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French influence is apparent in ‘pardon’; 'appurtenance' is a corruption.

Pro, 'forth, forward, before': produce, profuse, promise, protract, provoke; progress, promote, prosecute; protect, provide.

Under French influence, it becomes 'por' and 'pur': portend, portrait, portray; purchase, purloin, purpose, pursue, purvey.

The idea of substitution appears in 'pronoun’; in official titles-proconsul, prodictator, &c., and the 'pro-proctor' of the English Universities (compare under 'vice' and 'sub'); and in scientific names--proembryo, prothallus, prothorax.

' Proctor' (procurator) and 'prompt' are contractions. Pene, “almost’, is employed only twice or thrice.

Sub, “under', 'from under', inferiority, substitution : very extensively used in new compounds. Subaqueous, subdue, subject, subjoin, submarine, subordinate, subtract: sub-committee, sub-kingdom, sublet; subacid (moderately, slightly acid), subastringent; substitute, sub-dean (compare 'vice', 'pro'), sub-editor, suffice; sutsequent (“after '), succeed.

In adaptability to the forms that it compounds with, "sub’ rivals 'ad': succour, suffer, suggest, summon, suppress, surreptitious, suspect, sustain. Obscure cases are

e--sojourn, sudden. The longer form of the prefix--subter-is represented chiefly by 'subterfuge'.

Super gives the opposite meaning, above', 'over', excess, superiority. It enters into new compounds : superstructure, superimpose, superincumbent, superadd, superabound, superfine, superior.

The form 'sur' due to French influence : surcharge, surface, surfeit, surpass, surplice, surprise, surrender, survey, survive.

The derived form supra' is used in several new words, chiefly technical: supracretaceous, supramundane, suprarenal.

Trans, ‘across', through : transfer, transgress, transition, transmit, transport, transmarine, transverse, trance.


A few words modify the prefix to 'tra': tradition, traduce, traverse, travesty. Under French influence are trespass, traitor, treacherous, treason.

Ultra, “beyond', excess, is not in frequent use : ultraism, ultramarine, ultramontane, ultra-sentimental. It is not firmly distinguished from trans' in ultramarine' and

ultramontane’; but 'trans' could not take its place in such instances as 'ultra-liberal'.

Outrage' is a French modification.

The Latin adverbs bene, well, male, ill, appear in a few compounds, and are occasionally used in fresh instances; • Mal-administration' is a companion to 'mis-government'. 'mal-practice', 'mal-content', are thought to give energetic meanings. Other examples of 'male’: malediction, malefactor, malevolent; maladjustment, malarrangement, malformation, malversation. Bene' is less common : benediction, benefactor, benefice, beneficial, benefit.

Vice for substitution, is adapted to the common situation where one person or thing has to take the place of another; vicar, vice-admiral, vice-chairman, vice-consul, vicegerent, vice-president, vice-regal, viceroy, viscount. Compare (under 'pro') the official title 'proconsul', &c.

Se, sed, in secede', 'sedition', 'segregate', 'separate', condenses a circumstance of not unfrequent occurrence. The number of words is not great; but they are very often wanted. Farther examples: seclude, secret, seduce, select,

Sine occurs in 'sinecure'.



The Greek Prefixes.

For our purpose, it would be unprofitable to marshal these in the detail accorded to the Latin prefixes. Very few of them have a living application to form new compounds. Not only have the most of our Greek compounds been formed before reaching us; but the greater part of our Greek vocabulary, which is not very extensive, may be described as learned or technical. It will be sufficient, then, to confine our attention to a few of the more actir


Anti, ‘against', has come down to us as part of a few words, and it is freely used by us for new compounds. It enables us to express in short compass a frequent and important meaning. Antidote, antiseptic, antibigotry, antidogmatic, anti-Sabbatarian.

Arch, 'ruling', 'chief', expresses in an emphatic condensation the meaning of eminence or superiority, whether good or bad. In the new compounds the bad sense is almost exclusively preponderant. Archangel, archbishop, archdeacon ; arch-conspirator, arch-enemy, arch-fiend, arch-traitor.

Auto, “self', occurs in a few common words-authentic, autobiography, autocrat, autograph, autonomy. But generally it is passed over in favour of then ative self’: selfabasement, self-command, self-educated, self-seeking, and many others.

Dia, 'through ', is found in a large number of compounds, chiefly technical : diabolic, diadem, diagnosis, diagonal, diagram, diamagnetic, diastole, diathermal, diatonic.

Dys, 'evil' or badness, and eu, 'well', goodness, occur in a few examples : dysentery, dyspeptic ; eulogy, eupeptic, euphony.

Hyper, 'above', over, beyond, excess, and hypo, “under', beneath, inferiority or deficiency, are employed in several compounds in common use, but chiefly in technical naines. Hyperbole, hypercritic, hypertrophy; hypochondria, hypocrisy, hypothesis, hypochlorous, hypophosphorous, hyposulphurous (acid). Compare under Lat. prefix (sub'.

Mon, mono, ' alone', enters into many compounds. Monarch, monocotyledon, monogram, monologue, monomania, monopoly, monothalamous, monotone. Hence also ‘monastery', 'monk'.

Pan, 'panto', means 'all', 'everything'. Panacea, pandemonium, panegyric, panhellenic, panoply, panorama ; pantomime.

Para, “beside ', peri, 'around', 'about’, and poly, 'many', occur in a good many compounds, mostly technical. The last, ‘poly’, is the most common.

Pseudo, 'false', spurious, deceptive: pseudonym, pseudomorphous, pseudo-apostle, pseudo-martyr, pseudo-philosopher. New compounds are freely permitted.

Syn, 'with ', together: synagogue, synclinal, synod, synonym, syntax. There are various modifications : system, systole, systyle; syllable, syllogism; symbol, symmetry, sympathy, symphony. This contributes towards expressing the important meaning described under the Latin prefix 'con'.


Of these, we have an extensive assortment both native, and borrowed. Many of them express meanings that are also given by prefixes: as, for example, the Saxon suffix of negation--less', fearless. Compare' unmerciful' with 'merciless ', 'subglobular' with 'roundish', encrust' with • harden'.

The Saxon Suffixes.

It is not intended to give here an exhaustive enumeration of the native suffixes. Our purpose will be sufficiently served if we attend mainly to such as still exercise an active influence, and in a less degree to such as may present any noteworthy peculiarity. Many endings whose meaning is obscurely felt or sufficiently obvious will thus be passed over unnoticed. The order adopted is as nearly alphabetical as is convenient.

Ard, art, heart, (O. E. heard, hard; 0. Fr. ard), originally indicated possession of the root meaning in a high degree; but this intensive signification has generally been more or less softened or obscured. The influence of French is marked upon nearly every compound; many of them, indeed, are French formations. Occasionally a bad sense attaches to the compound.

From nouns-buzzard, coward, haggard, sluggard, staggard; from verbs-braggart, drunkard, laggard, niggard, pollard, petard, poniard, standard ; from adjectives-dul. lard, sweetheart, wizard. National and personal names :

Savoyard, Spaniard; Leonard, Richard. Gizzard’ (Fr. gésier) is an assimilated form; and so, perhaps, are one or two others.

Craft was added to a few nouns to express strength, skill, art, and hence also the province where the quality was displayed: bookcraft, leechcraft, priestcraft, witchcraft, woodcraft. In some of the words, as 'priestcraft', 'witchcraft', the doings of priests, witches, &c., brought discredit on the suffix.

Dom sets out with the meaning of dignity, power, authority, jurisdiction; and hence expresses significantly a state or condition, and a collective whole. It unites very extensively with nouns: kingdom, dukedom, earldom, heathendom, martyrdom, serfdom, thraldom; beadledom, boredom, puzzledom, Saxondom, &c. Wisdom' and 'freedom' are from adjectives.

Ed or d is the well-known ending of the perfect participle of weak verbs : planted, proved. It can still be discerned in a few nouns, as-blood, flood, deed, seed; and in a few adjectives, as—cold, dead, naked. Often the participle is used as an adjective: 'loved friends', 'long looked-for day', the conquered territory', 'pent-up energy'.

Perhaps the most interesting case is where 'ed' is added to a noun to form an adjective with the meaning of possession. This formation has been strongly objected to; more particularly in the person of the word “talented'. No doubt we are unable to draw a decisive boundary line between this adjective and the participial adjective. Antlered, bearded, diseased, featbered, flowered, rooted (traditions), striped (waistcoats), whiskered (Pandoors), and such like, may possibly be claimed as participles. Yet, after the most liberal allowance, we should have difficulty in not recognising that many of the following examples are in the sanie predicament as “talented'; formed from nouns, they express a participial meaning—'endowed and furnished with, possessing': bigoted, cadenced wisdom (E. W. Gosse's Poems), capitalled farmers, certificated teachers, bladed corn, daisied fields (George Eliot), daisied turf (Aytoun and John Wilson),

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