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The remaining cases, consisting of class names, are of less consequence. Centurion, champion, felon, glutton, mason, simpleton, &c.—persons occupied or concerned with an action or a thing; Briton, Gascon, Saxon-national names. Also-capon, dragon, falcon, pigeon, salmon, stallion ; dungeon, escutcheon, puncheon, truncheon. The form

oon' is applied chiefly in names of things, now diminutive, now augmentative, now apparently giving the mere noun form : buffoon, dragoon, poltroon; balloon, harpoon, musketoon, pantaloon, saloon, spittoon.

Or (sor, tor), a frequent suffix, was originally added to the supine to express the agent: ancestor, author, con. fessor, creditor, debtor, expositor, impostor, predecessor, possessor, successor, testator. It was often added to other roots, or the root was shortened; while many words, not connected with Lat. '-or', assumed this ending. Conqueror, emperor, governor, grantor, juror, tailor, tutor; bachelor, chancellor (Fr. chancelier, Lat. cancellarius), counsellor, proprietor (Fr. propriétaire), sailor (O. E. sailer), warrior (Fr. guerrier).

The English 'er' has frequently usurped the place of Lat. 'or': compiler, diviner, founder, interpreter, labourer, preacher'. (See 'er', p. 261.)

, Or, our (Lat. or, Fr. eur), expresses state, condition, quality, (result of the) action: ardour, clamour, colour, error, favour (favor), honour, liquor, splendour, stupor. It has been proposed that we should un the French in. fluence by writing all these words in 'or’, never in 'our'. This proposal has been advocated with most warmth in America.

Ory (sory, tory) forms adjectives from supines. The sense is active; ‘ive' may be compared. Amatory (cp. amative), compulsory (and compulsive), compurgatory, congratulatory, consolatory, explanatory, expletory (and expletive), explicatory (and explicative), hortatory, objurgatory, obligatory, peremptory, predatory, prohibitory (and prohibi. tive), promissory, rotatory, satisfactory (satisfying), sensory (sensitive), suasory (persuasive). Some of these are new,


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having no corresponding Latin adjective. The active sense should be inaintained in all new formations: 'statutory' (like 'statutable'), from a noun, is practically passive; compare alsofurtive, &c.', under ‘ive'.

The nouns in the same ending denote variously the result, place, &c., of the action : dormitory, history, memory, oratory, purgatory, refectory, repository.

Ous, ose (Lat. osus, Fr. eux, oux, &c.), 'full of, like, belonging to', represents various Latin endings-osus, us, is, &c.

There are many compounds, old and new, from various parts of speech. Amorous (Lat. amorosus, Fr. amoureux), calamitous, curious, fabulous, glorious, hideous, monstrous, nervous, numerous, precious, spiritous and spirituous, sumptuous, victorious; jealous (Lat. zelosus, Fr. jaloux); anomalous (Gr. -os, Lat. -us), barbarous, conspicuous (Lat. -us), contiguous, credulous, erroneous, industrious, obvious, spurious; illustrious (Lat.—is), scurrilous. Contradictious, disputatious, felicitous, joyous, murderous, precipitous, rapturous, timorous, treacherous, wondrousare newer formations. We have ‘ous' also in alliance with other endings : audacious, capacious, vivacious; atrocious, ferocious; avaricious, capricious, malicious; auriferous, carboniferous, fossiliferous, frugiferous, saliniferous; armi. gerous, cornigerous, plumigerous; carbonaceous, micaceous, papaveraceous, pearlaceous.

Ose is not common : bellicose, jocose, operose, otiose, varicose, verbose, vermiculose (and -ous); glucose, schistose.

Ery, ry, is joined to nouns, sometimes to verbs. It indicates condition, rank, characteristic action: bigotry, chivalry, devilry, husbandry, outlawry, pedantry, revelry, rivalry, slavery; the practice of an art or a trade, and sometimes also the materials-blazonry, cookery, drapery, fishery, heraldry, hosiery, poetry, surgery; the place where any activity is expended, or where the individuals denoted in the root are found numerously-bakery, cocoonery, grapery, Jewry, nunnery, nursery, pantry, vestry, vinery; or a collection-artillery, cavalry, Englishry, foppery, imagery,

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infantry, machinery, masonry, musketry, peasantry, poultry, soldiery and citizenry (Carlyle), tenantry.

The Latin perfect participle passive gives rise to a very large number of adjectives, in t, ate, ete, ite, ute, which are now used with more or less slender reference to their original sense.

All the conjugations are represented. Corrupt, discreet, elect, erect, extinct, perfect, rapt, secret, strict; considerate (act. cp. thoughtful), desolate, effeminate (cp. womanish), inordinate, private, regenerate, satiate; complete, concrete, replete; definite, erudite, exquisite, opposite, trite; absolute, destitute, minute. There are also assimilations, for the most part probably from nouns: affectionate, cristate, dentate, labiate, passionate, with second forms ‘labiated, dentated, &c.'; favourite; cornute (op. horned), hirsute, nasute, &c. (Compare Latin barbatus, cinctutus, cornutus, nasutus, &c., and the alleged adjectives from nouns by 'ed'-p. 246.)

The nouns are also numerous, Concept, conflict, credit, edict, exhibit, insect, joint, manuscript, merit, percept, point, precept; advocate, duplicate, mandate, reprobate; exquisite; attribute, statute, tribute.

From these are to be distinguished the few words that we have received from the fourth Latin declension. The most important of these are nanies of dignity, office, jurisdiction, province. Appetite, circuit, fruit, state; cardinalate, consulate (cp. consulship), electorate (collective), magistrate (but magistracy), potentate (originally abstract), protectorate.

Tude is added to adjectives to form abstract nouns. Attitude (cp. fitness, position, posture), beatitude (cp. happiness, blessing), fortitude (cp. bravery, endurance), gratitude (cp. gratefulness), latitude (cp. breadth), longitude (cp. length), magnitude (cp. greatness), rectitude (cp. uprightness), solicitude (cp. anxiety), turpitude (cp. baseness, disgrace). From these comparisons, we may see that this suffix is unnecessary. And many formations bave not taken root: celsitude, pulchritude, &c. (in Chaucer); so that we need not regret that 'tude' is allowed to die out. * Mul

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titude' is now only collective. • Custom’ might have been expected to appear as 'consuetude' (Latin consuetudinem).

Ty, (French té, Latin tat-em), serves to form abstract nouns chiefly from adjectives. There is usually a connecting vowel, ‘i'or (not so frequently) 'e'. Antiquity, certainty, dignity, liberality, liberty, malignity, piety and pity, plenty, poverty, property and propriety, prosperity, satiety, severity, variety. The concretes are often collective: city, gratuity, laity, university.

Ule, b(u)le, cule, cle, are mainly diminutive : animalcule, capsule, corpuscle, cuticle, globule, particle, pilule, pinnacle, pustule, tabernacle, uncle, versicle, vesicle. Sometimes the subject or the object of the root action is denoted, whence the transition to place or instrument is easy : fable, miracle, obstacle, oracle, receptacle, spectacle, stable.

Ure, (sure, ture), uniting with the supine, formed verbal abstract nouns. It is now used frequently to convert verbs into nouns expressing the verb action. Capture, censure, culture, gesture, imposture, rapture; departure, exposure, failure, nurture, pressure.

Abstracts often become class nouns: adventure, aperture, caricature, creature, feature, picture, venture. Furniture, garniture, vesture, are collec. tive.

Some take origin in roots that are not verbs : moisture, ordure, verdure, are from adjectives. In a few other cases, the ending is assimilated : leisure (O. E. leiser, O. Fr. loisir, leisir), pleasure (0. Fr. plaisir, pleisir), treasure (0. E, tresoure, 0. Fr. trésor). · Armour' (Lat. armatura) might have been expected to take this ending.

Several cases of y have been anticipated under-ary, cy (sy), nt, ory, (e)ry, &c. Setting aside these, 'y'is representative of various classical endings, which have been more or less modified in passing through French.

Especially in abstract, and sometimes in collective, nouns, derived mostly from adjectives and nouns, 'y' stands for the classical 'ia', 'condition, state'; or it forms words on the same model: nalogy, apostasy, colony, company, courtesy, geometry, family, harmony, jealousy, melancholy,

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navy, perfidy, tragedy. Also in names of places : barony, buttery, (cp. 'ry', 'ery','ory'); Germany, Italy, Normandy, Thessaly. In names of countries, however, the 'ia' termination is very often adopted: Abyssinia, Arabia (poetic Araby), Arcadia, Assyria, Australia, California, &c.

Some originally abstract nouns take'y'in place of‘ium': augury, larceny, obloquy, obsequy (Milton), remedy, study, subsidy,

From Latin participle (-at-): ally, attorney, deputy; chiefly abstracts and collectives-army, country, destiny, embassy, entry, jury, pansy. Compare ‘ate' (p. 269), and 'ee', (p. 261).

• Atus' of the fourth declension gives a few in 'y': 'clergy, county, duchy, treaty. Compare ate', (p. 269), and 'cy (sy)', (p. 260).

Not least important is the verbal abstract formation in 'y': delivery (cp. deliverance), discovery, expiry, flattery, inquiry, recovery.

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Summary of the Derivation of the Parts of Speech

This is given with tolerable fulness in the grammar. The following are a few additional instances.

The Prefixes have been grouped and exemplified in detail, so that we shall have little occasion to refer to them. The Suffixes will claim the chief part of our attention.

In the derivation of Nouns by means of suffixes, the purposes to be served are mainly these :

First, to obtain Abstract Nouns. The primitive nouns of the language are either class nouns or nouns of material : we resort to composition for our Abstract Nouns. In most cases we start from adjectives or from verbs : in a few instances abstract nouns are formed other nouns.

The main process for obtaining adjective abstract nouns is by our native suffix ness: there being a few old forms in t, th-height, truth. The classical abstract nouns (adjective) appear chiefly with the terminating nce, ncy (French)-abun

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