · Brown, who is a major'; and the same curtailing process is applied to express 'the rank of major '.
In position' is a verbal abstract noun. • The punishment of fine’ is the same as 'fining'.
“Opinion of counsel' is a recognised omission Some ten
dency to conceive 'counsel' in the abstract may be supposed to be the motive.
“The relation of mother and child, master and servant, ruler and ruled'-is a case where the common nouns express an abstract idea, which appears to justify the leaving out of the indefinite article.
In a few English idioms, as, 'brought to table', 'leaving town', 'going to school', 'in church', 'down hill', the ruling circumstance seems to be the desire of shortness. So, the end of next session' might be the next session’; omission of the' does not cause any ambiguity or incon. venience.
The DEFINITE ARTICLE is a weakened that'with the characteristics of the demonstrative. • That' applies to something seen, or something just pointed out by some other means. It may also apply to something yet to be defined by a relative clause; which clause being restrictive should have the restricting relative: that man that you see', commonly given as 'that man whom you see'. The older and better idiom is the man thut'. The definite article is nothing in itself; it is a pointing word, and what it points to is given in the first instance by a relative clause to follow; “the book that you wish', 'the shop that we have passed', 'the star that bids the shepherd fold'. By the curtailments of the clause we reach the participial phrase, and then the adverbial phrase, the commonest of all ways of signifying the reference of the article; 'the clock in the steeple ', 'the way to glory', 'the tower of London. The vague preposition 'of' answers the purpose.
The mode of employing 'the' to single out objects in an understood collection or environment is illustrated in the grammar; and is a remarkable instance of our omitting essential particulars because they are known to the hearer.
In employing 'of' to connect a part with a whole, or an abstract quality with its concrete subject, 'the’ is esential; • the roof of the house', 'the oxygen of the air', 'the length
of the room ', 'the graciousness of the act', 'the justice of God'.
There is a delicacy in using 'the' as a milder form of 'that’, in which case it may have the backward reference. Speaking of a museum, instead of that collection was formed', we say the collection was formed'. 'Did you meet Brown's bull? I passed the brute.'
In expressing singular or individual objects by limiting a common noun, the Pronoun Adjectives are the most effective. A demonstrative, as 'this' or 'that', suffices at once: 'this man', 'that house', 'the fire', 'yon aged thorn'. Possessives, we saw, have a great limiting power: 'my hat','our country'. The Definite Article, in all its applications, tends to individuality: 'the reigning Sultan', 'the day of reckoning', 'the moonlight'.
The definition of the Verb was discussed in the Introduction. I shall here consider, first
THE CLASSIFICATION OF VERBS.
The old definition—'be, do, suffer'— might be supposed to be merely chargeable with the mistake of classifying instead of defining. But even in this point of view it is faulty. The first designation 'be' or 'being' may pass for the Incomplete verbs, of which the verb ' be’ is the leading example; but the distinction of doing' and 'suffering does not mark two classes of verbs in grammar. There is no grammatical difference between 'he stirs the fire'(doing), and he feels the cold' (suffering). If good for anything, these two designations point to the difference between the active and the passive voice (acting and being acted on), and yet they do not give a good account of that distinction.
For the ends of grammar, verbs are classified into Transitive, Intransitive, and Incomplete or Copula Verbs.