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Bible a considerable number of such terms that might readily, not to say advantageously, have been avoided. The following are some examples along with Saxon equivalents: Interpretation (meaning), salutation (greeting), vocation (calling), cogitation (thought), convocation (meeting, frequent in the Pentateuch), malefactor (evildoer), instructor (teacher), communion (fellowship), insurrection (rising), importunity (earnestness), frontier (border), remission (forgiveness), progenitor (forefather), pollution (defilement), audience (hearing, ‘in the audience of the people'), matrix (womb), scribe (writer), infidel (unbeliever), vigilant (watchful), impotent (weak), mollified (softened), illuminated (enlightened), meditate (think), distil (drop), laud (praise). This list might easily be extended; and if we were to take in such terms as could be replaced by a short Saxon phrase, still more would be included. Moreover, there are many cases where a familiar word of classical origin might take the place of one less generally known. Such are-perdition (destruction), diversities (differences), inquisition (search), supplication (prayer), delectable (delightful), incensed (enraged), epistle (letter), and many others.

The introduction of learned terms is most open to objection, when the general style of the passage is in contrast to such language. Thus, in simple narrative or discourse, the use of such terms is out of place. In the introduction to John's Gospel, the clause, 'the darkness comprehended it not'is felt to be inharmonious; 'understood' would have fitted better into the marked simplicity of the passage. Such want of harmony is often noticeable in the language of poetry. "The blessings of thy father have prevailed above the blessings of my progenitors unto the utmost bound of the everlasting hills'. Here ‘progenitors' is decidedly out of unison with the rest; ‘forefathers' would have suited perfectly.

The following are additional examples. There are celestial bodies and bodies terrestrial’ would have been much simpler and equally accurate if rendered thus: There are heavenly bodies and earthly bodies.' “The blessed and


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only potentate (mighty one), king of kings, and lord of lords.' The Lord's Prayer could have been made purer Saxon: ‘sins' and 'them that sin against us’ might have been put for 'debts' and 'our debtors ', 'free' for ' deliver ', and

might' for 'power'. If drawing aside' were used for 'temptation', and 'brightness' or 'praise' for 'glory', the whole would be Saxon; but these last changes would be more doubtful, as tending to sacrifice precision to simplicity.

Even in regard to the special or technical words that are needed to designate the peculiar institutions or ideas of religion, the Saxon element might have been farther drawn upon. Such good native terms as 'passover', 'sin', 'atonement', show how others might have been obtained from the

• Everlasting' is more suggestive than 'eternal’; and, though both are made use of in the English Bible, the native word might alone have been sufficient. For resurrection', which to a mere English reader has no meaning till explained, the simple Saxon equivalent, ‘rising', might have been employed.

It should be apparent from the previous illustrations, that there is nothing in the mere fact of a word's being Saxon (or from one of the indigenous dialects) to make it plain, homely, and expressive; and nothing in the mere fact of a word's being classical to make it want these qualities, or be discriminative, dignified, and oratorical. The contrast grows out of the whole of the incidents connected with the two classes of words; and, as these incidents vary, the contrast is lessened.

In truth, there is a scale of gradation in the recondite nature of our classical words. Some of them are as easy and homely as the commonest of the words inherited from our simple-minded Teutonic forefathers; while some of our Saxon words, by being sparingly used, or by being connected with difficult notions (as laws and government) may not be readily followed. 'Flower', 'gain', 'branch', 'gentle', 'terrible', are quite as familiar as the Saxon 'bloom', 'win', 'bough', 'mild', dreadful'; and riding' (a district),


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ordeal', 'wapentake', 'wardmote', 'gavelkind', though native, are not universally understood.

Among the easier classical importations are those that came in early from the French; they had the advantage of longer time to circulate; and they were less connected with the abstruseness of speculation. The words adopted from the Latin direct, since the revival of letters, and those from the eek, are farther removed from common apprehension. Of two forms of the same original word, one through the French, the other direct from Latin, the French form is most familiar: " reasonable', 'rational'; 'rule', 'regulation'; 'balm', 'balsam'; 'lesson', 'lection'; 'sure',

secure'; 'power', 'potential'; `judgment', `judicial'; . envious', 'invidious'.

We may therefore greatly simplify a learned style, without resolving it into the pure Saxon. From the Greek to the Latin, from the Latin to the French, we proceed in the direction of being more easily understood. Hence to simplify a difficult passage by the substitution of Saxon or, failing that, of easy classical terms, will form one of the best exercises in applying the pupil's knowledge of the sources of English. Examples will now be given.

‘By a series of criminal enterprises, by the successes of guilty ambition, the liberties of Europe have been gradually extinguished: the subjugation of Holland, Switzerland, and the free towns of Germany has completed that catastrophe; and we are the only people in the eastern hemisphere who are in possession of equal laws and a free constitution'. May be turned thus (the words in italics are still of classical origin, while exemplifying the increase of simplicity as we pass from the unchanged Latin words to the French modifications):—' By one wicked undertaking after another, by the lucky hits of guilty strivings (yearnings, likings) the freedom of Europe has been (put out) taken away bit by bit; the beating (ending, chastening) of the free towns of Germany (has filled up that misfortune) has brought on the crash; and we are the only folk (realm, commonwealth, king

dom), in the eastern half of the earth that have fair laws and free birthrights (charters)'.

The next sentence is more largely Saxon :-'Freedom, driven from every spot on the continent, has sought an asylum in a country which she always chose as her favourite abode.' It might have been pure Saxon; 'driven from every spot abroad, has sought shelter in a land that was always her chosen abode'.

‘But she is pursued (followed, hunted, chased) even here, and threatened with destruction (rack and ruin) (her hunters threaten to 'put an end to’her). The inundation (flood) of lawless power (might) after sweeping over the whole earth threatens to follow us here, and we are most exactly (truly), most critically (nicely), placed, in the only aperture (opening) where it can be successfully repelled (thoroughly beaten back, dammed up), in the Thermopylæ of the universe (world)'. 'If liberty (freedom), after being extinguished (put out) on the continent (abroad), is suffered to expire (allowed to die out) with us, whence is it ever to emerge (rise up, awake) in the midst of that thick night that will invest (enwrap) it'?

While oratory loses in melodious flow and elevation by being pushed to the Saxon extreme, it does not lose in energy, but rather gains, as is proved by these sentences from Robert Hall. Moreover, in an oratorical address to the feelings, fine discrimination is not called for. The motive for passing out of the Saxon is to get more various topics of appeal and allusion.

The next extract is from De Quincey, and the Saxonized form is printed by the side of the original.

Yet still, it will be urged, Yet still, it will be said the curiosity is not illiberal again, the wish is not mean which would seek to ascertain that would seek to find out the precise career through the true race (way) through which Shakespeare ran. which Shakespeare ran.

This we readily concede; This we readily allow (give and we are anxious ourselves in to); and we greatly wish to contribute anything in our to bring forward anything we power to the settlement of a can for the settlement of a point so obscure.

thing so dark (little under

stood). What we have wished to What we have wished to protest against is the spirit speak out against is the feelof partisanship in which this ing of onesidedness, in which question has too generally this question has too often been discussed.

been talked about. For, whilst some, with a For, whilst some, with a foolish affectation of plebe- foolish show of fellow-feeling ian sympathies, overwhelm with the folk, overwhelm us us with the insipid com- with old worn-out sayings monplaces about birth and about birth and coming of an ancient descent, as honours old stock, as honours having in containing nothing meritori- them nothing praiseworthy, ous, and rush eagerly into and rush earnestly into a an ostentatious exhibition of showy setting forth of all all the circumstances which the things that make for the favour the notion of a humble thought of (belief in) a low station and humble connec- standing and low kinsmen ; tions; others, with equal for- others, with as much forgetgetfulness of true dignity, fulness of true worth, hold plead with the intemperance forth with the keenness and and partiality of a legal ad- onesidedness of a law pleader, vocate for the pretensions of whatever seems to make out Shakespeare to the heredi- a right for Shakespeare to be tary rank of gentleman. reckoned a gentleman by birth.


The next extract, being on a classical subject, contains a number of unavoidable classical words.

There is yet another point There is yet another way of view in which it behoves us of looking at the thing, in to take notice of the Council which it behoves us to speak and the Agora as integral por of the Council and the Agora tions of the legendary govern- as parts (bits) that helped to ment of the Grecian communi. make up the whole rule (easier ties.

than ‘government'] of the


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