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First, as to retaining an Object. The least disguised form of the object is the Noun Clause, of which the examples are notorious. The verbal construction, 'I believe that he is right', becomes often ‘I have the belief that he is right'. The word 'believe,' in becoming 'belief', is no longer a predicate, yet in other respects it plays its former part; the object clause, 'that he is right', remains adhering to the noun, exactly as to the verb. Instances of this kind are abundant. Such verbal nouns as 'proof', 'assurance',

sense', 'apprehension ', 'conviction', 'observation', 'remark', 'knowledge', 'promise', 'thought'-can all be construed on the same plan; and they are not fully parsed unless the circumstance be stated. 'We gave him a hint that he was not wanted', stands for we hinted that'; hint’ should be parsed as a verbal noun retaining part of the function of the transitive verb, and the clause should be stated to be its object.

The following are other examples :— There arose a dispute among them, who should be greatest '. Everything belonging to the transitive verb is retained, the power of predication being passed to "arose; they disputed who

' ' should be greatest'; the object clause is unchanged, the subject is transformed into the adverbial phrase among them. Pupils might be exercised in restoring such constructions.

'I doubt whether', is often given as 'I have a doubt whether'. 'Generally when a discussion arises, whether any. thing is or is not'. ‘Bring me word [what boats and people he can command.]' 'I am going to yonder gate to receive further direction [how I may get to the place of deliverance.

e.]' 'He gave us a long account (how he had hooked the fish, played with it]' &c., i.e., he detailed at length how &c., or such like.

The object appears as an Infinitive in the following: "To the overtures of the Emperor he replied by a persistent refusal (by persistently refusing) to enter his service'. “My kind landlady gave me the best advice (advised me) how to behave in the execution of my project'.

A Noun object may still adhere to a transmuted verb,

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but a preposition is then prefixed; chiefly of ', and occasionally some others. • The knowledge of geometry' is 'knowing geometry'; (an infin. object) the knowledge of how to do it', knowing how to do it'; 'enumeration of particulars ', ' enumerating'. Degenerution of tissue is going on' is translated tissue is degenerating’; the verb is intransitive, and the noun 'tissue’ is the subject. Or, for a strict noun object, 'some ause not specified is degenerating tissue'. “The most important event of the session was the passing of the Act for the settling of Schools'; ' was passing (or that the Legislature passed) the Act for settling (or whereby they settled) Schools'. 'Procrastination is the thief of time'; procrastinating steals (makes away with) time'.

• You are welcome to the use of (to use) my library'.

• The suggestion as to making an abstract' is 'suggesting to make an abstract'.

Next, as to retaining the Subject.

Fall of the year' is 'the year falls, is falling'. Examples are furnished in all transformed intransitive verbs : 'the rushing of great rivers-great rivers rush'.

The subject of the verb appears as a Possessive. 'John failed, which astonished them'; 'John's fuilure astonished them'. • Your speech is not his answer to my question’; • What you said is not what he answered to what I asked'. Our contention was that the agreement stood'; tended', 'what we contended for was'.

Lastly, as to Adverbial adjuncts. In the least transformed shape, these appear as phrases, and are generally the very saine that accompany the verb. “They were dissatisfied with the result' becomes dissatisfaction with the result'. So perseverance unto the end', for 'persevere unto the end'; 'cowardice in the field', 'being a coward'; 'a situation in the place', situated'. 'He was an impostor in the one thing that people trusted to him’, “he imposed, in the one thing'. We should incur a contradiction in terms', 'we should contradict'. Conversation with you has satisfied me', contracted from · Conversing with you', or, at length, 'I bave conversed with you, and I am satisfied'.

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'I had often received an invitation from my friend, Sir Roger de Coverley (my friend had often invited me) to pass away a month with him in the country'.

When the adverbial adjunct is a single word, it becomes an adjective to the verbal noun. The disguise is now so complete, that, in parsing, we never think of laying it open, Given the clause-'there was general dissatisfaction with the result', we should have to retrace thus—they were generally dissatisfied'. “Let us proceed by simple enumeration', 'by enumerating simply'. 'Knowledge is power'; 'extensive knowledge is extensive power'; for ‘if we know extensively, we shall operate extensively'. 'Mental cultivation' is 'being cultivated mentally, or as regards the mind ';, or the adjective may become simply the object of the verb, 'cultivating the mind. So “this knowledge' is a form of saying “knowing this'. 'Imaginary conversations' is 'imagined persons conversing'- —a still greater distortion. “Great expectations' is 'great things expected'. “Both courses were equal surprises ', were equally surprises' (the simple adverb qualifying a noun), equally surprising'. 'Contemporary

' registration', 'registering by a contemporary', or by some person or persons at the time. “Make personal enquiries', ' enquire in person’. 'House to house visitation', 'visiting from house to house'.

'I have had a good sleep' is a Scotticism for 'I have slept well’; 'a good rest', is ‘rested well’.

The transformation of a verb into a noun expressing the actor often retains the verb accompaniments. The object is given by means of the preposition 'of'. 'He accused the brethren', 'he was the accuser of the brethren'. With an adverb, ‘he vehemently accused', 'he was a vehement accuser '. ‘He was an ardent solicitor of posts', 'he ardently solicited'. • Who is the best translator of the Pentateuch ?' · Who best translates'. * An extensive owner'is very figurative and distorted— one that owns extensive domains '; in like manner, ' large or small proprietors'. 'A dealer in horses', for 'he deals in horses'. · The inundation of lawless power', 'lawless power inundating' (lawless power' is itself a trans

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formation controlling lawlessly'). Resumption of the general war'; 'the general war resumed'; 'fighting generally recommenced'.

The motives for transforming the verb in this manner are obvious. A verb as a predicate must appear in a full sentence; hence each action that we wish to express needs a clause to itself. Now we have often to accumulate a great many actions in few words; it is convenient, therefore, if practicable, to express some by nouns, which may fall into their places as subjects, objects, or adverbial phrases in sentences; whence, one complete sentence or clause may include several actions.

The following is an example in point: 'A fall through 16 feet begets a velocity of 32 feet'; after a body has fallen through 16 feet, it moves at the rate of 32 feet in the same time'. The short form will be preferred in composition; the other has the air of a paraphrase, and yet does not bring out fully that the sequence is one of cause and effect.

* The equality of the three angles of a triangle to two right angles is a previous assumption '; it is previously assumed that the three angles of a triangle are equal—'.

It has to be borne in mind, however, that there is a loss of simplicity by thus condensing clauses into nouns ; for which reason the operation should not be carried farther than the occasion requires. It is a good exercise in style to restore the full verb constructions, and to see in each case, whether, or how far, it was right to depart from them.

The following are additional examples:

'The mixture of inference with observation is a cause of error.' Here are five verbal nouns, each stating an action of sufficient importance to occupy a clause. Converting them all unto verb forms,- if we mix inferring and observing we shall cause ourselves to err' Even the infinitives although not predicating words are a step in the right direction; they are more suggestive of action, than the noun, whose prime function it is to name things without reference to their action- a stone, a star, a city. In the attempt to restore such sentences, we often find a way of reducing an excess

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of verbal abstract nouns. • If we infer and observe together, we shall be misled', is a great improvement in simplicity, if not so technically precise as the original.

The laws of nature can give no account of their own origin'; 'do not account for their own originating', 'do not tell how they themsclves arose '.

A fine is no sufficient punishment to the rich'. Fining does not sufficiently punish the rich'.

Copernicus asserted the rotation of the earth about its axis • That the earth rotates',

“We walk by faith, not by sight'. 'In walking, we do not see, but believe'; we walk, not seeing, but believing'.

• An apparatus was constructed by which the requirements of the animal were accommodated ; ' 'by which the animal obtained what it required'.

Iłumble origin is no bar to the attainment of greatness ; while pride of birth is a frequent cause of humiliation'. 'Being humbly born does not keep one from attaining greatness (becoming great), while one that is highly born and proud is frequently humiliated thereby'.

‘Master Fodge had no distinct vision of the benefit that would accrue to hiin from this change of courses'. There are here four verbal abstracts, and all might be dispensed with. Master Fodge did not distinctly see what he would gain, if he behaved differently'.

'It is only the study and apprehension of their vital and organic connection which is valuable in an educational point of view'. Only when we study and apprehend that they are connected vitally and organically, do we see that they educate well'.

• Of the same nature with the indulgence of domestic affections, and equally refreshing to the spirits, is the pleasure which results from acts of bounty and beneficence, exercised either in giving money, or in imparting to those who want it the assistance of our skill and profession'. • Of the same nature as when we indulge our domestic affections, and equally exhilarating, is our pleasure in being

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