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with which may be classed a few that name cost, charge, and price-brokerage, keelage, mileage, porterage, postage, &c. Some of these remind us of the verbal abstract meaning. The common nouns are not numerous: cottage, hermitage, vicarage, village, &c.

Al is one of the most prolific suffixes. It is found in adjectives and in nouns. In adjectives it represents various Latin suffixes, usually alis; and it is freely added to nouns to form new adjectives. It simply furnishes the noun with an adjective form. (Pp. 93, 274.) Annual (cp. 'yearly '), .

' capital, celestial (cp. 'heavenly'), criminal, equal, fatal (cp.deadly'), general, imperial, literal, mortal, natural, official, pictorial, potential, prodigal, real, royal, spiritual, supernal, vernal. New formations: antipodal, agricultural, architectural, conventual, musical, papal, postal, additional, educational, exceptional, intentional, professional, sensational, traditional (cp.‘traditionary'), departmental, governmental, monumental (cp. 'documentary').

Many such adjectives are used as nouns, and sometimes the adjective meaning has even been lost: capital, cardinal, criminal, festival, general, hospital, journal, material, official, ritual.

The formation of abstract nouns from verbs by 'al' is a brisk process : acquittal, approval, arrival, committal, (cp. 'commitment', 'commission'), denial, derival (cp. derivation'), dismissal (cp. dismission '), disposal (cp. ' disposition'), requital, reversal (cp. 'reversion'), revisal (cp. 'revision'), revival, survival, upheaval, withdrawal.

The suffix 'al' attaches itself willingly to adjectives in '-ic': angelical, biblical, biographical, comical, farcical, historical, lackadaisical, monarchical, whimsical.

In some cases the adjective stripped of 'al' is not in use.

An, ain, ane, ean, ian, are for the most part adjective endings; the last is the most common.

An, ain form adjectives, and also nouns (some of which are converted adjectives): artizan, dean, human, pagan, publican, veteran, Tuscan, Elizabethan; captain and chieftain,

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certain, chaplain, fountain, villain, Britain, Spain. pears in humane, mundane, ultramontane, &c.

Both ean and ian make adjectives with the vague sense of • relating to' the root meaning; they occur in adjectival names of nations, parties, sects, &c. European, Pythagorean, cerulean, adamantean; Arabian, Persian, Christian, Baconian, Georgian, Tennysonian, diluvian, pretorian. Ian' is very frequent, not only in adjectives but also in class names expressing occupation, rank, &c. : historian, librarian, magician, musician, physician, tragedian'.

The Greek arch, archy, are found in a few words denoting government or rule. (Cp. the prefix ‘arch’.) Hierarch-y, monarch-y, oligarch-y. 'Squirearchy' is new.

The same meaning is given by cracy. On the model of the Greek 'aristocracy, ochlocracy, &c.', we have formed 'bureaucracy', 'mobocracy' (with insertion of 'o'), &c.

Ary is in frequent use as a suffix in adjectives and in nouns. Many of the nouns are converted adjectives. The meaning is ' belonging to’; and the nouns denote persons or places occupied with or sharing in what the root expresses. The adjectives are nearly all from noun roots, and many of them are new: hereditary, imaginary, mercenary, military, pecuniary, salutary, temporary, tributary, tumul. tuary, voluntary; customary, reactionary (cf. 'al'—'tradi. tional'), revolutionary, sanitary, complimentary (cf. al'monumental'), fragmentary, parliamentary, rudimentary, &c. &c. ; seldom from other adjectives or from verbs : necessary, primary, secondary, solitary ; sedentary. Nouns come chiefly from other nouns, also from adjectives and verbs: aviary, boundary, dictionary, dignitary, functionary, granary, lectionary, missionary, penitentiary, reliquary, salary, sectary, vocabulary; sanctuary, secretary; commissary, de. positary (cp. 'depository'), dispensary, notary, votary.

Although some Latin adjectives in aris appear in English with ' ary', many take the shorter ending 'ar': 'angular, polar, popular, regular, similar, singular, vermicular, vul. gar. The sense is vague— relating to'.

A large class of verbs in ate are formed from the supine

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of the Latin verb of the first conjugation, or on a similar plan by appending 'ate' to a root (noun or adj.) with the desired meaning: captivate, create, devastate, emasculate, enervate, expatriate, indurate, migrate, navigate, permeate, renovate. For adjectives and nouns in 'ate', see p. 269.

A smaller number in -it-ate, (from, and in imitation of, the Latin frequentatives in -itare) mostly give a causative sense, while the idea of repetition is often weak or absent. Agitate, palpitate, hesitate, debilitate (cp.' weaken'), facilitate, necessitate, nobilitate (cp. 'ennoble'), rehabilitate'.

Ble, able, ible, is an adjective suffix, attached for the most part to verbs. The union of it with nouns is owing in great measure to French influence. The Latin adjectives in ‘bilis' were sometimes active, sometimes passive, occasionally both. In the multitudinous English compounds, the passive sense is the prevailing one; and this should be remembered in making new examples. The ending is added to the root or to the supine of the verb. The following instances have the passive signification able to be', 'that may or can be’: appreciable, bearable, comeatable, demonstrable, eatable and edible, estimable, habitable, indomitable, indispensable, memorable, moveable and mobile, practicable, resoluble and resolvable, tolerable, venerable; corrodible and corrosible, discernible, flexible, incorrigible, intelligible, ostensible, plausible, sensible. Sometimes the idea of ease and readiness is superadded: excitable, flexible, irritable. The transition to the active or middle sense is not difficult; 'variable’ is often the same as ‘varying',

mutable, changeable' = frequently or readily changing'. The secondary meanings are often more prominent than the original: advisable, amicable, considerable, culpable, equable, feeble (O. Fr. foible, foible, Lat. flebilis), miserable, noble, remarkable.

The instances from nouns are capriciously active or passive, and somewhat destitute of principle in formation, the original force of the suffix being seemingly in abeyance. Conscionable (according to conscience), customable (cf..customary'), dutiable (that duty has to be paid on, may be imposed

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on), fashionable, favourable (showing favour or goodwill), forcible, marketable, marriageable (fit for market, or for marriage), objectionable, exceptionable (that objection or exception may be taken to), peaceable, personable, profitable (yielding profit), seasonable, serviceable, statutable, valuable.

Special notice is to be taken of such examples as able', which has been ade the scapegoat for he whole class. Instead of that may be relied upon ', it should mean that may be relied': the word should be 'rely-uponable’ (cp. 'comeatable', p. 259). Probably there are others of the same sort: 'laughable’ is for “laugh-at-able' (or is it' causing a laugh'?), “unaccountable' for'unaccount-forable', 'debateable’ (border) perhaps for'debate-about-able', 'conversable' (person) for " converse-with-able' (or is it

ready to converse'?), 'available' for 'avail-oneself-ofable' (or is it active 'availing'cp. 'profitable').

A ‘responsible' person is a person that replies' or (more strongly) ‘that has to reply, is bound to reply'; 'accountable', 'accounting', or 'bound to account’; "answerable'

'that may be answered', also ( ' responsible'), 'bound to answer', and answering, responding'. So 'payable’ is that ought to, has to, must, be paid' (passive).

* Risible' is not that laughs' or 'is to be laughed (at)', but causing or concerned in laughter'. Agreeable', 'suitable', 'terrible', are active. “Feeble' has been mentioned. “Humble' belongs to this suffix only in form; it is from 'humilis', with 'b'euphonic.

For nouns in ble, cle, see under “ule'.

Cy, (rarely) sy, joins by preference with roots in 't', usually rejecting the 't': it takes the place of Latin tia, tus, or forms new words on the model of these. In forming abstract nouns from adjectives, it is like 'ness', with which it occasionally interchanges : degeneracy (degenerateness), intestacy, intimacy, intricacy (intricateness), obstinacy, secrecy. Joined to nouns, it expresses state or condition, office, rank (cp. ship’, &c.), and sometimes the meaning becomes collective : bankruptcy, chaplaincy, colonelcy,

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cornetcy, curacy, ensigncy, episcopacy, idiocy and idiotcy, magistracy, minstrelsy, papacy, prelacy, primacy.

For ancy, ency, see under nt'.

From Greek sis are-ecstacy, epilepsy, frenzy, idiosyncrasy, palsy.

Ee (Fr. ée, Lat. atus) is in active use, especially as a business term, to denote the person that is the object of an action, the person that originates the action being expressed by 'or', 'er'. Thus we have couples : consigner, consignee; employer, employee; grantor, -er, grantee; legator, legatee; pawner, pawnee; payer, payee; vendor, vendee. In devotee, grandee', the ending seems to add force. “Refugee' is assimilated. • Committee' is collective. Absentee, patentee' name the subject of the action.

It has been already stated (p. 248) that, in class names of persons, the classical er and the native er cannot be rigidly discriminated, the English termination being readily added to classical roots. And c'assical examples were given.

From the same Latin ending arius, erius, we have received through French many words in eer, ler, expressing agency, occupation, &c.; and there are many new formations. Brigadier, cavalier, circuiteer, engineer, financier, gazetteer, mountaineer, muleteer, musketeer, mutineer, pioneer, privateer, scrutineer, volunteer.

Ese, "of, belonging to', is used in some proper names, nouns and adjectives : Chinese, Japanese, Maltese; Johnsonese, Carlylese.

Esque, originally and chiefly an adjective suffix, denotes likeness, after the manner of': burlesque, grotesque, moresque, picturesque, romanesque, statuesque.

Ess and the Latin ix are discussed under the Gender of Nouns. New formations in ‘ess' are common, but often unnecessary; the use of “ix' is limited.

Of the words ending in et, the most important for us are the diminutives. These are somewhat numerous: billet, cabinet, coronet, lancet, locket, mallet, pocket, turret. Some are scientific names--carburet, sulphuret, &c. A few

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