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the action spoken of. Regarding the refusal as a thing of the past, the speaker would say “I would not go'; or 'I told them I would not go'. 'You shall be relieved early 'is the direct statement of the first person, implying that the relief of the person addressed depends entirely upon his orders. The indirect form under the influence of a past tense is—I gave orders that you should be relieved early'.

• They shall be imprisoned' becomes in the indirect form after a past tense—'I decided that they should be imprisoned'.

We have seen that should' is used when the second or the third person is under the control of the first. It is used also when these persons are under any other controlling influence whatever. • The Parliament resolved that all pictures

should be burned'. The burning of the pictures is controlled by the Parliament.

• It was moved that Oates should be set at liberty'. The action is noways dependent upon the subject Oates, but rests altogether upon some external power.

• If ye had known me, ye should have known my Father also'. Your knowing my Father would have necessarily resulted from your knowing me.

The controlling power is altogether external to the subject.

If ye were blind, ye should have no sin'. Your being blind would necessarily carry sinlessness with it. The action is quite beyond the power of the subject.

When the controlling agency is fate, destiny, doom, preappointment, 'should' is regularly used, the subject being under an influence that can be neither withstood nor evaded.

‘Morgan le Fay saved a knight that should have been drowned': she said to the knight that should have been drowned'.

'He knew who should betray him’. 'Should' indicates that the subject is under the control of destiny; that the course of events will without fail bring it about thus; ‘he knew who was pre-appointed to betray him', whose fate it was to be to betray him.

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· Art thou he that should come ?' that was destined or appointed to come; that was to come in obedience to certain arrangements made by some other power.

• I hoped thou should'st have been my Hamlet's wife': that events would bring about this result.

The prophet told me that thou should'et surely recover': that thy recovery was ordained, was in the pre-appointed course of events.

To express the past will or determination of any subject in reference to his own actions, we use 'would'.

I would.
You would.

He, they would. Examples of the first person as subject have already been given. The other persons will now be exemplified.

You would not listen to our advice'; the person addressed refused to listen; 'would' implies the past resolution of the subject.

• Cæsar was offered the crown, but he would not take it's He refused to take the crown; 'would' expresses the subject's determination in the past. • How often would I have gathered thy children together,


would not !' How often did I wish, was I willing (ηθέλησα)

and ye refused, were not willing (και ουκ ήθελήσατε).

•When the morning was come, they would know how he did' (Pilgrim's Progress); they wanted, wished, desired to know.

King Pelleas suffered himself to be taken prisoner, because he would have a sight of his lady'. Because he wished, was determined, to have a sight.

• The knight said he would have the lady, and the dwarf said he would have her'. In direct statement, we should have: 'The knight said, 'I will have the lady', and the dwarf said, 'I will have the lady'.'

He will come’ is changed after a past tense into 'he promised that he would come'.

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• The king said "I will hear the whole', expresses directly, in the king's own words, his willingness, inclination, or resolution at the time he spoke. The indirect form is—The king said he would hear the whole '.

' He said openly that she was the fairest lady that there was, and that he would prove upon any knight that would say nay'. And that he was ready and willing to prove upon any knight that had a mind to say nay.

For Contingent Determination, we use the forms just meutioned as expressing the past resolution of the subject.

I would.
You would,

He would. 'If I could tell you, I would'. The form 'I would' has been given as expressing in present time the 'will’ of a time gone by. Here, however, the sense is not past; the action has not taken place, the will of the subject being impeded by a conditional circumstance. Would' indicates the will or resolution of the subject in the event of the granting of the conditions.

* Were every tile on those roofs a separate devil, and stood in my way, I would go'.

* If every ducat in six thousand ducats
Were in six parts, and every part a ducat,
I would not draw them; I would have


bond'. 'If you knew all the circumstances, you would push on vigorously'. 'Had he been there, he would not have tolerated such conduct'. In these cases, would’ may be regarded as expressing will or determination on the part of the subject under the circumstances mentioned.

But in the second and third persons, it is often a delicate task to discriminate between Contingent Determination and Contingent Futurity merely.


Third. The forın of the Future Subjunctive in the scheme of the verb is ‘should' for all persons alike, dropping the second personal inflection :

I should
Thou should write.

He should The Future Subjunctive form occurs in subordinate clauses after various introducing words, which express variety of relation to the principal clause: 'If my valour should leave me!' (Rivals.)

• He was afraid that he should be burnt'. (Bunyan.) The soldiers dreaded lest the wound of Scipio should


prove mortal'.

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*He was cast into prison till he should pay the debt'. The following examples are quoted by Mätzner :

*If you should go near Barnard Castle, there is good ale at the King's Head'. (Dickens.) 'Suppose he should relent

with what eyes could we stand in his pre

(Milton.) Should an individual want a coat, he must employ the village tailor'. (Scott.) 'What was to become of them, should their provision fail ?' (W. Irving.) 'If I should meet him, I will tell him'. 'If she should take me at my word, where am I then?' (Fielding.)

• Deny that she is mine,
And I will strangle thee, unless the lie

Should choke thee first'. (8. Knowles.) Though an host should encamp against me, my heart shall not fear, though war should rise against me, in this will I be confident'.

This is the form that must be used when all parties are alike under obligation or compulsion; the case when shall' bears its primitive signification. It was ordered that I should go, that you should go, that they should go'.

Even without expressed obligation, we use these forms : It is strange that I should see him there, that you should say so', does not state obligation, but implies that the influence is from without, and not from within. “It is well that you

should know this '. From Mätzner :-'I thought I ne'er should see thy face again': (Longfellow.) 'I am sure it is impossible I


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should hurt you'. (Fielding.) 'It is no doubt highly desirable that the text of ancient poetry should be given untouched and uncorrupted'. (Scott.) • It is not strange that some zealous Presbyterians should have laid up his saying in their hearts, and should, at a later period, have attributed it to divine inspiration'. (Macaulay.)

Besides the main forms now detailed, there are one or two special, but by no means uncommon, uses of 'should' and 'would'. In these there is more or less departure from the ordinary meaning.

Should', with any of the three persons as subject, is used to express moral obligation, or duty, on the part of the subject. The past form does not convey past meaning: 'I, you, he should go' indicates present duty. For past duty, the aid of 'have? is called in, the perfect infinitive following should': 'I, you, he should have gone'.

• You have done that you should be sorry for': 'you ought to be sorry for' gives the meaning.

• One should always conciliate'. We should always prefer duty to pleasure'. Such hesitating expressions as ' I should think', 'it should seem', 'it should appear', are softened forms for the direct dogmatic 'I thinlc', 'it seems', 'it appears'.

• Would’sometimes loses its past meaning, and signifies very nearly the same as 'wish'. In this use one might perhaps detect a milder, more modest, or hesitating manner of assertion. It seems to be a smoothing down of the form of Contingent Determination.

'I would not that any of us were matched with him' (Malory, Morte d'Arthur); that is, if I had my wish. This example shows the transition in a state not far removed from Contingent Determination.

Matzner quotes the following, comparing them with the French ‘je voudrais ':- It was my happiness to own her

. . Iwould forget her now'. (Sheridan Knowles.) • Would to God we had died in the land of Egypt !"

*I would advise you to do so'may be completed by some

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