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Grecian commonwealths in the
tales. We are thus enabled to We are thus enabled to (can trace the employment of pub- by this means) follow speaklic speaking as the standing ing before (one's) fellowengine of government and townsmen as the standing the proximate cause of obed- means of ruling and the nearience, to the social infancy of est cause of obeying, up to the the nation.
childhood of the people (folk)
as a body. The power of speech in the The might of speech for direction of public affairs be- leading in public things comes comes more and more obvi- more and more before us, beous, developed, and irresis- comes more fully unfolded, tible, as we advance towards and beyond withstanding, as the culminating period of we go on towards the highGrecian history-the century est age of Grecian story—the preceding the battle of Chæ- hundred years before the roneia.
fight of Chæroneia. That its development was That its growth was greatgreatest among the most est among the most enlightenlightened sections of the ened of those bearing the Grecian name, and smallest Grecian name, and smallest among the more obtuse and among the more dull and unstationary, is matter of no- changing (standing still), is a torious fact; and it is not well-known truth ; and it is less true, that the preva- not less true that the commonlence of this habit was one ness (wide spread) of this habit of the chief causes of the was one of the greatest things intellectual eminence of the that made the people (folk) as nation generally.
a whole so high in under
standing At a time when all the coun- At a time when all the tries around were plunged lands around, as likened to comparatively in mental tor- them, were sunk in sluggishpor, there was no motive ness (deadness) of mind, there sufficiently present and pow- was no end to be reached that erful to multiply so wonder was near enough and strong fully the productive minds of enough to make the fruitful Greece, except such as arose minds of Greece so wonderfrom the rewards of public fully many, besides what arose speaking.
from the rewards of speaking
before others. The susceptibility of the The readiness of the crowd multitude to this sort of guid- to yield to this kind of lead. ance, their habit of requiring ing, their way of needing and enjoying the stimulus and liking the spur that it which it supplied, and the gave, and the open debating open discussion, combining of (word-strife as to) what regular forms with free op- should be done in the things position, of practical matters, of the commonwealth as well political as well as judicial, as in law, bringing together are the creative causes which regular ways of working with formed such conspicuous a- freedom of withstanding, are depts in the art of persuasion. the causes (powers) at work
that made men so skilled in moving their fellows (in geting their fellows to think and do as they wanted).
Another classical extract is subjoined.
Lêtô, pregnant with Lêtô, big with Apollo, and Apollo, and persecuted by the followed with hate by the jealous Hêrê, could find no jealous Hêrê, could not find spot wherein to give birth to any spot wherein to give her offspring
birth to her offspring. In vain did she address her- She went to many places self to numerous places in (spots) in Greece, the Asiatic Greece, the Asiatic coast and shore, and the islands between the intermediate islands; all these, but she got no shelter; were terrified at the wrath of all dreaded the wrath of Hêrê, Hêrê, and refused to harbour and would not harbour her her.
(or more exactly-'answered that they would not harbour
her']. As a last resort, she ap- As a last step she drew proached the rejected and re- near to the slighted and forpulsive island of Délos, and bidding island of Dêlos, and promised that if shelter were gave her word that if shelter granted to her in her forlorn were yielded her in her forlorn condition, the island should state (plight), the island should become the chosen resort of become the chosen abode of Apollo as well as the site of Apollo, as well as the seat of his temple with its rich ac- his temple, and its rich solemcompanying solemnities. nities with it (the abode where
Apollo would like best to dwell, and where the house of his worship would be set up
with its rich hallowed shows). Delos joyfully consented, Dêlos gladly gave what was but not without many ap- asked (said yes), but not prehensions that the potent without many fears that the Apollo would despise her mighty Apollo would look unworthiness, and not with- down upon her unworthiness, out exacting a formal oath and not without making Lêtô from Lêtô—who was then ad- swear in so many wordsmitted to the desired protec. (taking a regular oath from tion, and duly accomplished Lètô)—who was then let into her long and painful labour.
the asked-for shelter and fittingly went through her long
and sore (hard) pains. Though Diônê, Rhea, The- Though Diônê, Rhea, Themis, and Ampbitritê came to mis, and Amphitritê came to soothe and succour her, yet soothe and help her, yet Hêrê Hêrê kept away the goddess kept away the goddess that presiding over childbirth, watched over childbirth, EilEileithyia, and thus cruelly eithyia, and thus unfeelingly prolonged her pangs. lengthened her pangs.
At length Eileithyia came, At length Eileithyia came, and Apollo was born. Hard- and Apollo was born. Hardly ly had Apollo tasted, from had Apollo tasted (smacked), the hands of Thernis, the from the hands of Themis, the immortal food, nectar and food of the never-dying, nectar ambrosia, when he burst at and ambrosia [unchanged as
once his infant bands, and really not English] when he displayed himself in full burst at once his childish divine form and strength, (baby) bands, and showed claiming his characteristic himself in the full shape and attributes of the bow and the strength of a god, taking his barp, and his privileged func- badges, the bow and the tion of announcing before- harp, and his rightful work hand to mankind the designs of making known beforeof Zeus.
hand to mankind the mind
of Zeus. The promise made by Lêtô The word given by Lêtô to Dêlos was faithfully per- to Dêlos was truly fulfilled : formed: amidst the number- amidst so many other worless other temples and groves ship-houses and groves that which men provided for him, men made for him, he ever he ever preferred that islandas loved that island best as his his permanent residence, and settled abode, and there the there the Ionians with their Ionians, with their wives and wives and children, and all children, and all their “bratheir 'bravery,' congregated very,'came together at settled periodically from their dif- times, each from his own ferent cities to glorify him. town, to give him praise.
Dance and song and athletic Dance and song, and trials contests adorned the solem- of strength (tussels) set forth nity, and the countless ships, the worship; and the countwealth, and grace of the mul- less ships, wealth, and grace titudinous Ionians had the air of the many Ionians had the of an assembly of gods. look of a meeting of the gods.
The Delian maidens, ser- The Delian maidens, hand. vants of Apollo, sang hymns maids of Apollo, sang lays to the glory of the god, as to the praise of the god, as well as of Artemis and Lêtô, well as of Artemis and Lếtô, intermingled with adventures mingled with things that bad of foregone men and women, happened to foregone men to the delight of the listening and women, to the great crowd.
gladdening (happiness) of the listening crowd (the crowd
The following passages from Bunyan will show how paying attention to the sources of words may enable us to simplify the language even of a writer usually remarkable for great simplicity :
Now I saw in my dream that Christian and Hopeful forsook him, and kept their distance (kept away) before him; but one of them, looking back, saw three men following Mr. By-ends; and, behold, as they came up with him, he made them a very low congée (bow), and they also gave him a compliment (greeting). The men's names were Mr. Holdthe-world, Mr. Money-love, and Mr. Save-all; men that Mr. By-ends had been formerly acquainted with (had formerly known); for in their minority (youth) they were school. fellows, and taught by one Mr. Gripe-man, a schoolmaster (Sax. teacher—but not simpler) in Love-gain, which is a market-town in the county (Sax. shire—but not easier) of Coveting (Lusting), in the North. This schoolmaster taught them the art of getting, either by violence (force-classical, but older and simpler), cozenage (craft), flattery, lying, or by putting on a guise (show) of religion (holiness-holy living).'
* This parlour (room-sufficiently definite) is the heart of a man that was never sanctified (made holy-- hallowed' is not quite the meaning) by the sweet grace of the gospel. The dust is his original sin (birth-sin) and inward corruptions (defilements) that have defiled the whole man. He that began to sweep at the first is the law; but she that brought water, and did sprinkle it, is the gospel.
Then, as thou sawest the damsel (maiden) lay the dust by sprinkling the room with water, so is sin vanquished and subdued (overcome and slain), and the soul made clean through the faith of the gospel, and consequently (therefore) fit for the King of glory to inhabit (dwell in)'.
I conclude with two passages where the alterations are not pushed much beyond what our habits would tolerate.
Elated with his past pro- Flushed (puffed up) with sperity, as well as stimulated his late (bygone) good luck,