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brave', are combined into the single declaration, the men fought bravely'.
A great deal could be said on the making up of the Adverbial phrase; but in principle there is nothing new. We may have a simple noun or pronoun with a preposition, as
at home', 'to me', 'in London', 'with care', 'from fear', 'by diligence', 'on credit', 'of course’: a noun with an article, demonstrative, or other adjective prefixed—'in an hour', 'by that means', 'through a long day', 'in regular order', ‘from different causes ', 'after many severe struggles': and still bigher complications, in the circumstances of a large town', 'under the genial influences of spring', 'in the course of the recent trial for perjury', above the average of similar cases', “beyond the reach of human injustice':
In such an example as we behold with amazement', there is the obvious compression of a second clause, 'we behold and we are amazed'; it might have been," we amazedly behold'. The phrase is more euphonious than the single word, and that is the whole difference. The compression of a predicate verb into a phrase is more frequent than the compression into a single word, from the very fact that phrases far outnumber simple adverbs.
CLASSIFICATION OF ADVERBS.
We are now in a position to discuss the grammatical reasons for laying out the Adverbs into distinct classes. The following classification may be justified as suiting the ends of Grammar:
1.- Place and Direction.
inodes of Certainty and Uncertainty.
I.--Place and Direction. There are various reasons for making a separate class of adverbs of Direction and Place. Such adverbs are forined from the primitive words of direction, serving as prepositions and as adverbs alike; they are needed to characterize the line of movement or change under the working of active powers.
But the philological origin of a species of words, however interesting in itself, is not always a good reason for forming a grammatical class. There are, however, two other valid reasons for keeping up a subdivision of adverbs of Place.
The first is that they are a small select number, perpetually recurring; in this respect they resemble pronouns (from which indeed some are derived), prepositions, and conjunctions. They may be enumerated individually, and their meanings learned in the practice of grammar. The pronoun group-here, there, hither, hence, &c.—and the
prepositions, form the great bulk of the simple adverbs of place and direction.
The second reason is the great and general importance of the circumstance of place or locality in narrating or describing events. To call the attention of pupils to the words and phrases that localize any incident imparts a discipline both in conceiving fully, and in expressing clearly.
From the Vatican, the popes issue their commands to the Catholic Church'.
II.-Time. The reasons for giving pupils the trouble of parsing separately adverbs of Time, are the same as those now stated for place.
First. The single words for Time are few in number, and frequently occurring; and it is not beyond the fair scope of Grammar to recite them individually, and to assign their meanings. In their source, they do not present such peculiar groups as the adverbs of place obtained from the pronoun and the preposition. “Before' and 'after ' are formed from prepositions; the others are of various origin-now, soon, lately, ever, henceforth, presently, &c.
Second. Of equal importance with place, is the indication of Time as a circumstance of all incidents and events. Indeed, as regards narrative, Time claims priority of mention; the first thing regarding an event is the time or date; after that comes place, and finally the action itself, with any circumstances of manner generally.
The full working out of the expression of Time involves innumerable phrases made up of preposition and noun,
the prepositions being diverted to position in time by an easy change from their original reference to direction and place. Chronology is expressed by the prepositions 'in', 'before',
after', used with years, months, days; minuter divisions, as hours and minutes, are given by 'at', 'by', in addition to these.
III.-Degree or Measure. There is a sub-division of Adjectives founded on Quantity; and there are equally good grounds for making a class of Adverbs for so essential a feature of active operations. Among the attributes or distinctions of things, a contrast is always made between Quantity and Quality; and though the mere grammatical necessity for maintaining the distinction is not overpoweringly strong, yet, as regards the sense or meaning of language, the utility of observing the distinction is incontestable.
These are the adverbs that are employed to qualify Adjectives and other Adverbs. But for them, we might define the Adverb as qualifying the verb solely. The meanings of nearly all Adjectives admit of change for degree; good, great, bad, wise, hot, sweet,-may have different grades of amount or intensity; and these grades are expressed by adverbs, ‘very good ', .infinitely great', 'scarcely hot', slightly sweet'. So when adverbs themselves have to be varied in degree, the same adverbs are used : 'very much elated', 'exceedingly little affected'.
It is from the very nature of things that adverbs of place, time, and quality, cannot be applied to adjectives or other adverbs. We may say 'very wise', but not loudly, calmly,
transparently, sweetly wise', 'She was distractingly beautiful', exemplifies a common usage, namely, to take an adverb of quality for the purpose of suggesting degree. Many words of degree, whether adjectives or adverbs, in their first use, express some quality implying effects that are very great or very little. • Astonishing', distracting', overpowering', 'heavenly'-are words for mental impressions caused by some very powerful agent; and we adopt them to signify mere degree or amount, leaving out the special manner of their operation, or the quality properly so called.
Of this nature are our most usual adverbs of degreescarcely, moderately, fairly, exceedingly, utterly, terribly, thoroughly, extensively,
IV.-Affirmation and Denial. By far the greatest distinction among predications, or declarations embodied in sentences or clauses, is the distinction between affirming and denying. This distinction attains its highest importance in logic or science; but it needs, for its expression, marked forms in Grammar.
An unchallenged affirmation does not need a special word or phrase; the subject and the predicate are given without any qualifying adjunct : 'the sea is deep', 'man is lord of the creation'. For complete denial, the leading word is 'not'; to attach this word to a predicate is totally to deny that the predicate applies to the subject; 'the sea is not still', 'man does not live for ever'.
In expounding the Adjective, we saw that 'not', the most genuinely adverbial word in the language is made to assume an adjective form, in 'no', 'none'; the pretexts being, first, to express universal denial, and, next, to give emphasis.
Affirmation is often modified or graduated, and the modi. fications are given by various adverbs and adverbial phrases. Sometimes we desire to affirm with energy and emphasis ; for which we have the adverbs, 'certainly, surely, undoubtedly, &c. ', with numerous phrases. When the affirma
tion is not full, universal, or certain, there are limiting adverbs, as 'perhaps', with phrases expressive of various shades of probability.
Denial, or disbelief, is expressed by a number of phrases that enibody the great particle of negation-not at all', 'not in the least', 'by no means'; and by some other words, as ' rarely', 'scarcely', 'little', the adjective ‘few', and phrases made up of it.
Negation can be transformed into equivalent affirmation, by finding a negative or obverse of the predicate; • they are not here', they are gone elsewhere'. 'No man is perfect', 'all men are imperfect'; 'matter is not self-moved', 'matter is moved from without'. This is an operation of great significance in logic, and not without importance in Granımar; it is the mode of giving the reality apart from the form of negation, and should be fainiliar to those that are tracking out the varieties of English expression. General Havelock addressed his Indian army in these terms --Soldiers, your labours, your privations, your sufferings, your valour will not be forgotten (will be remembered) by a grateful country'. The negative form is here chosen for emphasis ; it is the case that people are in a more energetic mood when denying than when affirming; denial implies an opponent to fight; affirmation not necessarily so.
V.-Manner or Quality. The foregoing classes have all some speciality possessing interest in Grammar. Taken together, they comprise but a small proportion of our adverbs; the large mass still remain, and, without farther grammatical discrimination, are called adverbs of Quality, or Manner. The sub-dividing of these might have a scientific interest, but would not be Grammar.
If any class could with advantage be detached from the great body of Quality adverbs, it would be the phrases for expressing Cause, Agency, or Instrumentality. There are few single-word adverbs employed for this meaning: the